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广州做包皮手术大约多少钱广州结扎解通专业医院Science and technology科学技术The joys of parenthood身为人父的喜悦Fathers day父亲节Having children really does make a man more content with life有了自己的孩子的确会让男人更热爱自己的生活WILL fatherhood make me happy?当爸爸会让我开心么?That is a question many men have found themselves asking, and the scientific evidence is equivocal.这是一个许多男人都会问自己的问题,然而科学家们对此的措辞却含糊不清。A lot of studies have linked parenthood—particularly fatherhood.许多研究项目将双亲的身份—尤其是父亲,with lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher rates of depression than are found among non-parents.和低满足感与高压抑感联系起来,而且认为那些没有为人父母的人们则要逍遥许多。Biologically speaking, that looks odd.从生物学的角度来说,以上的观点其实很滑稽。Natural selection might be expected to favour the progeny of men who enjoy bringing them up.因为从自然选择的角度来说,大自然会更加青睐那些由开心的父亲抚养大的孩子。On the other hand, the countervailing pressure to have other children, by other women, may leave the man who is aly encumbered by a set of offspring dissatisfied.从另一个角度来看,男人天性受到一种相反的压力,希望和其他女性生育更多的孩子,这种压力可能会让受到现有子女负累的父亲感到不满。To investigate the matter further Sonja Lyubomirsky, a psychologist at the University of California, Riverside, decided both to study the existing literature, and to conduct some experiments of her own.一位来自加州大学的心理学家,索尼娅·柳米尔斯基,为了弄清这件事情,决定在研究现存文献的同时,也亲自组织一些实验。The results, just published in Psychological Science, suggest parenthood in general, and fatherhood in particular, really are blessings, even though the parent in question might sometimes feel they are in disguise.她研究的结果,《心理科学》上刚发表了不久。研究结果显示,总体上来说,为人父母,的确是会受到祝福的,即便那些受访的父母很多时候觉得可能自己在接受调查时伪装了些东西。Dr Lyubomirskys first port of call was the World Values Survey.首先,柳米尔斯基士从世界价值观大调查开始着手。This is a project which gathers huge amounts of data about the lives of people all around the planet.这是个浩大的工程,用来收集海量的居住在这个星球各个角落里的人的数据。For the purposes of her research, Dr Lyubomirsky looked at the answers 6,906 Americans had given, in four different years, to four particular questions.柳米尔斯基士从这些数据中调出了6,906份来自美国的数据,用以进行她的研究。这些数据从四个不同的年份里收集获得,涉及了四个方面不同的问题。These were: how many children the responder had;这四个方面是:受访者有多少子女;how satisfied he was with life;他对自己的生活有多大程度的满足感;how happy he was;他的快乐感多大;and how often he thought about the meaning and purpose of life.以及他多少次思考过生活的意义和目标。She found that, regardless of the year the survey was conducted, parents had higher happiness, satisfaction and meaning-of-life scores than non-parents.结果她发现,剔除调查的年份因素之后,为人父母的人群比非父母人群具有更高的快乐感和满足感,生活意义项的得分值也更高。The differences were not huge,这些数据的差别其实并不明显,but they were statistically significant.但是从统计学的角度来看,其意义却非常重大。Moreover, a closer look showed that the differences in happiness and satisfaction were the result of mens scores alone going up with parenthood.另外,仔细查看这些数据会发现,男子在当了父亲后,快乐感和满足感会出现细小的差别,分数会越来越高。Those of women did not change.但是女性则没有变化。Armed with this result, Dr Lyubomirsky conducted her own experiment.有了这个结果做撑,柳米尔斯基士开始着手弄自己的实验了。The problem with projects like the World Values Survey is that, 不过诸如世界价值观大调查此类的大工程的问题是,because participants are asked to recall their feelings rather than stating what they are experiencing in the here and now, this might lead them into thinking more fondly in hindsight about their parenting duties than they actually felt at the time.它在收集数据时,要求参与者是回忆自己的感受,而不是叙述他们当下的经历,所以这就容易导致他们去深情地,美化地思考他们为人父母的责任,而不是他们当时真实的感受。Dr Lyubomirsky therefore gave pagers to 329 North American volunteers aged between 18 and 94, having first recorded, among other things, their sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, marital status and number of children.为此,柳米尔斯基士给329名来自北美地区的志愿者发了调查问卷。这些志愿者从18岁到94岁不等。她第一手记录下他们的性别,年龄,种族,社会经济地位,婚姻状态以及子女的数量。She told them they would be paged at random, five times a day.她告诉他们受访者将会被随机排列,一天五次受访。When they were so paged, they were asked to complete a brief response sheet about how they felt, then and there.当受访者被随机排列好后,将会被要求完成一份简明的答卷,用来调查关于其当时的感受。She did not, however, tell them why she was asking these questions.当然,柳米尔斯基士并没有告诉受访者她为何问他们这些问题。The upshot was the same as her findings from the World Values Survey.结果,这次的结局和她在世界价值观大调查项目里得出的结论是一致的。Parents claimed more positive emotions and more meaning in their lives than non-parents, and a closer look revealed that it was fathers who most enjoyed these benefits.相比那些还没做父母的人,为人父母者在他们的人生中显示出了更加积极的情感和更多对他们人生意义的积极思考。Moreover, further analysis revealed that this enhanced enjoyment came from activities which involved children rather than those that did not.同时,通过更加仔细的观察,显示出父亲在上述方面更加典型。另外,更进一步的分析表明了上述的那种积极和欢乐来自于有关孩子的活动。生活中不涉及孩子的日常活动则没有这种效果。It looks, then, as if evolution has bolted into men a psychological mechanism to keep them in the family.所以说,由此可见,似乎自然进化让男人们产生了一种心理学机制,把他们闩在了家庭里。At first sight, it is strange that women do not share this mechanism, but perhaps they do not need to.乍一看,似乎女性没有这种机制很奇怪,但是仔细想想,她们也许根本就不需要这种机制。They know, after all, that the children are theirs, whereas the best a man can do is hope that is true.她们至少知道,自己的孩子一定是自己生的。That, and a mans potential to father an indefinite number of offspring if he can find willing volunteers, might encourage him to stray from the bosom of his family.但是孩子是不是男人自己的血脉,他们只能祈求上天了。所以说,一个男人想做一大堆子子孙孙的父亲的潜在本能,会激励他挣扎着走出家庭的怀抱。Enjoying fatherhood, by contrast, will help keep him in the porch.但是,相反的,身为人父的喜悦,则会让他们在家里的门廊前停住脚步。 /201307/247868天河长安输卵管恢复手术 His voice and his expressions and his charisma start taking these songs over. 他的嗓音,他的表达及魅力开始在这些歌曲中展现。Like, if Smokey felt like he did his song and more people like the way Michael did it than him, thats because he did that with all of his songs at that time. 就像如果斯莫奇感觉他的歌,而且更多的人喜欢迈克尔胜于自己,那是因为他当时用心于他的所有歌曲。No matter who it was, the OJays, the Dells, the Whispers or the Beatles, we wanted to be the best. 不管那是谁,欧杰斯,戴尔斯,耳语者们或者是披头士,我们想成为最好的。And thats what we were striving for. 这就是我们所追求的。Berry Gordy did not like the stuff that Bobby Taylor was recording on them. 贝瑞·戈迪不喜欢鲍比·泰勒为他们所录音的东西。I wanted to do the boys a certain way, but he wanted me to do them his way. 我想按照某种方式去做,但是他想让我照他的方式。And I says,I cant do them the way you want me to do them. 之后我说,我不会做按照你对他们要求的那样去效仿他们。I must have my own head. 我必须靠自己出人头地。So he says, ;Okay, Were going back to Detroit.; Then he took over. 所以他说,“好吧,我们先回底特律。”然后他接手。Berry Gordy, in turn, put his crew together. 贝瑞·戈迪将他们的成员整合到一起。The Corporation was established to bring fresh new material to the Jackson . Youthful material. 公司成立将新鲜血液带给杰克逊。年轻的血液。I think he probably felt that Bobby Taylor would give them more adult material and forget that they were children. 我想他可能觉得鲍比·泰勒将会给他们更多的成人元素并忘记他们是孩子。201309/255561广州天河长安医院看妇科怎么样好不好

天河区长安医院输精管复通怎么样好不好广州白云哪家医院冶子宫肌瘤好 The world heritage site,its enormous seagrass beds carpet the shallows, creating one of the richest marine environments on earth.一个世界遗产地大量的海草丛覆盖了潜水湾创造出地球上最富饶的海洋环境之一。Several hundred families of bottlenose dolphins live here, and one of the largest is called the Beachies.数以百计的宽吻海豚家族生活在这里其中最大族群之一,被称为毕彻斯。Puck began her family 15 years ago.帕克15年前有了自己的家庭。Heavily pregnant, shes about to give birth to her eighth calf.怀后,它将产下自己的第8个幼崽。With Puck today are two of her daughters,two granddaughters and her only son India.今天和帕克在一起的,是它的两个女儿,两个孙女还有它唯一的儿子印地亚。A five years old.它才只有5岁。Hes still a bit of a mummys boy and never far from her side.它仍然是离不开妈妈的孩子。一直跟在妈妈左右。Janet Mann has been following the lives of the Bays dolphins for 23 years.珍妮特曼恩已经关注海湾的海豚生活23年了。;We have the entire Puck family.整个家族都在这里。Puck is the one with all the speckles.帕克是那只有斑点的。In fact, shes due any day now.实际上,它这几天就会生了。Shes enormous.;它身型庞大。Puck was the first dolphin that Janet got to know when she started her study.帕克是珍妮特在开始研究时结识的第一只海豚。Hey ,Puck. Shes really quite extraordinary. She was just a yound animal back then.嗨,帕克,它很特别,过去只是只幼豚。We know every calf shes had, every trial and tribulation shes endured. Oh, youre wide.我们认识它的每个幼崽,它所承受的每个考验和磨难。哦,你已经这么大了。So much of what we understand about dolphin mothers and their calves comes from Janets study.我们对海豚母亲和它幼崽们的了解多是来自珍妮特的研究。Now 33 years old, Puck is an old hand that being a mum.现在33岁的帕克有着做母亲的丰富经验。At the end of her year-long pregnancy,this would be her eighth and probably her last calf.一年的怀期即将结束,这将是它的第8个幼崽。201403/282574广州新塘医院医生在线咨询

广州哪间医院看不育最好But there is a problem with the idea that hunting caused the mass extinction. Mammoths were not the only animals to disappear. 但是狩猎带来的一个问题是大量物种的灭绝,猛犸象并不是唯一的消失的动物。Camels survived for millions of years in North America, but disappeared around the same time as the mammoths. Wild horses first evolved here and became dominant grazers. Yet they, too, vanished soon after the Ice Age ended. But there’s little evidence to suggest that humans hunted horses or camels. This seems to go against the hunting argument. 骆驼在北美洲生存了上百万年,但是也和猛犸象大约同一个时间消失了,野马首先在这里代代繁衍,并主宰了这里的草地,然而不久他们也随着冰河时代结束而灭绝了,但是几乎没有据可以表明人们狩猎过马匹和骆驼,这似乎与狩猎规则不符。So what else would have triggered such large-scale extinctions? 那么还有其他的因素可以触发这种大规模的灭绝吗?The other major possibility is climate change. The end of the Ice Age was a turbulent, erratic period. In some areas, rain patterns were shifting, bringing moisture back to dry landscapes and turning grassland into forest.另一种主要的可能性是气候的变化,冰河时代末期是个动荡流离的时期,在一些地区,降雨发生了改变,很多干燥的地区变得湿润,草地变成了森林。Other regions of the continent were plunged into prolonged periods of draught. For grazers such as horses, this led to a massive change in habitat, one they were not flexible enough to overcome. 北美大陆的其他地区仍然陷于长期的干旱,像野马这样的食草动物,它们的栖息地发生了大规模改变,而他们并没有足够的能力来适应这些改变。As the land dried out, many grass eaters disappeared. We may never know for certain what killed off most of the larger animals at the end of the Ice Age. We do know that there was a time of coincidence—people were arriving just as the climate was in a state of change. Both may have played their part. Whichever was responsible, more than 70 species vanished for good, but some large animals did survive and still live here today.随着陆地的干旱,大量食草动物灭绝,冰河时代末期为什么大多数大型动物灭绝,这对于我们来说,可能永远是个不解之谜。但我们可以肯定的是一个时间巧合,人类达到大陆的时候也正是气候改变的时候。两者可能都起了一定的作用。不管到底谁是动物灭亡的罪魁祸首,70多个物种都永远地灭绝了,但是如今仍有一些大型动物存活至今。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/263480 天河做微创无痛人流价格广州白云怀孕做b超需要多少钱



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