原标题: 襄州医院治疗内分泌多少钱天涯生活
Food names食物名称Stressed are the cheesemakers乳酪制造商鸭梨山大Europeans want their food names back. Americans are peeved欧洲人想要回他们的食品名称.这让老美们很不开心。IN 1925 Ron Buholzers family leftSwitzerlandand settled in lush, green, ruralWisconsin. Here, like so many Wisconsinites, his family started to make cheese. Since then four generations of cheesemakers have worked in the family firm. Their most popular product is feta, a crumbly cheese that goes well in Greek salads. Mr Buholzer worries that he may soon be banned from selling it, because the European Union is trying to “claw back” food names that Americans consider generic but which Europeans believe should only apply to products made in specific bits of their continent. That includes feta, Parmesan and maybe even bologna.1925年,Ron Buholzer家族离开了瑞士定居在繁华、富饶的威斯康辛乡间。在这儿,他的家族和很多威斯康辛本地人一样生产乳酪。从那时起,四代乳酪制造商工作在家族企业里。他们最受欢迎的产品是羊乳酪,这是一种脆蹦的乳酪,混着希腊沙拉味道可口。Buholzer担心他可能很快就要被责令不准卖这种商品了,因为欧盟正试图“弥补性回收”食品名称,这些名称在美国人看来算是同类的商品,而在欧洲人看来则应该只应用于专为部分欧洲大陆生产的产品上。这就包括了羊奶酪,帕尔马奶酪可能甚至包括大腊肠。Aly Mr Buholzer is barred from exporting his feta toSouth Koreaif he calls it “feta”. Also, any new feta products sold in Canada that are not from Greece will soon have to be called “like” or in the “style” of feta—and not use Greek symbols. The EU is demanding protection for 145 food names, including feta, asiago, Gorgonzola,munsterand fontina.Buholzer已经不被允许以“羊奶酪”命名的产品出口到南韩。同样,任何售往加拿大的心羊奶酪产品,只要不是从希腊出口的,立马改名为“类似”或“羊奶酪风格”—并且不准用希腊商标。欧盟正要求保护145种食品名称,其中包括羊奶酪,艾斯阿格芝士,戈尔根朱勒干酪,明斯特干酪以及意大利果仁味羊奶干酪。American cheesemakers are unwilling to accept this as a feta accompli. On the contrary, they are preparing for a food fight. A group has sprung up to fight the European threat: the Consortium for Common Food Names. Negotiations over the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, a proposed free-trade deal between the EU andAmerica, may stumble over the issue. The EU, meanwhile, is leaning on governments everywhere to stamp on foodmakers who purloin European names.美国乳酪制造商不想接受这种事实。相反的是,他们正准备着进行一场食品抗争。他们建立了一个小组来对抗欧盟的威胁:公共食品名称联盟。在跨大西洋贸易及投资伙伴协定框架下进行谈判,欧盟和美国已达成的自由贸易协定可能会在这件事上磕磕碰碰。同时,欧盟正依靠政府部门去禁止偷窃欧洲名称的食品制造商们。Americans are unimpressed. They see all this as an attempt to erect trade barriers and raise prices by reclaiming words that have long since passed into general use. Many members of Congress have urged Barack Obamas administration to resist the Europeans demands. Some will use this as an excuse not to ratify a trade deal unless the EU gives way.美国人民很不开心。他们认为这种行为属于建立贸易壁垒并且利用回收这些早已广泛使用很久的名称趁机提高价格。很多国会成员们已经敦促奥巴马政府拒绝欧洲的提议。一些人希望借助此事为借口禁止一些贸易协定的审批除非欧盟在这件事上让步。Americadoes offer legal protection for foods from geographic regions under trademark law. For example, Parmigiano Reggiano cannot be called that unless it really comes from the right parts ofItaly. Likewise, Americans may call fizzy wine fromCalifornia“champagne”, but that is not what it says on the bottle. There is no easy way to determine which names deserve protection. Are French fries safe? Or Italian dressing? Or even that symbol of American pride, the hamburger?在商标法里,美国确实为地理区域食品名称提供了法律保护。例如,除非帕尔玛干酪真正来自意大利的帕尔玛,否则不能任何叫做这个名字。同样的,美国人们也会称加州的泡沫酒为“香槟”,但是在包装瓶上没这么写。决定哪些名字应该受到保护绝不是件简单事。薯条这个名字很安全吗?意大利调味料呢?甚至是美国人民骄傲的象征,汉堡呢? /201407/314862So...so you get the call,you are...and...you really want to know,dont you? yeah, I kinda do.所以你接到了电话 然后 你真的很想知道 是吧 对啊 还真想Eh...but no,so you are...you are...Well, at first,were you like oh,my god.Or were you like oh ,my god!this is exciting.不过 所以你 好吧 刚开始你是觉得“不是吧” 还是觉得“天哪 太好了”I was...well,yeah,oh my god,it is exciting,em...and this is gonna be a little bit of nightmare now for the next few weeks. Right.我当时 恩 觉得 “天哪 太好了” 但觉得接下来几周 会很难捱 恩Em...you know,cause ,you know,everybody knows.Its well documented,it was kind of uncomfortable.是啊 每个人都知道了 被大篇幅报道了 挺让人不舒的And you know, the situation. Right.你懂的 这种情形下 是的But em..em this things happen, and you know everything is kind of calm now,and Im happy.但是 这种事总会发生的 但现在已经平静下来了 我其实挺开心的And in fact I am actually happier than Ive ever been.从来没有这么开心过Well, thats a good thing. Yeah. Thats good thing. Which is why obviously this is happening, because you...you have to be in the space.and Lauren ,is her name right? Yeah.那很好啊 是啊 那很好 这也是为什么这件事会发生 为了能让你开心 她叫Lauren是吗 是的And she is healthy and happy,and...yeah,yeah,she is in really good.她现在的状态和心情都还好吧 恩 她现在很不错Really really godd place. I know this has been hard for her, cause the whole, you know,everything has been kind of thrust on her, and shes ,shes , a lot of attention,and thats gonna be hard on her.状态很好 我知道她肯定也不好受 正处在风口浪尖上 那么多的闲言碎语 她肯定不好受Well,yeah,I mean this is obviously...I...I cant blame the media,cause it was, you know, a kind of what I call a juicy story, you know.恩 确实 我是说这很明显 不过我不会去责怪媒体 因为你也懂的 这就是我说的那种很有料的故事But there was a lot of stuff that was said about her,但是大家说了很多她的坏话You know,you know,the...she trapped me and that shes a gold-digger, I mean this is absolutely nonesense.right.你知道的 什么她给我下套了啊 为了傍我啊 都是胡扯 对Shes a great girl,em...but you know,她是个很好的女孩 但是like it said,it was...it was...awkward because of the circumstances.就像报道说的 这件事关系有点尴尬Right,and em,and its a boy? Youll have to wait and see.是啊 那个 是男孩吧 我还得等等才知道呢But,but its a boy. Well,there are a lot of boys in my family,so the odds are...但是 就是男孩吧 好吧 我家族男孩还挺多的 几率比较大Right, thats gonna be a boy. And so em,whats his name?好吧 就是个男孩嘛 名字取好了吗Your mom is happy,right?She is gonna be...你妈妈很开心吧 她会Shes thrilled,yeah,yep,yep,,really,really thrilled.她很开心 是啊 真的超级开心So now are you worried thought that...所以现在你会担心that how much time youre gonna ,youre gonna travel with...将来要带着他到处跑 这里那里的where will you raise the boy? You are funny,Ellen.here?i mean...他主要会待在哪个城市呢 Ellen 你可真淘气 这里吗 我是说Here or... well ,both in New york, los angeles, london.在这还是 在纽约 洛杉矶 伦敦之间He is gonna travel a lot. Thats exciting.他也会跟着你们跑来跑去的 多爽啊He or she will travel a lot,yes. Right. Right.他或者她啦 好吧 好吧We all know its a boy. Ill tell you later. Alright.我们都知道是儿子啦 过段时间 再告诉你 好吧You said you wanted like a little,en...你说过你想要一个if you...if you do have a son,which you will,如果你有个儿子的话 其实明明已经有了that he will be...that you want a little ;mini-me;他会 你想让他成为迷你版的你so I got him a little T-shirt to get him started.所以 从我为他准备的小衬衫开始吧And well first of all ,em...actually that would fit me.首先 这个其实我也穿得上额That is yours,thats yours. Oh,thats mine.这个就是你打 给你的 哦 我的No,this is ,this is his. Thats his. Thats yours.Look, come on.这个才是他的 这个是他的 那是你的 看吧I know...I said I know, Simon. That is hilarious.我最懂你了 这太好笑了I know,so... okay,boy or girl,I am gonna keep these.我知道 好吧 无论男的女的这衣我都会留着的It will work for either,but...thanks very much.男孩女孩都可以了啊 谢谢你But its gonna be a boy. Thats very sweet.Alright.但肯定是男孩的 你太贴心了 好吧I have more to talking about, we will be back. we will talke about X FACTOR and other stuff.我还有更多要聊的 一会回来 我们得聊聊《X FACTOR》什么的注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201310/260143Among all the primates, we humans are the only ones that stand on two legs. 在所有的灵长类动物中,人类是唯一能以两条腿直立行走的。You may have seen other animals stand on two legs briefly, such as a cat or a dog.你可能看到过其他动物短暂的两条腿站立,比如一只猫或一只。But they always return to their original posture.但是汪星人和喵星人总会回到原来的姿势。Even apes, who have arms and hands much like humans, still put them down to walk.即使是拥有很像人类胳膊和手的猿类仍是用四肢走路。How did it come about that we do every day what nobody else does?人类的这种不同究竟是如何形成的?Well, one theory says that standing up is the result of reaching up.嗯,有一种理论表示直立是伸手的结果。Think of it this way.想象一下。You may have seen a cat go up on its hind legs in order to pull food down off a table.你可能亲眼见到过一只猫为了把食物从桌子上弄下来用后腿站立。Suppose those same conditions remained in place for a hundred thousand generations.假设那些相同条件仍然存在于成千上万个世代。The only food was always on tables, and only accessible to cats who could reach for it.唯一的食物总是在桌子上,而只允许可以拿到它的猫享用。In time, the cats who couldnt manage that trick would die out.经过一段时间之后,不能深谙这一秘诀的猫们就会灭绝。The ones who could manage it would survive and reproduce.而拿到食物的喵星人生存下来并繁衍生息。A cycle begins.一个周期就这样开始。It is thought that this kind of scenario may have led the predecessors to human beings to go from being four-footed to being upright creatures.据认为这样的一种画面可能使人类的祖先去从最先的四肢行走变成直立行走的生物。In the forests and savannas where our species got its start, being able to reach up and pluck fruit trees was a good thing.在森林和热带大草原,我们的祖先开始能够摘取得树上的果实无疑是一件好事。We see chimpanzees do this even today, standing temporarily on two feet while grabbing food with their hands.甚至今天我们也可以看到黑猩猩临时性的双腿站立用手抓取食物。Given a few million years, these conditions may have given rise to an animal that can stand up all the time, not just briefly.几百万年时间内,这些条件可能已经让一种动物可以站起来,而不是短暂性。That animal is us.那种动物就是我们。 201310/260496

Science and technology科学技术Forensic zoology法医动物学The elephant in the room房间里的大象—保护大象,刻不容缓!Dating ivory has just become easier. Poachers beware确定象牙年代已变得更容易了,偷猎者们要小心喽!FEW megafauna are more charismatic than elephants, and that charisma gives them political clout.在大型动物里,没有几种动物可以匹敌大象的魅力,这种魅力让大象很有政治影响。On July 1st, for example, Barack Obama used the Tanzanian leg of his tour of Africa to announce an executive order intended to give teeth to Americas obligation, as a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, to prevent the smuggling of poached ivory.比如说今年7月1日,奥巴马总统在非洲行程中的坦桑尼亚站宣布了一项行政命令,该命令旨在通过强制实施有效手段来更好地履行美国《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》的一员防止偷运偷猎象牙的义务。The rules on trading ivory, though, are hard to enforce, for if it comes from an animal killed before 1990 such trade is legal.但是,针对象牙贸易的规定很难实行,因为如果象牙来自的大象是在1990年之前被杀的,那么这种贸易是合法的。Not surprisingly, a cottage industry in making ivory look older than it is has grown up.因此,让象牙看起来比实际年代更久的家庭手工业的发展壮大就并不奇怪了。But a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, by Kevin Uno of the University of Utah and his colleagues, may deal with that.犹他大学的Kevin Uno和他的同事发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇论文可以解决这个问题。For Dr Uno has worked out how to use one of sciences less glorious episodes, the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, to work out exactly how old a piece of ivory really is.因为Uno士研究出了如何利用科学不甚光的一段—核武器大气层实验,来算出一节象牙的真实年代是多少。Dr Unos method uses the ivorys carbon-14 content in a way that was not previously employed.士Uno的方法用到了象牙的碳-14含量,他利用碳-14含量的方式从来没人用过。What radiochemists call 14C forms naturally in the atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays on nitrogen atoms.被放射化学家称作碳-14的物质是宇宙射线撞击空气中的氮原子而在大气中自然形成的,It has a half-life of 5,730 years, which makes it ideal for dating objects pertinent to human history, and it can do so to within a few decades of their true age—which is great for archaeology.其半衰期约为5,730年,这让其十分适合测量与人类历史有关事物的年代,其测量误差不超过其真实年代前后几十年。It is not, though, much use for finding out whether a particular piece of ivory was detached from the elephant that grew it before or after a specific date just over 20 years ago.但碳定年法在测量象牙年代,看其生长的时期是在20年前的之前还是之后,则并无甚用武之地。But Dr Uno realised there has recently been a second source of 14C—those bomb tests. And they give him the precision he requires.但是Uno士意识到最近碳-14还有另一个来源—那些核爆试验,而这些试验给了他他所想要的精度。Normally, the amount of 14C in the atmosphere is governed by the rate at which cosmic radiation creates it and the rate at which things like photosynthesis absorb it.通常来说,大气中碳-14的数量取决于宇宙射线产生碳-14的速率和像光合作用一类的反应吸收碳-14的速率。Between 1952 and 1962, however, when bomb tests above ground were commonplace, the amount of 14C in the air shot up until it was nearly double the normal level.但是,在1952至1962年间,地面上的核爆试验十分普遍,因此空气中的碳-14数量骤升,达到了近正常值的两倍。Since then it has fallen, also quite steeply, as plants have absorbed the surplus.但自那以后,碳-14的数量也急剧下降,因为植物把剩余的碳-14吸收掉了。And it will continue to fall until the old equilibrium reasserts itself.并且碳-14的值会不断下降,直到降到原来的平衡值。This bomb curve, as it is known, changes so fast that year-by-year differences in the 14C levels of recent specimens should be detectable.我们知道,这种爆炸曲线的变化如此之快,因此我们就可以探测出近期空气中每年碳-14值的不同。To test this hypothesis, Dr Uno and his colleagues looked at 29 specimens of known age, from 1905 to 2008.为对这一假想进行测试,Uno士和他的同事研究了已知年代,即从1905年至2008年的29个样品。These included elephants tusks, teeth and tail hair, and hippopotamus teeth.这其中包括大象的长牙、牙齿和尾部的毛发,还有河马的牙齿。They measured the specimens 14C content using a sensitive technique called accelerator mass spectrometry.他们使用一项被称作加速器质谱的高灵敏度技术来测量样品中碳-14的含量。For those tissues that had grown after 1955 the 14C concentration did, as the researchers hoped it would, closely match the bomb curve.正如研究者们所预料的那样,对于1955年以后生长的组织,其碳-14浓度与爆炸曲线严格吻合。Indeed, for these the match was so good that their ages could be determined to within a year of the truth.的确,对于这些样品来说,吻合度如此之高,以至于对其年代的确定可精确到一年以内。At the moment Dr Unos technique costs 1,000 a pop, so some places, particularly poorer countries in Africa, might be reluctant to deploy it.由于Uno士的技术每次要耗费一千美元,因此有些地方,尤其是非洲更贫困的地区就可能不愿使用这种技术了。But in the context of an illegal trade in ivory reckoned to be worth about 1 billion a year, that is not a huge amount of money.但是,鉴于非法象牙贸易一年约价值十亿美元,这就不是一个大的数目了。And if it helps preserve elephants, whose numbers in Africa have fallen from 1.3m to 600,000 in the past 40 years, many would see it as money well spent.而且,如果这种技术有助于保护大象,那么很多人会认为这个钱花得很值,因为在过去的40年里,大象的数量已从一百三十万下降到了六十万。 /201310/262180

Even if you havent touched a piano in years, if you suffered through music lessons as a kid you may have benefited from those lessons in ways you wouldnt expect.即使你已经很久没有弹钢琴,但只要你小时候学过钢琴,你就能在各个意想不到的方面受益于这些钢琴课。When you train on a musical instrument your brain is stimulated and changes and develops as a result.当你在训练一种乐器时,大脑受到刺激而变化生长。Because the parts of the brain are interconnected this stimulation doesnt affect musical ability only.由于大脑的各个部分是相互连接的,这种刺激不会只影响到音乐能力。Psychologists have discovered that the stimulation musical training enacts on the left temporal region of your brain enhances verbal memory.心理学家还发现,这种音乐刺激训练担当大脑的左颞区可以提高非文字记忆。People with musical training are significantly better at recalling words from a list and learning new words.接受过音乐训练的人能够更容易记住单词,学习新的单词也更容易。Whats more, the longer the duration of musical training, the better the verbal memory.更重要的是,音乐训练的时间越久,非文字记忆能力越强。So while children who study music for two years demonstrate better verbal memory than children who have not studied music, children who continue to study music continue to improve their verbal memory.因此,学过两年音乐的孩子,他们的非文字记忆比没学过音乐的孩子要强得多,而继续学习音乐孩子的记忆会随之提高。The good news for those of us who trained on musicalinstruments but quit at some point is that we dont seem to lose the verbal benefits we gain from this training.有个好消息,对于那些学过乐器后来又放弃的同学,你们并不会失去这种训练的好处。Scientists are particularly interested in what this suggests about the interconnectedness of thebrain and thus the predictability of the effects of stimulation to a brain area on cognitive functions located in that area.科学家们对大脑的这种相互连接特别感兴趣,从而预测音乐刺激对大脑认知能力的影响就在这个区域。Further research may lead to developments in cognitive rehabilitation for people with brain injuries.进一步的研究可能导向对脑损伤病人在认知康复的发展。For example, in order to rebuild verbal memory in patients with injury tothat part of the brain, doctors may prescribe music lessons.例如,为了重建病人大脑受损的非文字记忆部分,医生也许会开设音乐课。 201406/307638So you made lasagna last night, and it was delicious.你昨晚做了千层面,之后享用了一顿大餐。You saved the leftovers by wrapping aluminum foil over the top of the pan, and putting it in the fridge.大快朵颐之后,你将剩下的千层面用铝箔纸包好放入冰箱中。When you get hungry today, you go to look for that lasagna, but it looks like the lasagna was getting hungry too!今天你饿的时候,便去拿昨天吃剩的千层面,但是你会发现千层面似乎也饿了!Its eaten tiny holes in the aluminum foil that was covering it.包裹它的铝箔纸上出现了一个个的小洞,好像被咬过一样。Why does this happen?为什么会这样呢?A listener asked this question and well find the answer on todays moment of science.一位听众问到了这个问题,我们将在今天的科学一刻中为你解答。There are really two things responsible for those holes in the aluminum foil: the acidic nature ofthe lasagna and some curious properties of aluminum.铝箔上出现这些洞有两个原因:一个是千层面本身具有酸性,另一个就是铝具有一些非常奇特的属性。Lasagna gets most of its acid from the tomatoes in its sauce.千层面的酸性主要是来自酱汁中的番茄酱。Almost everything you eat is at leastslightly acidic, but tomatoes are especially so.几乎你吃的每样东西都会至少呈轻微酸性,而番茄的酸性尤为明显。This acid wouldnt be a problem for a glasscontainer, or stainless steel, or plastic wrap, or for most of the materials we use to store andprepare food.这种酸对玻璃容器,不锈钢,塑料袋或大多数我们用于储藏和准备食物所用的材料都不会产生任何影响。Aluminum, though, is especially vulnerable to acid.但铝却非常容易受到酸的侵蚀。Heres why.这就是原因。Most metals form a protective layer on their surface called an oxide layer.大多数金属会在表面生成一种叫做氧化层的保护膜。Aluminum forms an oxide layer too, but it is very thin, allowing the tomatos acid to easily break through.铝金属也会形成氧化层,但是这层膜很薄,番茄中的酸能轻易腐蚀透。This lets the tomato sauce dissolve the aluminum, and it creates grey or black chemicalson top of the lasagna that taste very bad.由此番茄酱就会溶解铝,在千层面上产生一种灰色或黑色的化学物质,会使千层面变得非常难吃。The same thing can happen if you use aluminum cookware for acidic sauces.如果用铝制厨具来做酸味儿酱料,也会发生相同的情况。Sauce made in an aluminum pot will be grayer and not as tasty as sauce made in other cookware.铝制锅所做的酱料颜色看起来会更灰些,吃起来也不如其他厨具所做的酱料味道好。 201403/282540

Yeah, thats close, I will say.天哪,刚才很近了,就这儿。There were times when I thought it was going to be an impossible task.有时我在想,这是不是一个不可能完成的任务。Oh, five degrees maybe. Come this way.4,5米吧。过来这里。Could you say that?看到没?When Puck finally brought Samuel up to the boat, it was a magical moment.看到帕克带着莎木在船的前面,真的很奇妙。10 males, 11 oclock. Well done.前方10米远,11点钟方向。Here they come. Yes. Got it.来了,是的,拍到了。Its coming in? Yes.过来了,好极了。Getting them in on day like these is just what we mean to be an important day.我们希望能和它们像这样呆上一整天。Its been worth the wait at the minute and all seems to come together in...绝对值得等待。在拍摄的最后,它们一起过来了。With shots of young Samuel in the bag, the team moved north to Pearl to try filming the hydroplaning dolphins.满载着小莎木的影像集,摄制组搬到了北部的毕隆海滩拍摄会划水的海豚。It was hard enough trying to follow the dolphins from the boat, but the crews next task was trying to follow them on foot.在船上追踪海豚,真的很难,但摄制组的下次挑战是徒步追踪海豚。It was to become the wildlife filming equivalent of an army boot camp.拍摄野生动物电影就像是行军大战。Getting the hydronplaning was the real key part of the film, because its such a dynamic and fantastic bit of behavior.拍到会划水的海豚是这部片子的关键,因为这真是一种神奇的行为。The crew had just arrived Pearl after a long drive.经过漫长跋涉,摄制组到达了毕隆海滩。201407/311129Leave it on the shelf too long and honey begins to crystallize. 蜂蜜放在货架上太久是会结晶的。Heating the honey returns it to its original condition, but if you add water, you could ruin the honey completely. 将蜂蜜加热使它转化成最原始的状态,但如果你往里加水,你就有可能会完全毁了蜂蜜。Thats because honey, which is a preservative in its original state, ferments once its diluted. 那是因为蜂蜜在其原始状态下是不变质的,而当加水稀释后则会发酵。In ancient times, honey was used as a food preservative. 在古代的时候,蜂蜜被用于食物防腐剂。It works as a preservative because the high concentration of sugar in honey forces the water out of any yeast or bacteria cells that could otherwise contaminate the food. 它作为防腐剂的工作原理是蜂蜜中的高浓度的糖会将酵母或细菌细胞中的水分排出来,否则这些细胞会污染食物。This process, known as ;osmosis,; is also what makes salt such an effective preservative. 这个过程叫做“透析”,同样也使得盐成了一种有效的防腐剂。Eventually, the process of osmosis destroys those cells by drawing out all their water--in other words, by drying them up. 最后,这个透析的过程会通过吸干所有的水分,换句话说就是使其变干燥,从而破坏细胞。So because of its high sugar concentration, pure honey will never ferment or go bad. 所以说由于它的高浓度,纯蜂蜜将永远不会发酵或变质。It may crystallize but by soaking the jar in hot water you can turn it back into a liquid. 蜂蜜是会结晶的,但如果你把蜂蜜罐放到热水里,它是会再变回液体的。Adding water, however, lowers the concentration of sugar in the honey and turns a natural preservative into an excellent food for yeast and bacteria. 加水,降低蜂蜜中糖的浓度,会将天然防腐剂转成酵母和细菌的绝好食物。You may not want a fermented jar of honey on your shelf, but ancient people turned that characteristic of honey to their advantage in creating what may well have been the very first alcoholic beverage. 你可能不会想在你的书架上摆一瓶发酵了的蜂蜜罐子,但是古人利用蜂蜜的这个特点,创造出了第一批酒精饮料。Honey mixed in water and allowed to ferment, produces the drink called ;mead.; 将蜂蜜和水混在一起,让其发酵,制出来的饮料叫“蜂蜜酒”。So you may or may not want to add water to your honey. 但你可能想也可能不想往蜂蜜里兑水。If what you want is mead, go ahead, but if you want your honey to last, . . . keep it pure. 如果你想要的是“蜂蜜酒”,那可以兑水,但如果你想要的就是蜂蜜,那就不要兑水。Next time on ;A Moment of Science,; well see why honey can help baked goods last longer. 下次在“科学时刻”,“我们将会看到为什么蜂蜜可以帮助烘焙食品保质更长时间。201307/250045

Finance and economics Inflation财经商业 通货膨胀The price is a blight价格是一块心病The rich world, and especially the euro zone, risks harmfully low inflation欧元区,富人世界,正遭受低通胀率的困袭WHEN central banks adopted quantitative easing and other unorthodox means to buoy economies holed by the financial crisis, many feared that the result would be out-of-control inflation.当央行采取了量化宽松政策并采取其他的非常规手段去刺激被经融危机滞涩的经济时,很多人担心这结果会是失控的通货膨胀。Asset prices have certainly soared.金融资产的价格会随之飙升。But consumer prices have not.但消费价格不会。Indeed, the growing fear is that rich countries may be entering a twilight zone of ultra-low inflation.确切地说,这是人们逐渐害怕富裕国家的经济进入一个介于高通胀和低通胀之间的模糊区域。A downward lurch has been most notable in the euro area, where annual inflation dropped from an aly low 1.1% in September to 0.7% in October; a year ago it stood at 2.5%.最显著的下降发生在欧元区,那里年通胀率由一年前的2.5%在9月份掉到1.1%,在10月份掉到0.7%。It is now a percentage point lower than the European Central Banks inflation target of below but close to 2%.现在它的通胀率还是地狱欧洲央行的通胀目标值略低于2%。The ECB lowered its main policy rate to 0.5% in May; on November 7th its governing council, responding to the weak inflation figures, reduced the interest rate further, to 0.25%.欧洲央行在五月份削弱了整体税率政策到0.5%;在11月7号,管理委员会进一步减少利率到0.25%。这个委员会专门负责弱势通胀情况。Elsewhere, too, inflation is low and falling.在别处也是一样,通胀率很低而且持续下滑。Almost five years after the Federal Reserve led the way with quantitative easing, inflation is well below the Feds 2% target.美联储实行量化宽松政策后大约五年时间,通胀率已经很稳定的保持在2%以下的目标。In August this wider measure stood at little more than 1%. Across the G7 economies, inflation has been weak this year and has recently fallen back to 1.3%; a year ago it was 1.8%.8月,这项更宽广的措施让通胀率维持在略高于1%。纵观七国集团的经济,通货膨胀在今年持续弱势并且最近掉到1.3%;一年前是1.8%。Even inBritain, which has the highest inflation in both the G7 and the European Union, the rate has been broadly stable this year.就是英国,通胀今年保持总体稳定,在7国集团和欧盟里,有着最高的通胀率达到2.7%。Slack energy prices have contributed to recent declines in overall inflation.下滑的能源价格对最近整体通胀下滑也有一定影响。That is a welcome development, boosting the purchasing power of both businesses and households.这是一个受欢迎的进展,刺激了购买力,不管是对于商业还是房产。But core inflation, which by excluding the more volatile elements of energy and food offers a surer guide to underlying price pressures, tells a less heartening story.但是核心通胀,它排除了更多的挥发元素,如能源、食品,给物价压力垫定了更厚实的基础,这无疑是令人不那么振奋的消息。Across the G7 core consumer-price inflation has been stuck over the past year at 1.4%.纵观七国集团的核心消费者价格,去年通胀持续卡在1.4%。On the Feds measure it is just 1.2%.在联邦储备系统的调控下,它只有1.2%。And in the euro zone, core inflation has fallen over the past year from 1.5% to 0.8%, matching the record low of early 2010.并且在欧元区,核心通胀率已经由去年的1.5%降到0.8%,与2010年的低纪录一致。One bright spot that has helped to keep G7 inflation from falling further isJapan, where the reflationary drive of Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, is stoking hopes that the past decade and a half of deflation may at last be coming to an end.日本帮助七国集团只住通胀下滑趋势是一大亮点,它的通货再膨胀的驱动者,安倍晋三首相,正使人们燃起希望,过去十五年的通货紧缩可能最终结束。Overall inflation has risen to 1.1%—higher than in the euro area—and core inflation is now at zero.整体的通胀会升到1.1%—比欧元区高—并且核心通胀现在处于0。But the immense difficulty that successive Japanese governments have encountered in trying to escape the shackles of deflation serves as a warning of the danger of letting inflation fall too low.但是历任日本政府所面临的巨大困难是,在尝试避免通货紧缩的桎梏时,不想充当危险警报器,让通胀降得太低。Once people start to anticipate declining rather than rising prices, it can be very hard to reverse their expectations.但一度人们开始预期价格下跌而不是升高,所以很难扭转人们的预期。Abandoning reserve撤销储备金That danger is less acute in Americathan in the euro area largely because the Fed is more proactive than the ECB.与欧元区相比,在美国没有那么严重的危机,很大程度上因为美联储比欧洲央行更有前瞻性。It surprised the markets in September by sustaining quantitative easing at its present pace of 85 billion of asset-purchases a month, rather than starting to curb it.9月,它延续量化宽松政策,也就是每个月不去限制资产购买而是用850亿美元购买资产的步幅,让市场振奋起来。A study by economists at the Federal Reserve, published this week, has fuelled speculation that it may keep interest rates at rock bottom even longer by lowering the level of unemployment at which it will consider rate increases from the current 6.5%.这星期出版的美联储经济学家们的研究结论使投资充满动力,它可能会更久地保持低利率在一个最低点,措施是降低失业率,因为失业会将利率从现行的6.5%提高。By contrast, the euro area looks increasingly vulnerable to a slide into deflation.相比而言,欧元区的经济看起来更容易受通货紧缩的冲击。Although the region emerged this spring from a painfully protracted double-dip recession, the recovery is expected to be a feeble one.尽管,欧元区在经历痛苦而蛮长的双底衰退之后迎来了复苏,复苏的程度仍被预期很微弱无力。GDP will fall by 0.4% this year and rise by only 1.1% in 2014, according to forecasts from the European Commission published on November 5th.根据欧洲委员会在11月5号的展望,今年GDP会降到0.4%,在2014年也只能上涨1.1%。Such weak growth is unlikely to overcome the forces pushing inflation down.这样缓慢的增长不可能扭转让通胀率下滑的颓势。Output will remain well below its full potential next year, estimates the commission; all that idle capacity acts as a drag on prices.委员会分析明年的出口量将很可能持续低迷;所有闲置的生产力将会对价格起到副作用。Unemployment across the euro area will stay stuck at a woefully high 12.2%, which will keep wages down.整个欧元区的失业率会持续卡在令人痛苦的12.2%上,这无疑会让工资水平下降。The strength of the euro will also exert a downward pull.欧洲整体的购买力将会下滑。It has been trading this week at 1.35, more than 5% higher than a year ago; on a trade-weighted basis it is 8% higher.本周它与美元的汇率处在1比1.35,比去年高5%;从贸易加权上看高了8%。Very low inflation in the euro zone makes it much more difficult for uncompetitive countries, predominantly in southernEurope, to regain lost ground.欧元区的极低通胀使无竞争力的国家更加艰难回复兴盛,尤其是南欧的国家们。Workers tend to resist nominal cuts in pay more fiercely than they do the subtler erosion of their income through inflation.工人们怀有抵制心态,他们需要名义上付更多的钱,这样就很微妙地侵蚀了工资额度。If inflation in the countries with which the weak economies trade is high, they can improve their competitiveness simply by keeping their rate lower.如果一个国家里的通胀是建立在脆弱经济和高贸易量上,他们只要保持低税率就可以提高竞争力。That is in essence howGermanygained a big edge in the first decade of the euro.这就是前十年德国在欧洲占有重要地位的关键。But with overall inflation so low, peripheral countries must instead adjust through outright deflation or something close to it, meaning a freeze or absolute cuts in wages.但是整体的通胀率如此低下,小国家们必须作出调整,不能使经济完全通货紧缩或是接近这样。否则就意味着工资的冻结或大幅度降薪。Aly, in September, when euro-wide inflation was 1.1%, prices were falling by 1% inGreece.9月份,整个欧元区通胀率为1.1%,希腊的物价已下跌了1%。They were flat inIrelandand rising by just 0.3% inPortugal.爱尔兰保持平稳,葡萄牙升高了0.3%。A sustained period of deflation would be particularly hard on the euro zones periphery, weighed down by debt.处在欧元区边缘的国家持续的通货紧缩很难抑制,它们被债务拖累;Cyprus,Ireland,PortugalandSpainhave high public and private debt;Greece and Italyhave high public debt.塞浦路斯,爱尔兰,葡萄牙和西班牙哟很高的公共债务和私人债务。希腊和意大利有着很高的公共债务。When prices are falling, debt, which is fixed in nominal terms, becomes more onerous in real terms.当价格下跌时,债务在合约上不变,就会使它们负担更重。Higher inflation, in contrast, makes escaping heavy debt much less burdensome.更高的通胀,相反会让他们逃离沉重债务,减轻很大负担。Central banks have had to move beyond past orthodoxies in order to coax a modest recovery from the ruins of the financial crisis.央行已经超越了正统做法,目的是引导出一个温和的经济复苏,拯救被金融危机破坏的经济。Now, to avoid the blight of stagnating or falling prices, they may have to venture still further into unconventional territory.现在,要避免经济发展的滞涩或是下跌的物价他们可能必须进一步冒险,去探索非常规领域。 /201311/264216Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My youngest daughter, ;Eve,; is 15 and recently started her sophomore year in high school. She used to be a vibrant, social girl who would spend days hanging out with friends. She smiled and laughed often.我最小的女儿“伊芙”15岁了,最近她刚上高二。从前她是那种富有活力,喜欢整天与朋友们出去玩的社交女孩。她总是喜欢笑。Recently, she has become reclusive. I rarely see her smile or laugh. She comes home from school, does homework and spends the rest of the night in her room staring at the ceiling. Im very worried and dont know what to do. Eve wont talk to anyone in the family, and she has been turning down invitations to go out with her friends. Please help me.近来,她变得封闭起来。我很少看见她笑。从学校回到家,除了做作业便整晚盯着房间的天花板。我非常担心,也不知道该怎么办。伊芙甚至不与家里人谈话,朋友邀请她出去玩也被她拒绝了。请帮帮我。Dear Memphis:亲爱的孟菲斯:There could be any number of things going on. Here are a few things to look for: Is Eve being bullied or harassed at school by other students? By boys? By teachers? Is she struggling with academics? Has she been rejected by a romantic interest? Might she be having a problem with her sexual identity? Is she taking drugs or using alcohol? Is she depressed?可能发生了很多事情。以下是需要关注的一些事情:伊芙是不是在学校受欺负了或者被骚扰了?是男同学?还是老师?还是与学习成绩有关?还是因为被喜欢的人拒绝了?也许她正在因自己的性别而感到烦恼?她是不是在嗑药,酗酒?她患上忧郁症了吗?First, Eve should have a thorough medical checkup because often the problem is physiological. If that isnt the case, open up a dialogue, calmly and lovingly, and listen with an open mind. You also should make an appointment with the school counselor.首先,应该带伊芙进行一次全面的体检,这种情况往往是身体出了毛病。如果不是这方面的原因,冷静而充满关爱地与她谈一次话,用心倾听。另外,您还应该安排与学校班主任见一面。原文译文属!201306/244799

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