襄樊职业技术学院附属医院治疗宫颈炎多少钱医苑诊疗

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 襄樊职业技术学院附属医院治疗宫颈炎多少钱好热点
What's in a name? Letters that offer clues to one's future decisions. Previous studies have suggested that a person's monogram may influence his life choices - where he works, whom he marries or where he lives - because of "implicit egotism". For instance, a person named Fred might be attracted to the notion of living in Fresno, working for Forever 21 or driving a Ford.  名字里有什么?名字能预示一个人在未来做什么决定。此前种种研究表明,一个人的姓名可影响他生命中的重大决策——在哪里工作、和谁结婚或者住在哪里,而这种影响源于“内隐自大”。举个例子,一个名为“弗雷德”的人有可能倾向于居住在“弗雷斯诺”,到Forever 21公司工作,或者开一辆福特轿车。  Now a new study by professor Uri Simonsohn takes another look at the so-called name-letter effect and offers other explanations for the phenomenon. Uri found that the name of a person's workplace more closely correlated with the first three letters of a person's name. But Uri suggests that the reason for the association isn't implicit egotism.  而如今乌里教授的一项新研究为这种“姓名字母效应”提供了新视角,并为该现象提供了多种解释。乌里发现,一个人工作单位的名字和此人姓名的前三个字母关系最为密切。但乌里指出,这种联系并非源于“内隐自大”。  One alternative explanation to implicit egotism for these findings is reverse causality: Rather than employees seeking out companies with similar names, people starting new companies may name them after themselves.  他表示,有一种解释可以替代“内隐自大”理论,即“反向因果关系”:即并非人们愿意到有与自己姓名相似名称的公司工作,事实上是,创业者更愿意用自己的姓名来命名公司。 /201103/128890

With a near record-setting investment announced last week, the ride-sharing service Uber is the hottest, most valuable technology start-up on the planet. It is also one of the most controversial.上周宣布了几乎创纪录的巨额融资之后,共乘租车务Uber已成为全球最炙手可热且最具价值的科技初创公司,但与此同时,它也是最具争议性的公司之一。The company, which has been the target of protests across Europe this week, has been accused of a reckless attitude toward safety, of price-gouging its customers, of putting existing cabbies out of work and of evading regulation. And it has been called trivial. In The New Yorker last year, George Packer huffed that Uber typified Silicon Valley’s newfound focus on “solving all the problems of being 20 years old, with cash on hand.”本周,欧洲各地发生了针对Uber的抗议活动,它被指罔顾安全、对顾客进行价格欺诈、令现有出租车司机失业,以及逃避监管。还有人说,它没什么价值。去年,乔治·帕克(George Packer)在《纽约客》(The New Yorker)中曾愤怒地写道,硅谷新的关注点就是,“用手头的钱来解决所有存在了20年之久的问题”,并说Uber就是一个典型。It is impossible to say whether Uber is worth the billion its investors believe it to be; like any start-up, it could fail. But for all its flaws, Uber is anything but trivial. It could well transform transportation the way Amazon has altered shopping — by using slick, user-friendly software and mountains of data to completely reshape an existing market, ultimately making many modes of urban transportation cheaper, more flexible and more widely accessible to people across the income spectrum.虽然投资者相信Uber值170亿美元,但它到底是否值这么多钱就很难说了;就像任何其他创业公司一样,Uber也有可能遭遇惨败。然而,虽然Uber有诸多缺陷,它绝不是毫无价值。就像亚马逊(Amazon)改变了零售业一样,Uber也可能改变运输业——通过设计精美、用户友好的软件以及海量数据来彻底重塑现有市场,最终使许多的城市交通模式更便宜、更灵活,更易于为不同收入阶层的人所使用。Uber could pull this off by accomplishing something that has long been seen as a pipe dream among transportation scholars: It has the potential to decrease private car ownership.Uber可以通过降低私家车保有量来实现上述愿景。交通学者长期以来一直认为这是不可能的事,但Uber有这个潜力。In its long-established markets, like San Francisco, using Uber every day is aly arguably cheaper than owning a private car. Uber says that despite dust-ups about “surge pricing” at busy times, its cheapest service, UberX, is usually 30 percent less expensive than taxis.在Uber的成熟市场,比如旧金山,每天使用Uber可能比拥有私家车更省钱。Uber称,尽管在高峰时段“定价上浮”(surge pricing)的做法引发了一些争议,但公司最便宜的务Uber X通常比出租车便宜30%。Now that Uber, Lyft and other rivals are embroiled in a vicious match for dominance across the globe, ride-sharing prices over all are sure to plummet. The competition is likely to result in more areas of the country in which ride-sharing becomes both cheaper and more convenient than owning a car, a shift that could profoundly alter how people navigate American cities.由于Uber、Lyft以及其他同类公司都卷入了旨在占领全球市场的恶性竞争,共乘租车务的价格必将暴跌。这种竞争可能导致的结果是,在美国越来越多地方,使用共乘租车务比拥有私家车更节约、更方便,这一转变可能会为美国城市人的出行方式带来深远的改变。Over the next few years, if Uber and other such services do reduce the need for private vehicle ownership, they could help lower the cost of living in urban areas, reduce the environmental toll exacted by privately owned automobiles (like the emissions we spew while cruising for parking), and reallocate space now being wasted on parking lots to more valuable uses, like housing.未来几年,如果Uber和其它此类务能成功降低私家车需求,将有助于降低市区的生活成本,降低私家车对环境的影响 (例如寻找车位时所排放的废气),并把目前浪费在停车上的空间用在更有价值的地方,比如建设住房。Paradoxically, some experts say, the increased use of ride-sharing services could also spawn renewed interest in and funding for public transportation, because people generally use taxis in conjunction with many other forms of transportation.矛盾的是,一些专家说,更多地使用共乘租车务会带来对公共交通的新需求以及更多针对公交领域的投资,因为人们在使用出租车的同时,会搭配使用许多其他交通工具。In other words, if Uber and its ride-sharing competitors succeed, it wouldn’t be a stretch to see many small and midsize cities become transportation nirvanas on the order of Manhattan — places where forgoing car ownership isn’t just an outré lifestyle choice, but the preferred way to live.换言之,如果Uber这类共乘租车务取得了成功,很多中小城市将可能达到曼哈顿那样的理想交通状况——在这些地方,放弃私家车不光是一种特立独行的生活方式,也是人们青睐的生活方式。“In many cities and even suburbs, it’s becoming much easier to organize your life car-free or car-lite,” said David A. King, an assistant professor of urban planning at Columbia University who studies technology and transportation. By car-lite, Dr. King means that instead of having one car for every driver, households can increasingly get by with owning just a single vehicle, thanks in part to tech-enabled services like Uber.“在很多城市甚至是郊区,在没有汽车或少用汽车的条件下安排生活正变得越来越容易。”戴维#8231;A#8231;金(David A. King)说。金是哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)城市规划的助理教授,专门研究科技和运输。金士说,所谓减少用车意味着,一家人可以越来越依靠一辆汽车应付日常所需,而不是每人拥有一辆汽车,这一定程度上要感谢像Uber这样的科技务。Transportation scholars are just beginning to study whether the ride-sharing industry will encourage us to give up our cars, but results from some related studies look promising.运输方面的学者对共乘租车行业是否会鼓励人们摒弃私家车的研究才刚刚起步,但一些相关研究似乎前景乐观。Susan Shaheen, the co-director of the Transportation Sustainability Research Center at the University of California, Berkeley, has found that car-sharing services like Zipcar and bike-sharing services have aly led to a significant net reduction of car ownership among users. While she is beginning a study into whether Uber-like services have the same effect, she said it was plausible to guess that they would also reduce levels of car ownership.苏珊·沙欣(Susan Shaheen)是加州大学伯克利分校( University of California, Berkeley)交通可持续性研究中心的主任,她发现热布卡(Zipcar)等汽车共享务以及一些单车共享务已经导致用户私家车拥有率出现了明显下降。苏珊现在开始研究像Uber这样的共乘租车务是否会有同样的效果,她说,估计这类务也会降低私家车的拥有率。“I’ve been studying this area for about 17 years, and what we’re seeing now is a ubiquity of mobile devices that is really altering this industry,” she said.“我研究这个领域差不多17年了,现在我们可以看到,移动设备的普及确实在改变着这个行业。”她说。To see why Uber and its ilk could prompt many of us to give up our cars, it helps to understand the role that taxis play in urban transport. Taxis and other car services are usually seen as the province of the rich, but that’s only partly true, studies show.要理解Uber等务为何会促使很多人摒弃私家车,首先要弄清楚出租车在城市交通中的作用。出租车和其它汽车务通常被视为富人的象征,但研究显示并非完全如此。The richest Americans do use taxis more often than middle-class Americans, but so do the poorest Americans, who rely heavily on taxis for trips that aren’t practical through public transportation — shopping trips that involve heavy parcels that wouldn’t be convenient to take on the bus, say, or a ride back home after a medical procedure.在美国,最富有的人确实比中产阶级更经常乘坐出租车,但最贫穷的人也是如此。在乘搭公共交通工具不太现实的情况下,他们会严重依赖出租车。比如说,购物后有很多很重的东西都不方便带上公车;此外,手术后也需要乘坐出租车回家。And though you may think of taxis as a competitor to subways and buses, several studies have found just the opposite.虽然你可能视出租车为地铁和公交车的竞争对手,但多项研究却发现,情况恰好相反。In one recent study based on GPS data from New York City cabs, Dr. King and his colleagues found that many taxi trips are “multimodal,” meaning that riders mix taxis with other forms of transportation. For instance, people from other boroughs might get to Manhattan by train, and then use cabs to return home late at night.最近在一项以纽约市出租车GPS定位数据为基础的研究中,金士(Dr. King)及同事发现,很多出租车乘客的行程中都包含了多种方式,就是说乘客在乘坐出租车的同时,还使用其他交通工具。例如,其他区的居民可能会乘火车到曼哈顿,深夜再乘出租车回家。“The one-way travel of taxis allows people to use transit, share rides and otherwise travel without a car,” the researchers wrote. “In this way taxis act as a complement to these other modes and help discourage auto ownership and use.”“由于出租车的单程性,没有私家车的人们可以同时使用公共交通、共享乘租或其他方式出行,”研究人员写道。“这样一来,出租车就成为其他交通方式的补充,有助于降低购买及使用私家车的积极性。”A survey commissioned by regulators in San Francisco found that if taxis were more widely available, people would use public transit more often, and would consider getting rid of one or more cars.旧金山监管机构委托进行的一项调查发现,如果能更广泛地提供出租车,人们会更频繁地使用公共交通工具,而且会考虑放弃一辆或多辆私家车。There’s only one problem with taxis: In most American cities, Dr. King found, there just aren’t enough of them. Taxi service is generally capped by regulation, and in many cities the number of taxis has not been increased substantially in decades, despite a vast increase in the number of miles people travel. In some places this has led to poor service: In the San Francisco survey, for instance, one out of four residents rated the city’s taxi service as “terrible.”只有一个问题:金士发现,大多数美国城市的出租车数量根本不够。出租车务的规模一般受到监管机构的限制,而且在许多城市,尽管过去数十年间人们的出行里数大幅增加,但出租车的数量并没有大幅增长。因此在一些地区,出租车务质量很差︰例如,在旧金山的这项调查中,每四名居民中就有一人认为,市内出租车务“很糟糕”。Ride-sharing services solve this problem in two ways. First, they substantially increase the supply of for-hire vehicles on the road, which puts downward pressure on prices. As critics say, Uber and other services do this by essentially evading regulations that cap taxis. This has led to intense skirmishes with regulators and questions over who has oversight to maintain the safety of the blossoming new industry.共乘租车务通过两种方式解决以上问题。首先,它们可以大幅增加路面上可供租赁的汽车数量,从而为价格造成下行压力。正如员所说,Uber和其他务能够做到这一点,主要是因为它们避开了限制出租车的那些监管。这已经引发了与监管机构的激烈争执,以及应该由谁来监管这一蓬勃发展的新兴产业安全的疑问。These questions are likely to be worked out as these services mature; like most new technologies, this one too will attract increased legal oversight and a gradual regulation of the business.随着这些务日趋成熟,这些问题可能会得到解决。正如大多数新技术一样,这一务也将吸引更多的法律监管,整个行业会逐步规范。But Uber has done more than increase the supply of cars in the taxi market. Thanks to technology, it has also improved their utility and efficiency. By monitoring ridership, Uber can smartly allocate cars in places of high demand, and by connecting with users’ phones, it has automated the paying process. When you’re done with an Uber ride, you just leave the car; there’s no fiddling with a credit card and no tipping. Even better, there’s no parking.不过,Uber不光是增加了出租车市场的车辆供应。感谢科技的发展,它还改善了出租车的用途和效率。通过对乘客群体进行监测,Uber能够用智能的方式把车辆调配到需求较高的地方;通过与乘客手机关联,能使付费过程自动化。当你享受完Uber的务后,直接下车就行,无需刷信用卡,也不用付小费。更棒的是,无需泊车。Compared with that kind of convenience, a car that you own — which you have to park, fill up, fix, insure, clean and pay for whether you use it or not — begins to seem like kind of a drag.与这么方便的务相比,私家车似乎似乎成了累赘:你得泊车、加油、修理、上保险、清洁,而且无论使用与否,都要花钱。“And if your car sits there five out of seven days, suddenly you’re starting to look at that fixed cost as being a waste,” Dr. King said.“如果你的汽车七天有五天都不用的话,你会突然发现,那些固定成本根本是种浪费,”金士说。 /201407/316495

A Dutch artist and designer has come up with a device he hopes will suck pollutants from Beijing#39;s smog-cloaked skies, creating columns of clean air for the city#39;s surgical-mask wearing residents.一位荷兰艺术家兼设计师发明了一种装置,他希望借此装置能够为北京烟雾笼罩的天空清除污垢,为那些戴着口罩的北京市民创造新鲜的空气。An electromagnetic field generated by copper coils will pull airborne particles in the smog to the ground where they can be easily cleaned.通过铜线圈制造的电磁场可以将漂浮于烟尘中的颗粒物吸附到地面上,很轻易的被清理干净。;It#39;s like when you have a balloon which has static (electricity) and your hair goes toward it. Same with the smog,; says artist Daan Roosegaarde.荷兰艺术家戴恩·罗素格地说,“就好像如果你有一个带静电的气球,头发就会被气球吸附一样。烟尘也会被吸附。”His studio has reached an agreement with the Beijing government to test the technology in one of the capital#39;s parks.他的工作室已经和北京政府签订了协议,允许他在北京的一处公园中测试这项技术。With its skies regularly shrouded by filthy gray smog, Beijing this week unveiled a series of emergency measures to tackle the problem.北京的天空常常被灰色的污浊烟尘覆盖,这一周内,北京已经数次发布了空气污染红色预警。Roosegaarde says an indoor prototype has aly proven it works and is confident the results -- with the help of a team of scientists and engineers -- can be replicated outside.罗素格地说,他已经在室内进行过模型试验,明这个方法有效。他有信心,在一组科学家和工程师团队的合作之下,这一装置在室外也同样有效。;Beijing is quite good because the smog is quite low, it#39;s in a valley so there#39;s not so much wind. It#39;s a good environment to explore this kind of thing.;“北京的地形和气候条件都很适合。空中的烟尘高度很低,而且它地处谷地,空气流动性不强。这种地形气候条件很适合测试该装置。”;We#39;ll be able to purify the air and the challenge is to get the top of the smog so you can see the sun again.;“我们可以净化空气,但真正的挑战在于,要将烟尘清除彻底,重见天日。”Roosegaarde acknowledges that projects like this are a way of drawing attention to the problem, rather than a viable solution to Beijing#39;s dire air pollution.罗兰格地承认,这种致力于净化空气的工程更多的是想 增强人们对环境问题的重视,使人们更多的关注切实有效的净化空气的方案,而不仅仅是可能有效的治理空气污染的方案。;This is not the real answer for smog. The real answer has to do with clean cars, different industry and different lifestyles.;“这不是根治烟尘的方法。根治烟尘的方法是环保汽车、转变工业结构和转变生活方式。”However, he hopes the project will make a ;radical statement; by allowing the city#39;s residents to realize the difference between breathing clean and smog-filled air.但同时,他希望这项空气净化工程能够给市民们敲响警钟,使他们意识到洁净空气和污浊空气之间的差异。 /201408/317619If asked to give one example of a successful innovation in the past 10 years, what would come to mind first?如果有人让你举出一个过去10年间成功创新的例子,你首先想到会是什么?Apple#39;s shiny cool gadgets like the iPhone and the iPad? Or the emergence of social networking sites such as the Facebook and its various copycats?是iPhone、iPad等炫酷的苹果产品?还是诸如Facebook及众多仿Facebook的社交网络的兴起?We admit these devices and applications have greatly changed our lifestyle. We have never before felt so connected and social networking sites are powerful tools in motivating people to take part in worthy social and civic causes.我们承认,这些设备和应用极大地改变了我们的生活方式。在此之前,我们从未感觉和这世界连接得如此紧密;在激励人们投身到有价值的社会和公民事业这一方面,社交网络发挥着巨大的作用。We churn out one nifty gadget after another, with bigger screens and less buttons. We tweak text and photo-sharing social networking sites to create a new product to share, perhaps audios and s. There is a cloud for us to store and share our files.精巧的发明一个接一个地涌现出来——屏幕越来越大,按键越来越少。我们对可以让人们分享文字和图片的社交网络进行改革,创造了一种可以分享音频、视频的新产品。有了云务,我们可以存储并分享自己的文件。All of these are wonderful, but what about truly groundbreaking and visionary endeavors that will profoundly change the world and human life?所有这一切都棒极了,但真正意义上,什么才是彻底改变世界和人类生活的富有远见的创造性贡献呢?More than a half century ago science fiction envisioned a future where human beings made routine space trips. They lived in colonies in other galaxies or on the seabed.半个多世纪前,科幻小说中设想出这样一个未来:对于人类而言,太空之旅已成为平常事。他们居住在位于其他系或海底的殖民地之上。They made food out of thin air and could live for 300 years. Unfortunately, none of these things will happen in the foreseeable future.他们可以利用稀薄的空气制造食物,并可以存活300年时间。可惜所有这些都不会在短期内实现。Is something wrong with our technological development? Steve Blank, writing in The Huffinton Post, blamed social networking and social media companies such as Facebook for stifling innovation.我们的技术开发是不是出现了什么问题?史提夫·布兰克在《赫芬顿邮报》上发表文章指责像Facebook这样的社交网站和社交媒体公司扼杀了创新。Blank teaches entrepreneurship at Stanford, Columbia and the US#39; National Science Foundation Innovation Corps. He advises people, especially venture capitalists (VC), who want to commercialize inventions.布兰克同时在斯坦福大学、哥伦比亚大学以及美国国家自然科学基金创新研究群体任职,教授创业课程。他会为教授对象提供建议,尤其是那些想将发明商品化的风险投资家们。Blank argues that the success of Facebook and other social networking and social media companies is diverting venture capital from serious research with a more uncertain payoff.布兰克认为Facebook等社交网站和社交媒体公司的成功,使得那些回报不算明朗的“严肃研究”不再受到风险资本的青睐。He is talking about research that truly visionary VCs should be supporting.他所说的严肃研究是那些真正有远见的风险投资家应当全力持的项目。Instead of ;investing in a blockbuster cancer drug that will pay them nothing for 15 years;, Blank says VCs are throwing their money at the latest and possibly greatest social-media idea that can run on smartphones or tablets in hopes of scoring a quick return when it goes big.与其“投资一种可能会一鸣惊人的抗癌药品,十五年间无回报,”布兰克称:“如今风险投资家更喜欢钱投向最新、也可能是最棒的,搭载智能手机和平板电脑上的社交媒体,期望其做大的时候能快速收益。”;In the past,; Blank wrote, ;if you were a successful VC, you could make 0 million (637 million yuan) on an investment in five to seven years. Today, social media startups can return hundreds of millions or even billions in less than three years.;“在过去”,布兰克写道:“如果你是位成功的风险投资家,那些你可以在五至七年内,在一项投资上赚到1亿美元(合6.37亿元人民币)。今天,社交媒体的新秀们能在不到三年的时间里得到数亿甚至数十亿的回报。On TechCrunch.com, Alexander Haislip, a marketing executive at a tech startup, is even more critical.在TechCrunch网站上,一位来自新兴技术公司的销售主管亚力山大·希斯立普对此表现得更为苛刻。Facebook may be doing exciting things with advertising, he acknowledges, but how exciting is advertising, anyway? It#39;s hardly, he complains, ;the best use of the brightest minds of our generation;.他承认或许Facebook在利用广告做一些令人兴奋的事情,可话说回来,广告又能多有趣呢?他抱怨道:“这并没有充分利用我们这一代的聪明才智。”A 1999 report in the Wire magazine predicted: ;The convergence of mobile phones and the Internet, high-speed wireless data access, intelligent networks, and pervasive computing will shape how we work, shop, pay bills, flirt, keep appointments, conduct wars, keep up with our children, and write poetry in the next century.;一则1999年发表于《Wire》杂志的报道预言称:“移动电话,网络,高速无线数据存取,智能网络和普适计算将会决定我们下个世纪的工作、购物、付账、调情、约会、战争、与孩子相处,甚至是写诗的方式。”Thirteen years later, we are aly living in the world the report described. Perhaps it is time for us to ask: What now?十三年后,我们已经生活在了该报道所预言的世界中。也许现在是时候该问问我们自己:“现在该怎么办?” /201206/186547Rare white rainbow lights up the North Pole.罕见白色虹耀现北极。This is the amazing moment a white rainbow streaks across the Arctic sky.这绝对是惊人的一刻:白色虹横跨北极上空。The rare phenomena, named a fog bow, was spotted by Sam Dobson during a recent expedition to the North Pole.这一罕见的自然现象叫做雾虹,是由山姆-杜布森在最近的一次北极探险中拍摄到的。As their ice breaking ship cruised through the chilly waters, Sam clocked the arching rainbow but was stunned to see it was completely white.山姆所乘坐的破冰船在寒冷的冰川中航行时,山姆被眼前的弧形虹给惊呆了,因为这是一条纯白色的虹。A fog bow is a similar phenomenon to a rainbow, but it appears as an arch in fog rather than rain. And because of the very small size of water droplets that cause fog, smaller than 0.05 millimetres, it appears as a white arc, rather than a multi-coloured one.雾虹和虹是相类似的自然现象,只不过雾虹是在雾中形成而非在雨中,而且由于水滴的大小不足0.05毫米,从而形成雾气,造就了这轮白色虹,而不是常见的七色虹。 /201112/164356

LONDON — One of Britain’s highest-ranking intelligence officials on Tuesday castigated the giant American companies that dominate the Internet for providing the “command-and-control networks of choice for terrorists and criminals” and challenged the companies to find a better balance between privacy and security.伦敦——本周二,英国最高级别的情报官员之一严厉批评了主导互联网的美国巨头公司,说他们“为恐怖分子和犯罪分子提供了其首选的指挥和控制网络”,他敦促这些公司在隐私权和公众安全之间更好地把握平衡。The statements were made by Robert Hannigan, the newly appointed director of GCHQ, Britain’s electronic intelligence agency. They were among the most pointed in a campaign by intelligence services in Britain and the ed States against pressure to rein in their digital surveillance following disclosures by the American former contractor Edward J. Snowden.这名官员是英国电子情报机构政府通讯总部(Government Communications Headquarters,简称GCHQ)的新任总监罗伯特·汉尼根(Robert Hannigan)。他的这些声明代表着英美情报机构抗压活动中最尖锐的声音之一;自从美国前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)泄密之后,遏制情报机构数字监控能力的压力就一直存在。Mr. Hannigan’s statements were among the most critical of American technology firms by the head of a major intelligence agency; the accusation went beyond what ed States officials have said about Apple, Google and others who are now moving toward sophisticated encryption of more and more data on phones and email systems.汉尼根的声明,是美国科技公司从主要情报机构负责人那里获得的最严厉的批评之一;他的指责,超过了美国官员对苹果、谷歌等公司的说法。这些公司正在对电话和电邮系统的数据采取越来越复杂的加密措施。But the companies, saying they are responding to demand from their users, show no signs of backing down. Recently the chief executive of Apple, Tim Cook, said governments that want data should deal with the users of the technology, not the providers of the hardware and services. Brad Smith, the general counsel of Microsoft Corporation, told a Harvard Law School symposium on Tuesday that, if anything, companies like his “will move to strengthen encryption,” and require governments to get court orders if they want data.但这些公司并没有显示出任何让步迹象,他们说自己正在响应用户的需求。苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)最近表示,政府如果想获取数据,就应该去找这些技术的用户,而不是它们的硬件和务提供者。本周二,微软公司的首席法律顾问布拉德·史密斯(Brad Smith)在哈佛法学院(Harvard Law School)的一个研讨会上表示,像微软这样的公司就算要采取行动,也是“提升加密程度”,并要求各国政府在索取数据之前出示法庭令。Mr. Hannigan, in an opinion article on Tuesday in The Financial Times, singled out the Islamic State, the radical group also known as ISIS and ISIL, as one “whose members have grown up on the Internet” and are “exploiting the power of the web to create a jihadi threat with near-global reach.”汉尼根本周二在《金融时报》(The Financial Times)发表文章,说激进组织“伊斯兰国”(Islamic State,也称为ISIS和ISIL)的“成员在互联网上成长着”,这些人“利用网络的力量,几乎构成了全球范围内的圣战威胁”。In a speech two weeks ago, the director of the F.B.I., James B. Comey, said that the “post-Snowden pendulum” had “gone too far.” On Monday, Adm. Michael S. Rogers, director of the National Security Agency, took a less confrontational approach, telling students and faculty members at Stanford University that “a fundamentally strong Internet is in the best interest of the U.S.”在两周前的一次演讲中,美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey)说,“后斯诺登时代的钟摆”已经“向一边摇摆得太远了”。国家安全局(National Security Agency)局长迈克尔·S·罗杰斯上将(Michael S. Rogers)的观点更为柔和,他本周一在斯坦福大学(Stanford University)对学生和教职员工说,“让互联网从根本上变得强大,符合美国的最佳利益。”Increasingly encrypted products and services are “a challenge,” Admiral Rogers said. “And we’ll deal with it.”越来越多的加密产品和务是“一个挑战”,罗杰斯上将说。“我们将应对这个挑战。”But he also pushed for better sharing of data between the intelligence community and private technology companies. Moves to set up a formal information-sharing system have stalled in Congress in the face of objections from the private sector.但他也在推动情报界和私人科技公司之间更好地分享数据。由于私营部门的反对,建立一个正式的信息共享系统的提案在国会举步维艰。“It is unrealistic to expect the private sector to withstand the actions of nation states,” Admiral Rogers said. “I think it is also unrealistic to expect the government to deal with this all by itself. ”“让私营部门无保留地接受国家的行动,是不现实的,”罗杰斯上将说。“我认为,期待政府自己来应对这一切,这也不现实。”Technology companies, which harvest customer data for commercial uses, reacted cautiously on Tuesday, generally seeking to avoid any role that would make them agents of government intelligence gathering. “It’s such a slippery slope with these types of requests,” said Stefan Weitz, director of search at Microsoft. “If you say yes to one request, more will inevitably start to come in. At what point do you stop?”科技公司出于商业用途而收集客户数据,本周二它们的反应很谨慎。这些公司通常会避免扮演任何让它们成为政府的情报收集代理者的角色。“这些类型的请求,开了头就收不住,”微软的搜索主管史蒂芬·维茨(Stefan Weitz)说。“如果你答应一个请求,不可避免地就会收到更多请求,那你什么时候才能停下来?”The opinion article by Mr. Hannigan referred specifically to messaging and social media sites and apps such as Twitter, Facebook and WhatsApp.汉尼根的文章特别提到了通讯类和社交媒体类的站点和应用,比如Twitter、Facebook和WhatsApp。“There is no need for today’s would-be jihadis to seek out restricted websites with secret passwords: They can follow other young people posting their adventures in Syria as they would anywhere else,” he wrote.“想成为圣战者的人,如今不需要使用机密密码去访问受限的网站了,因为他们可以关注一些把自己在叙利亚等地的冒险经历贴出来的年轻人,”他写道。 /201411/340975

The high-strength carbon fibre made by Japan’s Toray Industries is eagerly sought after by the makers of racing bikes and jet aircraft. It also happens to be perfect for supersonic centrifuges used to enrich the uranium in nuclear bombs.日本东丽工业株式会社(Toray Industries)生产的高强度碳纤维深受竞赛自行车和喷气式飞机制造商喜爱,它们碰巧又是制造超声离心机的绝佳材料,而超声离心机被用于浓缩制造核弹所需的铀。For that reason, trade in the company’s high-strength T700 filament is carefully controlled by almost a dozen international bodies. To buy it directly from Tokyo-based Toray requires an export licence from Japan’s Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry and a two-page end-user certificate.为此,东丽高强度T700碳纤维的买卖受到十余家国际机构的严格管制。要从这家东京公司直接采购这种碳纤维,需要有日本经产省(METI)下发的出口许可以及两页长的最终用户明。But for those who do not want the hassle, there is another place to find suppliers which will not ask so many questions: Alibaba.com, the Chinese trade website owned by Alibaba Group, which listed in the US last week in the third-biggest initial public offering in history.如果不想这么麻烦,还有一个地方可以找到没有这么多要求的供应商:阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)旗下的Alibaba.com网站。阿里巴巴集团近日刚在美国上市,为史上第三大首次公开招股(IPO)。“Alibaba is a virtual supermarket for proliferation-sensitive items used in the process of producing nuclear weapons,” says Nick Gillard, a researcher at Project Alpha, a non-proliferation research centre at King’s College in London. High-strength aluminium, maraging steel rods (used to make centrifuge rotors), advanced vacuum pumps and gauges used in the enrichment process are all for sale on the site. “Virtually every dual-use item needed for a proliferator to produce nuclear weapons is advertised for sale on Alibaba.”伦敦大学国王学院(King#39;s College)防核扩散研究中心Project Alpha的研究员尼克#8226;吉拉德(Nick Gillard)表示:“阿里巴巴好比一个核扩散敏感物品的虚拟超市,这些东西可用在生产核武器的过程中。”高强度铝合金、马氏体时效钢(可用于生产离心机转子)、高级真空泵以及浓缩过程中会用到的量规都可以通过该网站买到。“核扩散者生产核武器所需的几乎所有军民两用物品都可以在阿里巴巴网站上找到。”These items all have civilian uses as well, which makes their regulation complicated. These and dozens of other categories of “dual-use” goods are controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers Group whose 48 members, including China, pledge to enforce export licences and end-user certificates detailing their ultimate destination, along with a commitment not to re-export or transfer ownership. Dual-use goods are also specifically prohibited for export to Iran by a long line of UN Security Council resolutions.这些商品都可作为民用,因此监管起来就更加困难。以上商品——还有另外几十种军民两用商品——受到核供应国集团(NSG)的管制。核供应国集团由包括中国在内的48个国家组成,承诺实行出口许可和最终用户明制度,要求书上列明商品最终目的地,并保不会将商品转出口或转让。联合国安理会(UN Security Council)的多项决议也明令禁止向伊朗出口军民两用商品。But China has become a hub for illicit nuclear procurement, according to Mr Gillard and other authorities on non-proliferation. This is partly due to the vast size of its manufacturing industry, they say, and because of what one western diplomat calls a “flexible” attitude towards regulation of the trade.然而,吉拉德还有其他核不扩散方面的权威人士都说,中国已成为一个非法核采购中心。他们指出,中国制造业极其庞大是造成这种局面的一部分原因。还有一个原因在于一名西方外交官所说的中国在相关交易监管上的“灵活”态度。A report by the UN Iran Sanctions Committee panel of experts in June gave details of 30 recent interdictions in various countries of finished goods and raw materials bound for Iran or involving individuals known to be involved in the illicit trade of nuclear materials. Of those, 20 were of goods shipped from or originating in China, including high-strength aluminium, ovens, steel bellows, batteries and other items that could be used in Iran’s “prohibited activities”, according to the report.联合国制裁伊朗委员会(UN Iran Sanctions Committee)的专家们在6月发布了一份报告,详细列出了近期在多个国家实施的30项禁令,这些禁令或者禁止将相关成品和原材料运往伊朗,或者涉及已知参与了非法核材料交易的个人。其中20项禁令涉及从中国发货或原产于中国的商品,包括高强度铝合金、干燥炉、不锈钢波纹管、电池及其他可能被用于伊朗“被禁止的活动”的物品。Most of these items are for sale on Alibaba.com, which functions as a global Yellow Pages for wholesale manufactures, and also listed on 1688.com, a Chinese version of the English site used for domestic business-to-business trade.这些物品大多在Alibaba.com和1688.com都有销售,Alibaba.com是批发制造品的全球黄页,1688.com则是该英文网站的中文版,专注于国内b2b交易。Alibaba is better known for its retail ecommerce websites Taobao and Tmall, but the business-to-business sites are also successful. In total Alibaba’s domestic platforms accounted for sales of almost 0bn in merchandise by Alibaba’s third-party sellers in the 12 months to June 30 – more than Amazon and Ebay combined. These huge sales numbers, which increased 63 per cent last year, explain why western investors are clamouring for the company’s shares.阿里巴巴旗下最有名的是电子商务零售网站淘宝(Taobao)和天猫(Tmall),不过其b2b网站也十分成功。在截至6月30日的12个月内,阿里巴巴第三方销售商通过阿里巴巴国内平台总共销售了价值近3000亿美元的商品,比亚马逊(Amazon)和Ebay的总和都多。这样巨大的销售额——较上年增长了63%——解释了西方投资者为何对阿里巴巴股票趋之若鹜。Analysts say Alibaba has done nothing illegal, noting that the availability of sensitive merchandise on its sites is similar to other third-party issues faced by internet companies, from pirated music on Google to drug precursors on eBay. The fact that dual-use items have legitimate applications makes policing difficult, especially when the problems appear to lie with lax regulatory enforcement by Chinese authorities.分析师表示,阿里巴巴的行为并无违法之处。他们指出,该公司网站上的敏感商品问题与其他互联网企业存在的第三方问题类似,比如谷歌(Google)的盗版音乐问题,以及eBay上的易制毒化学品问题。军民两用物品具有合法民用用途的事实,令这类物品的管控十分困难。而在中国,由于相关主管部门在强制执法方面缺乏力度,问题尤为突出。“Alibaba.com is an open, user-generated-content platform which strongly supports and abides by all international laws and rules related to non-proliferation” the company said in a statement. “Alibaba.com has robust product listing policies in place and will co-operate with law enforcement authorities worldwide to remove problematic product listings promptly upon receipt of notice.”阿里巴巴在一份声明中表示:“Alibaba.com是一个开放的、由用户生成内容的平台,该网站强烈持并遵守国际上一切有关核不扩散的法律法规”。“Alibaba.com拥有健全的产品上架制度,愿意与世界各地执法机关合作,一收到通知就会移除问题产品信息。”With its listing in the US last week, which raised bn, Alibaba became the second-largest web company in the world by market capitalisation, behind Google. This places it under US regulatory authority, which may mean it has to get tougher on a range of problems, from the availability of knock-off gifts or electronics to nuclear-sensitive materials.阿里巴巴近日在美国上市并融资250亿美元,按市值计算,其已成为全球第二大互联网企业,仅次于谷歌。上市后的阿里巴巴要接受美国监管机构的监督。这可能意味着阿里巴巴必须对其网站上存在的众多问题商品——从仿冒礼品、盗版电子产品到核敏感材料——采取更加严厉的处理办法。“Having this type of interaction possible online clearly does make proliferation easier,” says Matthew Godsey, a researcher at the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. “It makes it quicker for someone attempting to procure an item for a weapons programme to find someone able to supply it who either doesn’t know or doesn’t care what it will be used for.”威斯康星核武管制研究项目(Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control)研究员马修#8226;戈德西(Matthew Godsey)表示:“在网上能够进行这种互动显然让核扩散变得更为容易。通过网络,想为某个武器项目采购材料的人可以很便捷地找到能提供该物品的人,而后者不知道或者不关心买家采购该物品的用途。”Uncontrolled Chinese exports of carbon fibre gained attention after the revelation that a shipment of 7,600kg of Toray T700 carbon filament was seized by Singapore customs officials en route from China to Iran in December 2012. The seizure was revealed this summer in a UN report.今年夏季联合国发布的一份报告披露,2012年12月,一批总重7600公斤的东丽T700碳纤维在从中国运往伊朗的途中被新加坡海关截获。碳纤维在未受管制情况下从中国流出的问题由此引起了公众注意。The shipment contained carbon fibre in sufficient quantities to make centrifuges for a nuclear enrichment facility the size of Fordow , according to a study by Project Alpha .Project Alpha的研究表明,这批碳纤维的数量足够为一座像福尔多(Fordow)一样大的核浓缩设施制造所需的离心机。Toray said it was aiding the UN investigation and could not discuss the details of the case, and declined to name the Chinese counterparty. Toray said it is aware of the grey market in its products in China, some which are resold by the original importers with labels torn off. “When we see our product online we do our best to inform the merchant and they usually remove it,” said Toray. It never does repeat business with sellers caught violating end-user certificates.东丽表示正在协助联合国调查,详细案情无可奉告,并拒绝透露涉事中国企业名字。东丽表示了解自身产品在中国存在灰色市场,其中一些商品是原进口商撕掉商标后再进行转卖。东丽表示:“一旦在网上看到我们的产品,我们会尽全力设法知会商家,他们通常会将该商品下架。”对于被发现违反最终用户明规定的销售商,东丽将永远与其断绝商务往来。The FT contacted multiple sellers of proliferation-sensitive technologies in China found via Alibaba.com and 1688.com, and all said they were willing to sell without licences and end-user certificates normally demanded of such transactions. Many said they were not aware that their products were controlled or restricted for export, adding that China does not control their products or require export licences. China’s customs service declined to respond to written questions from the FTFT记者通过Alibaba.com和1688.com找到中国多个销售核扩散敏感材料的卖家,并与他们联络。这些卖家都表示,愿意在没有许可和最终用户明的情况下销售商品——正常来说这类交易是需要这些书的。许多商家表示,他们并不知道这些商品受到出口管制或限制。他们还表示中国并未对他们的商品进行管制,也未要求办理出口许可。中国海关没有答复FT记者以书面形式提出的问题。Three factories which advertised Toray T700 high-strength carbon fibre on 1688.com were contacted by an FT reporter posing as a buyer seeking 4,000kg of the controlled filament – over half the amount seized in Singapore. All said they were willing to sell domestically without documentation – a violation of end-user certificates. One also expressed willingness to help avoid export controls. “[Toray T700 carbon fibre] is harder to import than to export,” said the seller, reached by phone in Shandong province. “Japan imposes restrictions on exports, but when we export from China, it depends on what we report it as to the customs.” He said “there should be no problems” if the material is reported as textile fibre instead of carbon fibre.一名FT记者装做买家,想购买4000公斤东丽T700高强度碳纤维——这一购买量超过了新加坡截获量的一半——并与1688.com网站上推销这种受管制商品的三家厂商取得了联系。三家都表示愿意在没有相关文件的情况下在国内销售该产品——这其实违反了需办理最终用户明的规定。其中一家还表示愿意帮助买家规避出口管制。这位山东省的卖家在电话中表示:“(东丽T700碳纤维)进口比出口难。日本对这种产品有出口限制,而从中国出口时,就看我们怎么向海关申报了。”他说,只要把产品申报为纺织纤维而不是碳纤维,“就不会有问题”。Other Chinese factories manufacturing dual-use goods advertised on Alibaba.com said export controls were not an issue. Shanghai Cixi Instrument Company and Shanghai Changjin Metal Products Company, both of which make products controlled by the nuclear suppliers group regulations, said in interviews that there are no restrictions on the items’ exports by Chinese customs.其他在Alibaba.com网站上推销军民两用商品的中国厂商也表示,出口管制根本不成问题。上海瓷熙仪器仪表有限公司(Shanghai Cixi Instrument Company)和上海长进金属制品有限公司(Shanghai Changjin Metal Products Company)都在生产受到核供应国集团相关规定管制的产品,但他们在访谈中却都表示,中国海关并未对这些产品的出口实施限制。Alibaba is not the only site selling nuclear sensitive items. In May, King’s College researchers were able to buy a controlled MKS pressure transducer from a distributor in China using eBay.阿里巴巴并不是唯一销售核敏感物品的网站。今年5月,国王学院的研究人员就通过eBay从一家中国经销商购买了一部MKS压力传感器。Ian Stewart, one of the researchers, said the merchant did not request an end-user certificate, nor did the merchant have an export licence for the product. Pressure transducers can be used to control uranium centrifuge enrichment, and thousands are thought to have been procured illicitly by Iran’s nuclear programme since the early 2000s.其中的一名研究员伊恩#8226;斯图尔特(Ian Stewart)表示,商家并未要求提供最终用户明,而且商家也没有该产品的出口许可。压力传感器可用于控制铀离心浓缩,自本世纪初以来,伊朗核计划据信已非法采购了几千部压力传感器。Some factories that have been targeted by sanctions for procuring and producing nuclear-sensitive materials have listings on Alibaba. Machine Sazi Arak, a company that has been sanctioned by the EU, the US and other countries for its work at Iran’s Arak heavy water reactor, is listed as a supplier of boilers, heat exchangers and petrochemical equipment.某些因采购、生产核敏感材料而受到制裁的工厂也出现在阿里巴巴网站的卖家名录。曾因在伊朗阿拉克(Arak)重水反应堆的工作而受到欧盟(EU)、美国及其他国家制裁的Machine Sazi Arak公司也在该网站的供应商列表之中,显示为锅炉、热交换设备及石化设备供应商。“When it comes to Alibaba’s responsibility, I think this is a tricky one. It would be very hard for Alibaba to monitor all the interactions that take place on its site,” said Mr Godsey. “However, it would be reasonable to expect the company to block companies that have been sanctioned by the UN, the EU, or others for proliferation from using the site to conduct business and procure goods.”戈德西表示:“说到阿里巴巴的责任,我认为这是个很棘手的问题。阿里巴巴很难监控其网站上的所有交易。不过,对于那些因为核扩散活动受到联合国、欧盟或其他方面制裁的企业,阿里巴巴理应禁止它们利用其网站开展业务和采购商品。”Alibaba’s popularity as a place for sellers of sensitive technology to advertise has prompted tougher efforts to crack down on listings that fall afoul of the company’s guidelines prohibiting “weapons of mass destruction [WMD] or its known associated agents”. A series of advertisements for uranium and gallium, which is used in the production of plutonium warheads for nuclear bombs, was taken down or changed to emphasise non-nuclear applications this year. However, one seller of uranium was still advertising on 1688.com as of Thursday, but within limits. The Hao Thai Lingshou mineral processing plant said it was willing to sell only domestically – not for export.阿里巴巴网站规定,禁止销售“生化、化学、核武器、其他大规模杀伤性武器,及任何为其提供务、使用说明、咨询、生产、助剂以及违反国际法相关规定的信息”。敏感技术卖家喜欢在阿里巴巴网站推销产品,促使阿里巴巴采取更大力举措取缔违背其规定的商品信息。今年以来,一系列铀和镓(后者可用于生产核弹的钚弹头)的广告被撤下,或者被修改以突出非核用途。然而,在9月25日,一家销售铀的卖家仍然在1688.com网站上打广告,但限制了销售范围。这家名为灵寿县浩泰矿产品加工厂(Lingshou Hao Thai minerals processing plant)的企业表示,只接受国内订单,不对外出口。 /201410/333562

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