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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月26日 04:00:24
SPOKANE, Wash. When she moved into her uncles basement in the largely white town of Coeur dAlene, Idaho, in 2004, Rachel A. Dolezal was still blond and pale-skinned and identified herself as a white woman one who had left a black husband and had a biracial child.华盛顿州斯波坎市—004年,蕾切尔·A·多尔扎尔(Rachel A. Dolezal)搬进爱达荷州科达伦镇的叔叔家,住在他的地下室里。科达伦镇的居民大部分都是白人,当时的蕾切尔还是白肤金发。她也自称是个白人,和黑人丈夫离了婚,带着一个混血孩子来到这里。But within a few years, her aly deep commitment to black causes and culture intensified. Co-workers and relatives began hearing talk that her background was mixed-race and even that she had called herself black.但在短短几年中,她之前就对黑人的理想与文化产生的强烈认同又有所深化。同事和亲戚开始听到她说,自己来自混血背景,甚至就是黑人。Many of them questioned the way she described herself, while others accepted it at face value. No one seems to have made an issue of it, but most people saw in her a force of personality that made her a strong and passionate advocate at the Human Rights Education Institute in Coeur dAlene, where she began working soon afterward.不少人曾对她形容自己的方式提出质疑,其他人则简单接受了这一点。但似乎没人把它当成一件大事,他们大多都在她身上感受到一种人格力量,这种力量使她成了科达伦人权教育协Human Rights Education Institute)里一名坚定而富有的倡导者。她在改变身份后没多久就开始在这里工作。“Its really impressive what she accomplished, bringing a lot of energy to these places,her uncle, Daniel A. Dolezal, recalled in a telephone interview on Tuesday, speaking of the human rights group as well as the NAACP chapter in Spokane, which she later rose to lead. He recalled her journey from being a down-on-her-luck single mother who took part-time teaching jobs, tried to sell her artwork, and worked in the camera store he owns in Coeur dAlene, in a part of the Idaho panhandle that was once the headquarters of Aryan Nations, the white supremacist group.“她的成就令人赞叹,给这些地方带来很多活力,”她的叔叔丹尼尔·A·多尔扎尔(Daniel A. Dolezal)在周二进行的电话采访中回忆到,他说到了上述人权机构和全国有色人种协进NAACP)在斯波坎市的分,多尔扎尔最终成了后者的负责人。他回忆了她一路走来的旅程,最初是一个不走运的单身母亲,兼职做着教师工作,后来试着出售自己创作的艺术品,并在他开在科达伦镇上的照相机商店里打工。当地属于爱达荷州走廊的一部分,一度曾是白人至上主义组织雅利安民族(Aryan Nations)的总部所在地。So when Dolezal (pronounced DOLE-uh-zhal) went on national televisionon Tuesdayfor the first time since she became the subject of a raging debate about racial identity and fabrication, it was no surprise that while she cannot claim a hint of black ancestry, she refused to concede that she had misled anyone. “I identify as black,she said with a smile.自多尔扎尔成为一场有关种族认同和身份造假的热烈争论的对象以来,她在周二首次出现在全国性的电视节目上。一点也不令人诧异的是,尽管无法明自己有丝毫的黑人血统,她还是拒绝让步和承认自己之前误导了任何人。“我觉得自己是黑人,”她微笑着说。She would not backpedal, and “I guarantee you she never will,said her uncle, who took her in more than a decade ago as her marriage crumbled. “Thats part of her persona, never backing down always forward, totally sure of herself.”她不会改变这种说法,而且“我向你保她永远也不会,”十多年前在她婚姻破裂时收留了她的叔叔说。“这就是她,永远不会后退,永远向前,百分百自信。”On Tuesday, Matt Lauer ofNs “Todayshowasked her, “When did you start deceiving people?But Dolezal, who stepped downon Mondayas president of the Spokane NAACP chapter, pushed back.本周二,N电视台的马特·劳尔(Matt Lauer)在他主持的《今日Today)节目中问她,“你是从什么时候开始骗人的?”周一刚刚卸任NAACP斯波坎市分负责人一职的她就此做出了强烈回应。“I do take exception to that because its a little more complex than me identifying as black, or answering a question of, `Are you black or white? she said. Over the course of the day, she also described herself as “transracialand said: “Well, I definitely am not white.Nothing about being white describes who I am.”“我反对你这种说法,因为这可比称自己是黑人或回答‘你是黑人还是白人’的问题复杂一些,”多尔扎尔说。在这一天当中,她还称自己“跨种族”,她说:“好吧,我绝对不是白人。有关白人的描绘完全不适用于我。”Her story has set off a national debate about the very meaning of racial identity, with some people applauding her message and goals and others deploring her methods and actions. It was one thing for Dolezal to identify with, appreciate and even partake in black culture, some critics said, but it was another thing for her to try to become black, going so far as to change her physical appearance.她的故事在全美国引发了有关种族身份的争论,一些人赞同她所传达的信息和目标,其他人则谴责她的方式和行为。一些批评人士称,对于多尔扎尔来说,认同、欣赏甚至分享黑人文化是一件事,但试图成为黑人是另一件事,她甚至改变了自己的外貌。“It taps into all of these issues around blackface and wearing blackness and that whole cultural legacy, which makes it that much more vile,said Baz Dreisinger, an English professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, author of the book “Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture.”约翰·杰刑事司法学院(John Jay College of Criminal Justice)英语教授、《近似黑人:美国文化中白人冒充黑人的现象Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture)作者巴兹·德莱辛Baz Dreisinger)表示,“这涉及有关扮演黑人、呈现黑人特征及整个文化遗产的所有问题,这让这种行为显得更加低下。”Some people who have known Dolezal only as a black woman said they felt hurt and misled, saying she could have been an equally effective leader at the NAACP without the disguise.一些只知道多尔扎尔黑人身份的人说,他们感觉受到伤害和误导,并且表示即便没有伪装,她也可以成为同样有力的NAACP领导者。“The issue for me has been the deception, the lie, portraying herself as someone she isnt,said Dorothy Webster, a longtime member of the Spokane NAACP and former deputy manager for the city of Spokane. “I cannot rationalize it.”“对于我来说,问题在于欺骗、撒谎,把自己描绘成另外一个人,”NAACP斯波坎市分会的资深成员、该市的前副城市经理多萝西·韦伯斯Dorothy Webster)说。“我无法理解。”Although her advocacy work has admirers, serious questions have been raised about Dolezals credibility and not just about her race. Her public statements about her family and upbringing have been challenged by relatives, including her parents, creating the odd spectacle of dueling interviews, with her making claims on one network, and them denying them on another. Over the years she has reported numerous complaints with the police of racially motivated harassment and intimidation, though the police have said that none have so far proved credible enough for charges to be brought.虽然她的倡导工作得到钦佩,但除了种族问题,多尔扎尔的信誉也不断饱受质疑。她发表的有关其家庭及成长过程的公开声明遭到了包括父母在内的亲属的回击,以至于出现了双方通过采访隔空斗嘴的奇怪景象:她在一家电视网发表声明,她的家人则在另一家电视网予以否认。多年来,她曾多次向警方举报出于种族动机的骚扰及恐吓行为,但警方表示,到目前为止,没有足够的可信据使其可以提出指控。She is estranged from her parents, Ruthanne and Lawrence Dolezal, and in Spokane, she has represented a friend, an older African-American man, as her father. When Rachel Dolezal was a teenager, her parents adopted four black children, one of whom now lives with Dolezal and her natural son, whom she had with her former husband, Kevin D. Moore, who is black.她与父母露丝安娜·多尔扎尔(Ruthanne Dolezal)、劳伦斯·多尔扎尔(Lawrence Dolezal)已断绝来往。在斯坡坎,她一直声称一名年长的非裔友人是自己的父亲。蕾切尔·多尔扎尔的父母在她十几岁的时候,收养了四名黑人儿童,其中一人现在与多尔扎尔及她的亲生儿子住在一起。这个亲生孩子的父亲是她的黑人前夫凯文·D·莫尔(Kevin D. Moore)。She is also estranged from her biological brother, Joshua, who is facing charges in Colorado that, when he was 19 years old, he sexually molested one of his adopted brothers, who was 6 or 7 at the time, in the parents home, which was then in Clear Creek County, Colorado. Ruthanne Dolezal told People magazine that the molestation charges are not true and were initiated by Rachel.她同亲生哥哥乔舒Joshua)也形同陌路。目前乔舒亚在科罗拉多州面临数项指控,称其在19岁的时候对父母收养的当时只有六七岁的一个弟弟进行了性骚扰。那时他们还住在科罗拉多州克利尔克里克县的父母家中。露丝安娜·多尔扎尔向《人物》杂People)透露,这些猥亵指控并不属实,而且是由蕾切尔提出的。Dolezals path to this curious point has been unorthodox, beginning with her childhood in a remote corner of northwestern Montana, in and around the little town of Troy. Earlier this year, she told a news organization at Eastern Washington University, where she taught, that she had been born in a teepee, that her mother and stepfather had beaten her and her siblings, that “they would punish us by skin complexion,and that they lived for a time in South Africa.多尔扎尔来到今天这个尴尬境地是经历了一段不同寻常的过往。她小时候住在蒙大拿州西北部偏远地区的小镇特洛伊附近。今年早些时候,她在自己当时任教的东华盛顿大Eastern Washington University)向一家新闻机构表示,自己出生在一顶印第安人的帐篷里,并曾和家人在南非生活过一段时间。蕾切尔称,生母和继父曾痛打他们几个兄弟,“他们会因为我们的肤色而惩罚我们。”Family members say none of this is true. All agree that she has no stepfather, that this was one of several attempts she has made to deny the existence of her real father, Lawrence. Her parents moved to South Africa after Rachel was grown and out of the house.不过,多名家庭成员表示蕾切尔所说的这些话没有一句是真的。他们一致表示她并没有继父,而这不过是她为了否认生父劳伦斯的存在而采取的几项动作之一。再者,蕾切尔长大离家后,她的父母才去了南非。As for the abuse allegations, “thats just false,her father said in an interview on Friday. “Thats the most hurtful.”至于虐待指控,她的父亲在周五接受采访时表示,“完全是假的。那才是最伤人的。”Dolezal said Tuesday on “Todaythat at age 5, “I was drawing self-portraits with the brown crayon instead of the peach crayon, and the black curly hair, you know.Her parents, appearing later on Fox News, denied that.多尔扎尔周二在《今日》节目中说道,“你知道吗,5岁的时候,我画自画像用的就是棕色的笔而不是桃色的笔,头发画的是黑色卷发。”之后,其父母在Fox新闻台对此予以否认。Daniel Dolezal said Tuesday that her recollection of her 5-year-old self did not ring true. “She probably wouldnt have known any black peoplethen, he said. (Efforts by The Times to reach Rachel Dolezal, Ruthanne and Lawrence Dolezal, and Joshua Dolezal on Tuesday were not successful.)丹尼尔·多尔扎尔在周二表示,蕾切尔对自岁时的自画像的回忆并不真实。“她那个时候可能还不认识任何一个黑人,”他说。(时报在周二曾尝试联系蕾切尔·多尔扎尔、露丝安娜和劳伦斯·多尔扎尔夫妇,以及乔舒亚·多尔扎尔,不过均未成功。)Rachel was home-schooled for at least part of the time she was in high school, her uncle said. And when she was between the ages of 15 and 17, her parents adopted four black infants.蕾切尔的叔叔透露,上高中的时候,她至少有一部分时间在家自学。在57岁期间,父母收养了四个黑人婴儿。“She immediately was drawn to them,her father said. “Ever since then shes had a tremendous affinity with African-Americans.”“她立刻就被这些孩子吸引了,”蕾切尔的父亲说。“从此以后,她就同非裔美国人无比地亲近。”In the “Todayinterview one Tuesday and one that followed on a sister network, MSN, Dolezal, remarkably composed despite harsh criticism aimed at her, stuck to her insistence that racial heredity does not equal identity, and she would not answer questions about whether she had changed her self-identification to merely gain advantage.尽管面对着严厉的批评声,多尔扎尔周二在接受《今日》节目及N姊台MSN的采访时展现出了惊人的镇定,仍然坚持认为族裔遗传并不等同于种族认同。对于有关她是否只是为了获得好处而改变自我认同的问题,她均不予回答。Lauer asked if she could have been as successful an activist if she had portrayed herself as white.劳尔还问道,如果她一直把自己描述成白人的话,能否成为同样成功的活动人士?“I dont know,Dolezal said. “I guess I havent had the opportunity to experience that in those shoes, so Im not sure.”“我不知道,”多尔扎尔回答。“我想我没有机会以那样的身份去体验,所以我不确定。”来 /201506/382008HONG KONG After more than a decade of fighting in Iraq, the names of the American-made drones striking targets there have become familiar: Predator, Reaper, Sentinel.香港——在伊拉克作战十年之后,打击各种目标的美制无人驾驶飞机的名号变得耳熟能详:“捕食者Predator)、“死神Reaper)、“哨兵Sentinel)。But this month, a new model entered the fray: the Chinese-made Caihong-4.但在本月,一个新的型号加入竞争:中国制造的“”。According to footage released by the Iraqi armed forces, soldiers used the Chinese drone on Dec. 6 to destroy an ISIS position amid efforts to retake the city of Ramadi. A spokesperson for the Ministry of Defense confirmed the was real.根据伊拉克武装部队发布的视频,在12日,尝试夺回拉马迪市的过程中,士兵利用这种中国无人机摧毁了一个ISIS据点。国防部发言人实,视频是真实的。The lethal strike represents a major step forward in China’s drive to become a leading exporter of military equipment, experts say. Iraq is the only known user of the drone, also known as the CH-4, which closely resembles the General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper.专家说,这次致命攻击代表中国朝着军事设备主要出口国的地位迈进了一大步。目前,伊拉克是这种无人机在实战中的唯一已知使用者。它也被称作CH-4,与通用原子公司(General Atomics)的MQ-9死神非常相似。Its first use in combat may be a selling point for potential buyers.对潜在买家来说,它在战争中的首次使用可能是个卖点。“This is the first time I’ve heard of a Chinese drone, such as the CH-4 (which is basically a clone of the Reaper), reporting an actual kill, and I suppose it would be cliché to say that it won’t be the last,Richard A. Bitzinger, a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, wrote in an email on Wednesday.新加坡南洋理工大Nanyang Technological University) 拉惹勒南国际研究学院(S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies)高级研究员理查德·A·毕辛Richard A. Bitzinger)周三在一封电邮里写道,“这是我头次听说CH-4(它基本上克隆了死神)等中国无人机传出击毙敌人的消息。我想,一种老套的说法是,这不会是最后一次传出类似消息。”Mr. Bitzinger estimated that Iraq’s armed forces had to buy six to 12 Chinese drones to conduct operations efficiently.毕辛格估计,伊拉克武装部队要买入六至十二架中国制无人机才能展开有效行动。“When the Iraqi MoD officially unveiled them in October, two ground control stations could be seen,Jeremy Binnie, Middle East/Africa editor at IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly, wrote in an email, referring to the Ministry of Defense. “Given a typical setup of two aircraft per control station, Iraq probably has at least four.”“伊拉克国防部十月份把它们公开亮相时,我们可以看到两个地面控制站,”《简氏防务周刊IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly)中东/非洲编辑杰里米·宾Jeremy Binnie)在一封电邮里写道。“鉴于每个控制站通常会操控两架飞机,伊拉克很可能至少有四架。”China also uses the CH-4. Its predecessor, the CH-3, has been sold to both Nigeria and Pakistan, he said.中国也在使用CH-4。他说,CH-4的前身CH-3已经销往尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。Last year, China became the world’s third-largest arms exporter, behind the ed States and Russia, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a think tank in Sweden. China’s defense companies have been working hard to export higher-end systems like drones, air defense systems and even stealth fighters but with few successes so far.据瑞典智库斯德哥尔国际和平研究所(Stockholm International Peace Research Institute)透露,去年,中国成为继美国和俄罗斯之后的世界第三大军火出口国。中国的军工企业一直努力出口高端系统——比如无人机、防空系统,甚至隐形战斗机,但迄今为止,收获甚少。The CH-4, whose name translates as “Rainbow,is manufactured by the Beijing-based China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, a state-owned enterprise group. The drone “represents China’s research and production of drones march toward the world,according to a news article from 2014 on the conglomerate’s website.虹-4无人机的生产商是位于北京的国企中国航天科技集团公司。该集团网站2014年的一篇新闻报道称,这款无人机“代表了中国研制的无人机正在走向世界。”Calls and a fax sent to C.A.S.C. went unanswered.中国航天科技集团没有回复寻求置评的电话和传真。The drone was first seen at an airshow in Beijing in 2013, according to China News Service. In March 2015, a state-run news agency said such drones had been handed to the Iraqi Air Force, citing Russian news reports. In October, Iraq’s defense minister inspected a Caihong drone at an air base in the city of Kut, according to a shared by his ministry.据中国新闻社报道,这款无人机013年在北京航展首次亮相015月,一家官方新闻机构援引俄罗斯的新闻报道称,中国已经向伊拉克空军交付此型号的无人机。伊拉克国防部公布的视频显示,该国国防部长今0月在伊拉克库特空军基地时曾查看一架虹无人机。The CH-4 can strike from an altitude of about 16,000 feet and fly at up to 112 miles per hour, according to an article in China Space News, a publication run by C.A.S.C.据中国航天科技集团旗下的《中国航天报》报道,该无人机巡航高度000米至7000米,巡航时速为150公里80公里。“What is clear is that the price of one Caihong-4 drone is much lower than the price of an advanced battle tank on the international arms market,said the article, published in March.该报今年3月发表的文章称,“可以肯定的是,一架4无人机售价会远远低于国际军贸市场上一辆先进主战坦克的价格。”The loss of a drone is “affordable even when military budgets are tight or in small countries,it noted.该文章指出,“即使是军费不甚宽裕的中、小国家也完全损失得起。”Chinese-built drones and aircraft are generally built to compete on price, experts say. Technological limitations mean the finished products do not often perform at the same level as their Western counterparts, but they are cheaper and have far fewer restrictions on who can buy them.专家们表示,中国制造的无人机及飞机通常是以价格取胜。技术限制意味着,其成品的性能通常不如西方同行的产品,但它们价格比较低,而且针对购买者的限制要少得多。“China is known to have difficulties in developing aero engine technology, and this is also true for UAV engines. As a result, Chinese UAVs are generally less capable in terms of performance,Kelvin Wong, an Asia Pacific defense technology reporter with IHS, wrote in an email, referring to unmanned aerial vehicles.《简氏防务周刊》亚太国防技术记者凯尔文·Kelvin Wong)在邮件中写道,“众所周知,中国在研发航空发动机技术方面遇到了困难,无人机发动机的情况也是一样。因此,中国的无人机在性能上通常差一些。”As resources are scarce for Iraq’s armed forces, Chinese drones offer a fast alternative to allied air strikes, according to Jeffrey Lin and Peter W. Singer, who have traced reports of Chinese drone deployments in Iraq, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia.据追踪有关伊拉克、尼日利亚及沙特阿拉伯使用中国无人机情况的报道的杰弗釷林(Jeffrey Lin)和彼得·W·辛格(Peter W. Singer)透露,由于伊拉克武装部队资源匮乏,中国无人机不失为联合空袭行动的一个快速生效的替代选择。“The long loiter time and precision weaponry of armed drones give small Iraqi units flexible and rapid response fire support to exploit sudden battlefield conditions,they wrote in a blog post on on Tuesday.他们在周二发布的文中写道,“武装无人机航行时间较长,携带精确武器,这为小规模的伊拉克部队提供了灵活、快速的火力援,以对突如其来的战情加以利用。”Apart from the lower price of Chinese drones, restrictions imposed by the ed States on the export of armed unmanned systems open a potentially lucrative market for Chinese manufacturers, Timothy R. Heath, a senior international defense research analyst with the RAND Corporation, wrote in an email.兰德公司(RAND Corporation)高级国际防御研究分析师蒂莫西·R·西斯(Timothy R. Heath)在邮件中写道,除了中国无人机价格较低这个因素之外,美国对无人系统的出口限制也为中国生产商打开了一个可能带来巨大回报的市场。“Considering the number of countries that have acquired or expressed interest in Chinese drones, the recent incident in Iraq in which a government uses Chinese armed drones to strike domestic insurgents may become more commonplace around the world,he wrote.他说,“伊拉克政府最近利用中国武装无人机攻击国内叛乱分子,鉴于有很多国家已经拿到中国无人机或对此表示兴趣,这种情况可能在世界范围内变得比较普遍。”Indeed, dozens of countries now manufacture reconnaissance drones, Mr. Bitzinger noted. And their use is all but expected on the modern battlefield.毕辛格指出,实际上现在有几十个国家在生产无人驾驶侦察机。因此它们会在现代战场上亮相也在意料之中。“Now it appears that armed drones (Chinese, European, Iranian, Russian) are the next phase in this proliferation,he wrote.他写道,“在接下来的一个阶段里,似乎会出现(来自中囀?欧洲、伊朗及俄罗斯的)武装无人机的扩散。”来 /201512/417482

  Bondo Dorovskikh is y. “Since childhood I have been dreaming about going to war, but things never really worked out,says the Russian businessman. “Now, in Syria, we are needed.”邦多多罗夫斯基Bondo Dorovskikh)已经准备好了。“我从小的梦想就是当兵打仗,但从未真正实现过。”这位俄罗斯商人说,“如今,在叙利亚,我们有用武之地了。”Last year, Mr Dorovskikh went to eastern Ukraine to fight as a volunteer alongside pro-Russian separatists in the self-declared Lugansk People’s Republic, but he returned in December. “They had told us that we were coming to the rescue of the Russian population, to fight the fascists, but it wasn’t like they told it on TV,he says. “The enemy there was not real, and the local population didn’t support us.”去年,多罗夫斯基赫曾前往乌克兰东部,作为一名志愿者战士在自封的“卢甘斯克人民共和国Lugansk People’s Republic)与亲俄罗斯的分裂分子并肩作战,但2月他返回了俄罗斯。“他们曾告诉我们,我们是来拯救俄罗斯人、抗击法西斯分子的,但现实并不像他们在电视中所讲述的那样。”他说,“那里没有真正的敌人,当地人也不持我们。”On his return to Moscow, the 41-year-old found what he thinks is a worthier cause: fighting the Islamist radicals of Isis. Since April, he has been liaising with former Donbass fighters and other Russian men keen to volunteer, and searching for ways to join the Syrian war through international volunteer units fighting alongside Kurdish formations.回到莫斯科后1岁的多罗夫斯基赫找到了一项他认为更有价值的事业:抗击“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)的伊斯兰激进分子。自今年4月以来,他一直在联络曾在乌克兰顿巴斯呆过的战友以及其他渴望志愿参战的俄罗斯人,并试图通过与库尔德武装并肩作战的国际志愿兵组织设法加入叙利亚战争。Igor Girkin, the Russian former commander of separatist fighters in Donbass, claimed last week some Russians had aly gone to Syria straight from eastern Ukraine. And Ramzan Kadyrov, head of the Chechen Republic, has repeatedly declared his iness to send Chechen fighters to Syria as well.曾担任顿巴斯分裂武装指挥官的俄罗斯人伊戈尔吉尔金(Igor Girkin)最近称,一些俄罗斯人已从乌克兰东部直接奔赴了叙利亚。车臣共和国领导人拉姆赞愠德罗夫(Ramzan Kadyrov)也一再宣称自己已准备好将车臣武装人员派往叙利亚。In the Ukraine conflict, volunteer fighters have been a central part of Russia’s now-notorious hybrid war. Incited by a propaganda campaign which spoke of the need to protect fellow Russians from “fascists they poured into Donbass by the thousands, thus helping obscure the activity of special forces, regular troops without insignia and Chechen units who played a leading role in inciting and organising the war.在乌克兰冲突中,志愿者战士一直是现已臭名昭著的俄罗斯混合战争(hybrid war)的中心部分。在声称需要保护俄罗斯同胞免遭“法西斯分子”迫害的宣传攻势的煽动下,成千上万的志愿者战士涌入了顿巴斯,他们的存在帮助掩盖那些在煽动、组织这场战争中发挥了主导作用的未戴徽章的特种部队、正规部队以及车臣部队的活动。Therefore, talk about Russian volunteers heading to Syria rings alarm bells among those who believe Moscow might broaden its intervention from the air strikes it started on September 30 to a covert ground operation. But the Syrian war is very different, and volunteers are extremely unlikely to play a key role.因此,有俄罗斯志愿者战士在奔赴叙利亚的传闻在一部人中间敲响了警钟,他们认为莫斯科可能会将对叙利亚的干预0日开始的空袭扩大到进行秘密地面行动。但叙利亚战争与乌克兰危机迥然不同,志愿者战士极为不可能发挥关键作用。Most importantly, the personal and emotional ties many Russians have with Ukraine are absent in the Syrian conflict. “In Ukraine, it appeared logical to many that ethnic Russians needed support because so many people in our country have friends or family there, and the propaganda line that it was a fight against ‘fascistswas in line with beliefs about Ukrainian nationalists that are widesp in Russia,says Lev Gudkov, head of Levada Center, the independent pollster. “But nothing like that exists with Syria.”最重要的是,许多俄罗斯人对叙利亚冲突没有他们对乌克兰的那种私人与情感纽带。“我们国家有那么多人在乌克兰有朋友或亲戚,并且打击“法西斯分子”的宣传口号也与俄罗斯人关于乌克兰民族主义者的普遍看法相符,因此就乌克兰而言,那里的俄罗斯族裔需要持的说法在很多人看来合乎逻辑。”独立民调机构列瓦达中心(Levada Center)负责人列夫古德科Lev Gudkov)说,“但在叙利亚,不存在这层关系。”There are, of course, war aficionados like Mr Dorovskikh. Born in Tadjikistan with one Russian and one Georgian parent, into a family of soldiers and Afghanistan war veterans, he says his relatives declared him crazy when he went to eastern Ukraine. “In Donbass, there were about 40,000 of us; to Syria you could probably get a brigade, up to 1,500 fighters, if it’s well-organised,he says. But even those men face huge financial and logistical hurdles.当然,还有像多罗夫斯基赫这样的好战分子。罗夫斯基赫出生在塔吉克斯坦,父母分别是俄罗斯人和格鲁吉亚人,家族中有不少军人和参加过阿富汗战争的老兵。他说,当他去了乌克兰东部时,亲戚们都说他疯了。“在顿巴斯,大约万名像我这样的志愿军战士;到了叙利亚,如果组织得力的话,或许可以组建一个旅,最多可500名战士,”他说。但即使这些人也面临着巨大的财务和后勤困难。Travel costs from Russia to Syria alone are about Rbs30,000 (5), and fightersliving expenses are about 0 a month. In Ukraine, many of these costs were met by donations; this seems unlikely to be replicated for Syria.光是从俄罗斯到叙利亚的路费就要约3万卢布(85美元),还有每名战士每月00美元的生活费。在乌克兰,这些开销大部分由捐款负担,但在叙利亚,这种方式似乎不大可能行得通。It is also unclear if their presence would be welcomed, either by fighters or by the government. Three other men active in Russian online groups focusing on the Syrian war told the FT they had been trying for months to join that war.还不清楚他们的到来是否会受到反对派武装分子或是叙利亚政府的欢迎。关注叙利亚战争的俄罗斯网络组织的另名活跃人士向英国《金融时报》表示,他们已经尝试加入这场战争数月而未果。“I wrote to the Syrian embassy but didn’t even get an answer,says one.“我曾致信叙利亚大使馆,但连回信都没收到,”其中一人说。One group of volunteer hopefuls even sent a letter to the Russian defence ministry asking for help. The letter included a proposal to fly them to Syria in military transport aircraft, and an offer to pay for the lift with money from donations. They too received no response.一个由希望成为志愿者战士的人组成的组织甚至致函俄罗斯国防部寻求帮助。信中提议使用军用运输机把他们空运至叙利亚,并提出用捐款资金付旅费。他们也未收到回应。“Fighting with the Kurds is [now] the only option,says Mr Dorovskikh. He says he contacted the Peshmerga International Detachment (IDET), a combat unit staffed by foreigners that fights with the Kurdish militia in Iraq, as well as an international unit fighting with Kurdish militia in Syria, and expected to go to Syria via northern Iraq with a group of around 20 others within weeks. Contacted by the FT, IDET said it had no Russian members at present and could neither confirm nor deny whether Russian volunteers were joining the unit.“与库尔德人并肩作战是(现在)唯一的选择,”多罗夫斯基赫说。他说自己联系上了“自由战士国际分遣队”(Peshmerga International Detachment,一个由在伊拉克与库尔德民兵并肩作战的外国人组成的战斗组织,同时也是一个在叙利亚与库尔德民兵并肩战斗的国际组织),他希望在几周内与其他0个人一起,取道伊拉克北部进入叙利亚。英囀?金融时报》联系上该组织,后者称目前没有俄罗斯籍成员,但也无法确认或否认是否有俄罗斯志愿者战士正在加入该组织。If Mr Dorovskikh and his friends succeed, they might well end up fighting alongside the US-led international coalition, which Moscow opposes. “We are told by the Peshmerga volunteers that we will be given training along Nato lines, and we will have to buy uniforms that fit Nato standards that’s one reason it’s so expensive,says Mr Dorovskikh. He is undeterred by the fact that he would be allied with the west. “We are independent,he says. “As long as we are fighting against Isis, everything is fine.”如果多罗夫斯基赫和他的伙伴们成功进入叙利亚,他们可能最终将与以美国为首的国际联军并肩作战,而后者正是莫斯科反对的。“‘自由战士’的志愿者战士告诉我们,我们将接受北NATO)式训练,我们必须购买符合北约标准的制——这是开销如此昂贵的原因之一,”多罗夫斯基赫说。他并未因为将要与西方结盟而畏缩。“我们是独立的,”他说,“只要我们能打击ISIS,一切都好说。”It remains to be seen whether the Russian government sees it the same way. Last Monday, Admiral Vladimir Komoyedov, head of the armed forces committee in the Duma, the lower house of parliament, said Russian volunteers were likely to appear among the ranks of the Syrian army, and those willing to go could not be stopped. But a day later, he said it was out of the question that Russians would fight in a ground operation in Syria. He added: “To the best of my knowledge, Russians trying to get to Syria, Libya or Iraq to fight there are being stopped by the relevant Russian authorities, and rightly so.”俄罗斯政府是否也这样认为还有待观察。最近,海军上将、俄杜马(下议院)国防委员会主席科弗拉基米尔科莫耶多Vladimir Komoyedov)表示,俄罗斯志愿者战士可能出现在叙利亚军队中,那些想去的人无法阻拦。但一天后,他又改口称,俄罗斯绝不可能在叙利亚进行地面作战。他补充说:“据我所知,试图进入叙利亚、利比亚或伊拉克境内参战的俄罗斯人都被俄相关部门阻止了,这样做是正确的。”来 /201510/403791

  A top Federal Reserve official has damped expectations that the central bank would raise US interest rates next month, highlighting how the turmoil that has sp from China to global markets is rattling policymakers.美联Federal Reserve)一名高级官员淡化了这家央行将在下月提高美国利率的预期,突显从中国蔓延至全球市场的动荡正使政策制定者们不安。William Dudley, head of the New York branch of the Fed, told a conference that it was “important not to overreact to short-term market developmentsbut conceded that the argument for tightening monetary policy as early as September “seem[s] less compelling to me [now] than it was a few weeks ago纽约联邦储备行长威廉达德William Dudley)在一个会议上表示,“不对短期市场动态作出过度反应是重要的”,但承认,最早在9月就收紧货币政策的主张“在我看来似乎不如几周前那么有说力”。“International developments have increased the downside risk to US economic growth somewhat,he said, citing China’s economic slowdown, falling commodity prices, strains on emerging markets and the resulting “financial market volatility“国际上的事态增加了美国经济增长的下行风险,”他说。他提到中国经济增长放缓,大宗商品价格不断下跌,新兴市场出现紧张,以及这一切导致的“金融市场波动”。He was speaking after days of steep slides in Chinese shares, which have lost half their value since mid-June amid mounting evidence of a slowdown in the world’s second-largest economy. The declines have sp alarm across global equities, commodities and foreign exchange markets.达德利发表讲话之前,中国股市连续数日大幅下跌。自6月中旬以来,随着越来越多的据明全球第二大经济体增长放缓,中国股票已失去一半价值。此轮跌势已在全球股票、大宗商品和外汇市场拉响警报。The turmoil seen on Monday had eased yesterday, but markets remained volatile. The FTSE Eurofirst 300 saw big swings and closed down 1.9 per cent. China’s Shanghai Composite index also dropped 1.3 per cent, a day after the People’s Bank of China cut interest rates and pumped liquidity into the banking sector by reducing the reserve requirement ratio for big banks.周一出现的动荡昨日已有所缓解,但市场仍动荡不定。欧洲的富时Eurofirst 300(FTSE Eurofirst 300)指数昨日出现较动,收盘下.9%。中国的上综指(Shanghai Composite index)昨日也下.3%,就在前一日,中国央行(PBoC)宣布降息,并通过降低针对大的存款准备金率,向业注入流动性。Earlier this summer most economists were predicting that the Fed would raise rates in September for the first time in almost a decade.今夏早些时候,多数经济学家预计,美联储将在9月加息,这将是近10年来首次提高利率。But market expectations of a hike next month are fading fast, with Barclays economists shifting their forecasts to March next year.不过,对于下月加息的市场预期正在迅速消失,其中巴克Barclays)经济学家把他们预测的加息时机延后至明月。Mr Dudley said he still hoped the Fed could raise interest rates by the end of the year, noting a move would be a sign of confidence in the US economy. He added that new data could yet make a September hike “more compelling纽约联储的达德利表示,他仍然希望美联储能够在年底前加息,并指出此举将是对美国经济有信心的标志。他补充说,新的数据仍可能使9月就加息的主张“更有说力”。“I really do hope we can raise interest rates this year...But let’s see how the data unfold before we make statements about when that might occur.”“我真的希望我们能在今年加息……但是,让我们先看看数据如何发展,然后再发表何时可能加息的声明。”Dennis Lockhart, the president of the Atlanta Fed, said on Monday he still expected interest rates to rise this year but Mr Dudley is the first Fed policymaker to speak in such detail since the global stock market sell-off.亚特兰大联邦储备行长丹尼斯洛克哈Dennis Lockhart)周一曾表示,他仍预期利率将在今年内上升,但达德利是自全球股市出现抛售以来首位详尽表态的美联储政策制定者。Jeffrey Gundlach, the head of DoubleLine, a big bond fund manager, said that there was “no waythe Fed will lift interest rates this year. “There are some people that still think the Fed could hike in September. I think that’s a ridiculous assumption, given what is going on in financial markets,he told the Financial Times. “I think we should be very worried about China. It’s a very big deal.”大型债券基金管理公司DoubleLine掌门人杰弗里蠠拉Jeffrey Gundlach)表示,美联储今年加息是“不可能的事情”。“有一些人仍然认为美联储可能会月加息。我认为那是个荒谬的想法,考虑到金融市场正在发生的情况。”他对英囀?金融时报》表示,“我认为我们应该很担心中囀?这个问题非常重大。”来 /201508/395832。

  TOKYO Hiroyuki Hara has increased prices at his flower shop in recent months, part of a broad reversal of the deflation that has long plagued Japan’s economy. Getting prices rising is a national goal, but Mr. Hara isn’t sure the new landscape is any more vibrant.东京——最近几个月,原裕之(Hiroyuki Hara,音译)经营的花店涨价了。这反映了一个宏观趋势,即长期困扰日本经济的通货紧缩正在扭转。让物价上涨是一项国家目标,但原裕之不确定的是,新的状态是否算得上更具活力。“We used to get a lot of office workers in here, but now it’s mostly just older people, the ones with savings,he says. Sales are down this year. He blames the shrinking buying power of his customerspaychecks.“过去我们的顾客中有许多白领,现在主要是年龄稍大的人,有积蓄的那些,”原裕之说。销售额在今年出现了下降。他认为这是因为顾客收入的购买力缩水了。Mr. Hara’s own costs are mounting too, as a precipitous decline in the value of Japan’s currency has made imported flowers pricier. And although he is charging more, the extra money is going to the government, which controversially raised sales taxes in April. A further tax increase is planned for next year. “It has me worried,Mr. Hara says.原裕之的经营成本也在上涨,因为日元的急剧贬值已经让进口花卉变得更昂贵。尽管他提高了价格,但多收的钱都流向了政府。今月,日本政府在争议声中提高了消费税。还有计划明年再次增税。“这让我很担心,”原裕之说。Japan’s audacious campaign to reinvigorate its economy is entering a make-or-break phase.日本旨在振兴经济的大胆行动,正在进入一个成败攸关的阶段。After nearly two years of aggressive stimulus under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, joblessness has plunged, big companies like Toyota are earning record profits and corrosive price declines have been replaced by something Japan has rarely seen in decades inflation.在首相安倍晋Shinzo Abe)政府积极的经济刺激措施实施了近两年之后,失业率大幅下降,丰Toyota)等大型企业的利润正创下新高,对经济有害的价格下跌的状况消失了,取而代之的是几十年来在日本十分罕见的通货膨胀。Yet the benefits of Abenomics, as the program is known, have been unevenly distributed. Many consumers and businesses simply don’t feel better off.然而,这种被称为“安倍经济学”的政策带来的益处并不均衡。许多顾客和企业并没有感到情况出现了改善。The problem threatens to undermine support for the effort at a critical juncture. Economic output fell sharply in the second quarter, immediately after April’s sales tax increase evidence that consumer confidence remains fragile. Mr. Abe will soon have to decide whether to move forward with the next tax increase or table it.这一问题可能会在当前的紧要关头削弱对刺激政策的持。在4月份上调了消费税之后,二季度经济产出大幅下降,这明了消费者信心仍然相当脆弱。安倍晋三很快需要决定,是再次增税,还是暂时搁置这一计划。“There is a sping sense of disappointment with Abenomics,says Masazumi Wakatabe, an economics professor at Waseda University in Tokyo. The fact that prices are rising is not, by itself, a bad thing. Just the opposite: The government and most economists see it as preferable to the deflation that has dogged Japan since the late 1990s.“对安倍经济学的失望情绪正在蔓延,”东京早稻田大学(Waseda University)的经济学教授若田部昌Masazumi Wakatabe)说。物价上涨本身不是坏事。恰恰相反:日本政府和多数经济学家认为,它比通货紧缩要好。自上世0年代末开始,日本就一直受到通货紧缩的困扰。When prices fall, it encourages households and businesses to squirrel away cash, holding back growth. Deflation also makes it difficult for central banks to rally an economy by cutting interest rates, which in Japan have been stuck at zero for years.当物价下降时,就会鼓励家庭和企业把现金囤积起来,这就抑制了增长。通货紧缩还让央行更加难以通过下调利率来提振经济。日本已连续多年保持零利率水平。Yet the public is showing clear signs of inflation fatigue. In a poll published on Monday by the Tokyo Broadcasting System, a national television network, nine in 10 respondents said they had no “real feelingthat the government initiatives were improving living standards.然而公众正明显表现出通胀疲劳的迹象。在东京广播公司(Tokyo Broadcasting System)周一公布的民意调查中,每10个受访者中就有九人表示,没有“真正感到”政府的行动正在改善生活水平。Instead of the balanced rise in prices and wages that Mr. Abe promised, pay has lagged, in effect making workers poorer. Adjusted for price changes, household incomes were down a full 6 percent in September compared with a year earlier.工资水平没有像安倍承诺的那样,与物价同步增长,而是停滞不前,实际上让工薪阶层更贫穷了。根据物价水平变化进行调整之后,日本人的家庭收入9月同比下降了6%。Kathy M. Matsui, an analyst at Goldman Sachs, says sluggish wage growth is partly the flip side to Japan’s protective employment practices. “The social contract is what? It’s when times are tough, unlike in the West, we’ll keep you on the payroll, although we’ll slash your wages,she says. “But then when times get good, you don’t get as much of what you might get elsewhere.”高盛公Goldman Sachs)的分析师凯茜·松井(Kathy M. Matsui)说,工资增长缓慢一定程度上是日本保护性雇佣惯例的副作用。“社会契约是什么?就是我们和西方不同,在经济困难的时期,我们还是会给你发工资,虽然会减薪,”她说。“但当情况好转之后,你也不会获得可以在其他地方拿到的高工资。”Rather than ease efforts to create inflation, the central bank has redoubled them. In an unexpected decision, the Bank of Japan said on Friday that it would expand its program of buying government bonds and other assets to the equivalent of more than 0 billion a year. The move, intended to stimulate borrowing and spending, spurred a rally in global stocks.央行没有放松制造通胀的做法,而是付出了加倍的努力。日本银Bank of Japan)周五出人意料地宣布,将扩大购买政府债券和其他资产的行动,使之达到每年价值000亿美元的规模。此举旨在刺激借贷和消费,全球股市应声上扬。“We are at a critical point for escaping deflation,Haruhiko Kuroda, the central bank governor, said, adding that “half measureswould only bring back Japan’s “deflationary mind-set.Hinting at what could be more stimulus to come, he added that the Bank of Japan would do whatever it took to meet its official target of 2 percent “coreprice increases, a measure that excludes the effect of taxes and other items.“我们正处在摆脱通货紧缩的关键时刻,”央行行长黑田东Haruhiko Kuroda)说,“半途而废”只会让日本的“通缩思维”卷土重来。他说,日本央行将采取一切必要手段,达到“核心”通胀%的官方目标,这一指标剔除了税负和其他项目的影响。这一表态暗示着,未来可能会推出更多刺激措施。But the aggressive stimulus, which has pushed down the value of the yen, is only complicating matters. At the outset, the currency’s retreat was universally embraced as a relief for Japan’s many exporters. Now it is feeding concerns that imports are too expensive. The value of the yen is down more than 30 percent against the dollar since 2012. Exports were supposed to flourish in response, but the trade balance has instead been stuck in deficit.但积极的刺激措施只是让事情变得更加复杂了。这些做法压低了日元汇率。一开始,日元的贬值受到了普遍的欢迎,被当做了许多日本出口商的福音。如今,它却开始激发进口商品过于昂贵的担忧。自012年以来,日元对美元贬值超0%。出口本应该因此增长,但恰恰相反,日本仍处于贸易逆差。It is not just the flowers in Mr. Hara’s shop that are costlier, but also big-ticket items like oil and natural gas, consumption of which has soared since the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011. Nuclear power plants remain closed nationwide, and electricity bills have leapt by double digits as a consequence.涨价的不光是原裕之店里的花卉,还有石油和天然气等高价商品。自2011年福岛核事故发生以来,石油和天然气的消耗量飙升。日本各地的核电站仍处于关闭状态,电费因此出现了两位数的上涨。“If the yen weakens any further, it would be bad for Japan’s economy as a whole,Genichi Tamatsuka, the president of Lawson, one of Japan’s biggest convenience store chains, told reporters this week.“如果日元进一步走低,会对整个日本经济造成不良影响,”日本大型便利连锁店罗森(Lawson)的总裁玉塚元一(Genichi Tamatsuka)本周告诉记者。In parliament on Tuesday, Mr. Abe was forced to defend the central bank actions that have depressed the currency. “When the yen falls, there are issues that go with that fall, and we have to deal with them,he said, though he gave no sign that he would pressure Mr. Kuroda to reverse course.周二在国会,安倍晋三不得不为央行压低日元汇率的行为进行了辩解。他说,“日元贬值时,会产生很多问题,需要我们加以解决。”不过他没有表示会要求黑田东彦改变路线。The sales tax increase has drawn the most intense opposition. The two-stage rise was authorized by a previous government, as a means of tackling Japan’s vast public debt. The second part, which is scheduled for October, will take the rate to 10 percent double what it was before the first increase.提高消费税税率一事招致了最为激烈的反对。增税是由之前的政府批准的,分两阶段进行,为的是消化日本的巨额公共债务。第二阶段定于明0月执行,将把税率提至10%,是第一次增税前税率的两倍还多。Mr. Abe has the authority to stop it if he judges the economy too fragile. But he must make his choice by next month to get a revised tax law through parliament in time. So far he has been coy, saying only that he wants to make a “coolheaded decision.”如果安倍晋三认为经济过于脆弱,他有权不予实斀?不过,他必须在下月作出决定,才能让修定的税法及时获得国会通过。截至目前,他一直不愿明确态度,只是表示自己希望做出“冷静的决定”。Some lawmakers and economists close to the government have urged the prime minister to postpone, by perhaps 18 months, thus, giving time, they hope, for wages to catch up to prices and create a less painful kind of inflation. “We need to prioritize economic growth,Kozo Yamamoto, a lawmaker in Mr. Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party who helped plan the stimulus policies, said in an interview.一批与政府关系密切的议员和经济学家敦促他推迟增税,比如延期18个月。他们希望,这样就能留出时间来,让民众的薪资赶上物价的上涨,创造一种不那么令人痛苦的通胀。“我们需要把经济增长放到首位,”山本幸三议Kozo Yamamoto)接受采访时称。他来自来安倍晋三所在的自民党,参与了经济刺激政策的筹划工作。Most of Japan’s business and political leaders are lined up on the other side of the debate, citing potential danger to the country’s creditworthiness if financial markets conclude the country is turning away from fiscal discipline. The powerful finance ministry, corporate executives, bankers and even the largest opposition party favor going ahead as planned. Sadayuki Sakakibara, chairman of Keidanren, the lobby group that represents Japan’s biggest companies, has called the tax increase a “national issuethat “can’t be avoided.”不过,日本商界与政界的多数领导人物都持相反的看法。他们的理由是,假如金融市场断定日本背离财政自律,有可能会让国家信誉受损。颇有权势的财务省、企业高管、业高层、乃至最大的反对党,一致青睐按原定计划增税。代表日本大企业的游说团体“日本经济团体联合会Keidanren)的会长榊原定Sadayuki Sakakibara)表示,增税是“不可逃避”的“国家问题”。Even Mr. Kuroda, the Bank of Japan governor, is pushing for the tax rise to go ahead. He is doing so despite complaints that it will widen the gap between wages and prices and discourage the precise thing he is trying to foster, consumer spending.就连日本央行行长黑田东彦也在推动如期增税。尽管有人抱怨,增税将拉大薪资与物价的差距,抑制他正竭力促进的消费性开,但他依然主张这样做。A finance ministry official before he became a central banker, he views the tax as essential to addressing the debt, which relative to the size of the economy is the largest in the world. By printing money freely, he is creating what he hopes will be a cushion against its economic impact.供职央行之前,黑田东彦曾是财务省的官员。日本国债的规模与经济总量的比例为全球第一。他认为,消费税是应对这一问题的关键所在。他希望通过大肆印钞,来创造出一个缓冲,减轻增税对经济的影响。“If there were a loss of confidence in the government’s finances,Mr. Kuroda said last week, “it would be extremely difficult to deal with.”“如果对政府的财务状况丧失了信心,”黑田东彦本周称。“应对起来就会非常困难。”来 /201411/341510

  This weekend America announced that it was sending more troops to Iraq, Russia allegedly sent more troops into Ukraine and President Barack Obama set off for Beijing.最近,美国宣布将向伊拉克增派士兵,俄罗斯据称已向乌克兰派出更多军队,而美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)前往北京。Ask policy makers in Washington which of these different parts of the world should be America’s top priority and the first response is usually a variant of “We’ve got to be able to chew gum and walk at the same time.Press on, and the replies get more interesting.如果你问问华盛顿的政策制定者,在全球这些不同地区中,哪一个应该是美国的首要优先任务,最初的回答通常类似于“我们现在能够一心多用了。”继续问下去,就变得更有趣了。Broadly speaking, the Washington consensus seems to be that, of the two immediate crises, the one in the Middle East is more urgent than the one in Ukraine. One US national security official, whose responsibilities include both Russia and the Middle East, looked incredulous when I asked him, last week, which was the more important: “The Middle East, by far,he replied.大体来讲,华盛顿的共识似乎是:在当下这两个危机中,中东危机要比乌克兰危机更为紧迫。当我问一位负责俄罗斯和中东事务的美国国家安全官员,哪一个更重要时,他似乎不信我会问这个问题,答道:“中东,这个紧迫多了。”The argument for prioritising the Middle East is threefold. First, there is an actual war going on, with the US involved in daily bombing raids landing “warheads on foreheads in the disconcertingly jaunty phrase used in the Pentagon. Second, if national security is defined as protecting civilian populations from harm, the Americans see a much more immediate threat from jihadist terrorism than from Russia. Third, the Americans believe an entire regional order is unravelling in the Middle East and that the reordering could take decades. By contrast, the order in Europe is only fraying at the edges.将中东列为优先任务的理由点。第一,中东确实在爆发真刀真的战争,美国每天都会参与轰炸任务,用五角大楼那句洋洋得意、令人不安的话来说,“朝着额头发射弹头warheads on foreheads)。第二,如果国家安全的定义是保护平民不受伤害,那么美国人认为来自圣战组织的恐怖主义威胁远比俄罗斯更为紧迫。第三,美国人认为中东的整个地区秩序正在瓦解,恢复秩序可能需要几十年。相比之下,欧洲的秩序只是在边缘出现紊乱。Some even worry that America’s preoccupation with Russia distracted its attention from Iraq and Syria, at a vital time. One official muses: “I do wonder whether historians will record that, in the spring of 2014, we were too focused on Ukraine, just as [Isis] was grabbing control of huge swaths of territory.”一些人甚至担心,美国对俄罗斯的关注在关键时刻分散了其对伊拉克和叙利亚的注意力。一位官员若有所思地说道:“我真的很想知道历史学家将如何记录这件事014年春,我们的注意力过多地放在了乌克兰身上,而当时,‘伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)正在抢夺大片地区的控制权。”The phenomenon of policy makers looking in the wrong direction is certainly not unknown in history. In the month before the outbreak of the first world war, 100 years ago, the British government spent far more time discussing the prospect of civil conflict in Ireland than the threat of war in Europe.政策制定者的关注方向出现错误的现象肯定并非前所未有。在100年前第一次世界大战爆发前的那一个月,英国政府讨论爱尔兰出现国内冲突可能性的时间,远远多于讨论欧洲战争威胁的时间。But for those who worry most about Vladimir Putin’s Russia, it is the Middle East that is the dangerous distraction. The “Russia firstcrowd is stronger in Warsaw and Berlin than in Washington. It worries that the US has been drawn back into the “war on terrorand the conflicts of the Middle East, just as the dangers in Europe are mounting.但对于那些最担心弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)领导下的俄罗斯的人而言,是中东危险地分散了政策制定者的注意力。在华沙和柏林,呼吁将俄罗斯问题排在首位的人群的声势要比在华盛顿更大。他们担心,美国已退回到“反恐战争”和中东冲突中去,而此时欧洲的危险正在加剧。According to this analysis, the US has still not recognised the radicalism of the challenge posed by Russia. The annexation of Crimea and incursions into eastern Ukraine are, it is feared, just the start. At some point, Russia is likely to threaten more of Ukraine, or even the Baltic states. The very fact that America has ruled out military action over Ukraine which makes the crisis seem less urgent in Washington has inadvertently raised the stakes. As one senior European diplomat puts it: “Putin knows that he can always escalate to places we won’t go.”根据这种分析,美国仍没有意识到,俄罗斯构成的挑战具有极端性。人们担心吞并克里米亚和入侵乌克兰东部只是开始。未来某一刻,俄罗斯可能会威胁乌克兰更多地区,甚至波罗的海国家。美国已排除了就乌克兰问题采取军事行动的可能性,这让这场危机在美国显得不那么紧迫,然而正是这一事实不经意间加大了风险。正如欧洲一位高级外交官所言:“普京知道他永远可以将事态升级到我们不愿意触碰的级别。”The darkest scenarios, being discussed behind closed doors, include Russian escalation up to and including the use of tactical nuclear weapons. If that were to happen it would, of course, be the biggest international security crisis in decades far more significant and dangerous than another round in the 25 years of fighting in Iraq.人们私下里讨论的最糟糕的情形,包括俄罗斯将事态升级到涉及使用战术核武器的地步。如果这变成事实,这肯定将是几十年来最为严重的国际安全危机,其重要性和危险性将远远超过另一轮持5年的伊拉克战争。Most experts still dismiss the nuclear scenarios as far-fetched. It is more common to worry that Mr Putin may launch an all-out conventional war in Ukraine or encourage uprisings by Russian-speakers in the Baltic states, which are members of Nato. If Russia then intervened in the Baltic states and Nato did not respond, the Kremlin would have achieved the huge prize of demonstrating that the western military alliance is a paper tiger.多数专家仍认为这种核战争假设很牵强。更普遍的担忧是,普京可能会在乌克兰发动全面常规战争,或者鼓动波罗的海国家说俄语的人群揭竿而起,这些国家是北约(Nato)成员囀?如果俄罗斯接下来在波罗的海国家实施干预,而北约没有做出回应,那么俄罗斯就取得了一项重大胜利——展示了西方军事联盟就是一只纸老虎。Some hope that the growing pressure on the Russian economy and the rouble might dissuade the Kremlin from escalation. But an economic crisis could also make Russian behaviour more unpredictable and reckless.一些人期待,对俄罗斯经济以及卢布施加更大压力,可能会说俄罗斯不去扩大冲突。但一场经济危机还可能会让俄罗斯的行为更不可预测和不计后果。Amid all this angst, President Obama has set off for a summit in China. For believers in America’s “pivot to Asiait remains true that over the longer term the biggest challenge to US power is still a rising China, rather than a declining Russia or a disintegrating Middle East. They worry that the more the US gets sucked into the crises, the easier it will be for China to achieve primacy in East Asia the region that is increasingly the core of the global economy.在所有这些担忧之中,奥巴马总统动身前往中国参加一次峰会。对于那些相信美国“重返亚洲”的人们而言,事实仍然是,较长期来说,美国实力的最大挑战者仍然是一个正在崛起的中国,而非实力日益下滑的俄罗斯或正在分崩离析的中东。他们担心,美国越卷入到危机之中,中国就越容易在东亚获得首要地位,而东亚正日益成为全球经济的核心。The Obama administration is determined that this will not happen, and is shifting US military resources so that in future, 60 per cent of the American navy will be based in the Pacific.奥巴马政府决心不让这种结果出现,因此正在转移美国军事资源,这样将来美0%的海军力量将部署在太平洋地区。It will be up to historians to decide whether the Obama administration got its strategic priorities right, or whether it charged off in the wrong direction at a crucial moment.奥巴马政府的战略优先任务是否正确,或者美国是否在关键时刻搞错了方向,这将由历史学家决定。My own instinct is that Russia is now the most important challenge. The rise of China is hugely significant but, for the moment, it feels like a long-term process without any immediate risk of conflict with the US.我自己的想法是,俄罗斯现在是最为重要的挑战。中国的崛起影响非常重大,但目前,这像是一个长期过程,眼下没有任何与美国产生冲突的风险。Failing states in the Middle East and the risk of terrorism are dangers that, sadly, now feel almost normal.遗憾的是,中东那些正在衰落的国家以及恐怖主义风险现在变成了近乎常规的危险。But an angry, nuclear-armed Russia, intent on challenging US power, poses risks that we are only beginning to understand. Peace in Europe may depend on Washington striking exactly the right balance between deterrence and diplomacy.然而,一个愤怒、核武装、有意挑战美国实力的俄罗斯所构成的风险,我们才刚刚开始意识到。欧洲的和平可能依赖于美国在威慑与外交斡旋之间达成合理的平衡。来 /201411/343228Uganda is counting on China to provide bn to build much of its infrastructure backbone because Beijing offers the cheapest capital, President Yoweri Museveni said.乌干达总统约韦#8226;穆塞韦尼(Yoweri Museveni)表示,该国正仰赖中国提供100亿美元,以建造其主干基础设施中的一大部分,因为中国的资本最为便宜。Mr Museveni said China does not interfere in the African country’s controversy over homosexuality. He said Uganda’s previous intention to issue a debut sovereign bond to finance infrastructure projects was now a “last resort The president added that he was not encouraging private investment in big hydropower plants because the electricity produced might be too expensive. “Now the Chinese are coming and they come with a sense of solidarity and they come with big money, not small money, and they also have experience,Mr Museveni said.穆塞韦尼表示,中国没有干涉这个非洲国家围绕同性恋的争论。他说,乌干达先前发行首主权债券为基础设施项目融资的想法是“最后的依靠”。穆塞韦尼补充称,他不鼓励私人投资于大型水电站,因为这样产生的电力可能过于昂贵。他说:“现在中国人来了,他们带着团结的意识和大量、而非少量的资金来了,而且他们还有经验。”Finance from state agencies such as the Export-Import Bank of China and China Development Bank was preferable to that from the World Bank in at least one respect, he said.穆塞韦尼表示,来自中国进出口(Export-Import Bank of China)和中国国家开发银China Development Bank)等国有机构的融资,至少在一个方面好于来自世界银World Bank)的融资。“I was a bit embarrassed when I was talking to [representatives from] the World Bank. They talked about a lot of things like structural adjustment but they don’t understand the basics. How can you have structural adjustment without electricity?Mr Museveni asked. “The Chinese understand the basics.”“我与世界(的代表)交谈时有点尴尬。他们对结构性调整之类的事情滔滔不绝,但他们不明白基本问题。你没有电怎么进行结构性调整?”穆塞韦尼问道,“中国人就明白基本问题。”Uganda expects Chinese state-backed capital to finance two hydropower plants the Karuma and the Isimba dams and a railway line connecting Kampala, the Ugandan capital, to Kenya, South Sudan and the oil-rich West Nile region that borders the Democratic Republic of Congo. Uganda is banking on an bn loan from China to build the railway, the country’s largest infrastructure project to date.乌干达希望中国政府持的资本为卡鲁玛(Karuma)和伊斯姆Isimba)这两座水电站以及一条铁路线提供融资。该条铁路将该国首都坎帕拉与肯尼亚、南苏丹以及石油资源丰富、与刚果民主共和国接壤的西尼罗地区连接在一起。乌干达正依赖中国提供的80亿美元贷款建设这条铁路——该国迄今最大的基础设施项目。China has become a key investor in sub-Saharan Africa. Such activity helps drive the Asian giant’s trade with the continent, which has grown from under bn in 2000 to more than 0bn last year, overtaking the US and the former colonial European powers.中国已成为撒哈拉以南非洲地区的关键投资者。此类活动帮助推动了中国与非洲大陆的贸易,双方贸易额000年的不足100亿美元,增长至去年的000亿美元,超过了美国和曾殖民过非洲的欧洲国家。Nevertheless, if China was not forthcoming with funding for the railway Uganda would build it using revenues from oil it intends to start pumping in 2017, Mr Museveni said, estimating annual oil revenues of bn.然而,穆塞韦尼表示,如果中国没有对这条铁路提供融资,乌干达将使用计划于2017年开始开采的石油的收入建设,他估计每年的石油收入0亿美元。Uganda’s economy is set to grow at 5.9 per cent this year, the International Monetary Fund estimates but its currency has suffered because of war in South Sudan and weak agricultural output.国际货币基金组织(IMF)估计,乌干达今年的经济增长率可能.9%,但由于南苏丹的战争和本国农业产出疲弱,该国货币承压。China was a desirable partner in boosting GDP, he said, not only because of its funding capabilities but also as it desists from interfering in the internal affairs of other countries. Mr Museveni condemned those in the west who have criticised the country for strict anti-gay legislation, which was thrown out by Kampala’s constitutional court.穆塞韦尼表示,中国是乌干达提升GDP的理想合作伙伴,不仅是因为其有能力提供资金,而且也是因为它坚持不干涉他国内务。穆塞韦尼谴责了那些对该国出台严厉的反同性恋法提出批评的西方人士。该法已被坎帕拉的宪法法院废除。来 /201410/337315


  A high-profile Taiwanese anti-nuclear activist began a hunger strike on Tuesday to protest construction of the islands fourth nuclear power plant, in what could become another challenge for the aly beleaguered President Ma Ying-jeou. Presidential Office of Republic of China台湾总统马英九写给林义雄的字条。周二台湾一位知名反核运动人士展开绝食以抗议岛内修建第四核电厂,这或使已陷入困境的总统马英九面临又一挑战。Lin Yi-xiong, the former chairman of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party and a longtime anti-nuclear activist, vowed to sustain on only water until the government suspends construction of the northern Taipei plant. 素来反对核能的民进党前主席林义雄誓言只喝水来维系生命,直至政府暂停在台北北部修建核电厂Less than 24 hours after Mr. Lin began his strike, both Mr. Ma and Premier Jiang Yi-hua tried to visit him, only to be turned away. Hunger strikes arent uncommon in the oft-fractious island, but Mr. Lin is the first striker who has received personal attention from the president and the cabinet leader. 在他展开绝食不到24小时,马英九和行政院长江宜桦便试图前去探视,但遭到回绝。绝食抗议在台湾并不罕见。但林义雄作为抗议者受到总统和行政院长的特别关注则尚属首次。With virtually no natural resources of its own, Taiwan imports more than 95% of its energy, with much of it coming from Australia, the Middle East and Africa. The government argues that with the islands three existing nuclear plants going offline in phases by 2025, a fourth plant is necessary to ensure energy security. Last year, the government agreed to hold a national referendum to decide the plants fate, but the timing of the vote hasnt yet been decided and meanwhile construction is continuing. 台湾本地能源资源极度匮乏,超5%的能源依靠进口,其中大多来自澳大利亚、中东和非洲。政府称台湾现有的三个核电厂将在2025年完成除役,因而有必要修建第四核电厂以确保能源安全。去年政府同意举行全民公投以决定核电厂的命运,但投票时间尚未敲定,而与此同时核电厂的施工仍在继续。Nuclear energy is a contentious issue that has divided Taiwan for more than two decades. Opponents, spurred by the 2013 Fukushima nuclear disaster, say the new plant is riddled with safety problems and that the earthquake-prone island should instead focus on developing alternative forms of energy. The government maintains that the plant is safe. 20多年来台湾社会对核能问题一直争议不休。在2013年日本福岛核电站发生泄漏事故的影响下,反核人士称新核电厂存在安全隐患,而地震多发的台湾应当注重发展可替代能源。台湾政府坚称核电厂是安全的Shortly before he began his protest, Mr. Lin told the press he was sorry my 20 years of efforts have failed to move those in power. 林义雄在禁食不久前对报社记者说:“我非常惭愧我努力了20年,没有感动我们的掌权者。”Analysts say that given his clout and the publics aly-ballooning opposition to nuclear power, Mr. Mas ruling Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang, would face more arduous battles ahead of local elections later this year if Mr. Lin dies as a result of his hunger strike. 分析师称,考虑到林义雄的影响力以及公众日益反对核电的态度,如果林义雄因为绝食抗议而死亡,那么在今年晚些时候台湾举行的地方选举之前,马英九所在的国民党将面临更加艰难的选战。Mr. Ma--whose approval rating is currently 14%, according to a poll by Taiwan Indicator Survey Research--relied on his accommodative China policies to win re-election in 2012. But these same policies have also become his Achilles heels recently, with more people questioning whether the warmer trade ties with China have benefited Taiwans average workers. 据台湾指标调查研究公Taiwan Indicators Survey Research)的民调显示,马英九当前的持率为14%012年马英九凭藉他开放的中国大陆政策赢得连任。但如今这些政策也成为他的软肋,越来越多的人质疑两岸加强贸易合作到底有没有让台湾普通工人受益In mid-March, the growing doubts over closer ties with China ignited Taiwans longest-running student protest, which left the legislature paralyzed for 24-days. Mr. Lin was an outspoken supporter for the movement. 3月中旬,台湾人对加强两岸经贸合作的质疑引发了台湾持续时间最长的学生抗议活动,导致台湾立法机构被4天。林义雄是这场学生运动的强烈持者At 73, Mr. Lin is regarded across party lines as one of the most influential political figures in Taiwan since the 1970s. As a dissident, he was jailed multiple times during the islands martial law era (1949-87). 现年73岁的林义雄被公认为上世纪70年代以来台湾最有影响力的政治人物之一。作为一名持不同政见的人士,他曾在台湾戒严时1949-1987)多次被判入狱In 1980, while Mr. Lin was imprisoned as a dissident, his mother and his seven-year old twin daughters were found stabbed to death in the basement of their home. His oldest daughter survived the attack with severe injuries. The case remain unsolved, and the house, which has been turned into a church, is where Mr. Lin is staging his fast. 80年代林义雄因政见不同而被关押在监狱,他的母亲和当时七岁的双胞胎女儿被发现在家中地下室被杀身亡。其长女虽然脱险,但多处受伤。此案至今仍未侦破。林宅如今已被建成教堂,林义雄便是在此教堂进行绝食If I die, please wrap me up with the bed sheet and put me inside the crematory. Place my ashes in the old unwanted bottle lying around in the house. You will be sad over Dads death, but I hope the shorter the duration will be, the better, Mr. Lin wrote in an open letter to his surviving daughter. 林义雄在写给长女的信中交代:“如果我死了,用床单将我裹起来,丢进焚化炉;骨灰要装在家里的旧瓶旧罐里;爸爸死了,你当然会伤心一阵子,但我希望这时间越短越好。”Other anti-nuclear activists plan to join Mr. Lin in protest by staging a demonstration in front the Presidential Office on Saturday. 台湾其他反核团体计划周六在马英九办公场所前举行示威活动以声援林义雄。Jenny W. HsuJenny W. Hsu /201404/290980

  India on Monday abruptly cancelled peace talks with its neighbour and regional rival Pakistan. The cancellation came under three months after Indian prime minister Narendra Modi warmly shook hands at his inauguration in New Delhi with his Pakistani counterpart, Nawaz Sharif.印度周一突然取消了与其邻囀?地区对手巴基斯坦的和平谈判。不个月前,印度总理纳伦德拉#8226;莫迪(Narendra Modi)还曾在新德里的就职典礼上与巴基斯坦总理纳瓦#8226;谢里Nawaz Sharif)亲切握手。Syed Akbaruddin, India’s foreign ministry spokesman, announced that the Modi government had cancelled a visit to Islamabad next week by Sujatha Singh, foreign secretary, because of Pakistani “interferencein India’s internal affairs.印度外交部发言人宣布,莫迪已取消了印度外交秘书苏嘉#8226;辛格(Sujatha Singh)原定下周对伊斯兰堡的访问,原因是巴基斯坦“干涉”印度内部事务。India was angered by an invitation from Abdul Basit, Pakistan’s high commissioner in New Delhi, to Kashmiri separatists for “consultationswith him before the proposed Islamabad meetings.令印度大为光火的是,巴基斯坦驻新德里高级专员阿卜#8226;勒巴西特(Abdul Basit)向克什米尔分裂分子发出邀请,请他们在提议的伊斯兰堡会议之前与他“磋商”。India has also complained of repeated ceasefire violations, including attacks on Indian troops across the so-called line of control that separates the two armies in Kashmir.印度还抱怨巴基斯坦不断违反停火协议,比如越过克什米尔分割两国军队的所谓控制线,向印军发动进攻。A Pakistani foreign ministry official described India’s decision as “a setback to what seemed like an emerging opportunity for peace The ministry was expected to issue a formal statement later on Monday. The foreign ministry official said it appeared that Mr Modi’s government had “very quickly begun to harden its stance against Pakistanadding that “there seems to be a departure in policy巴基斯坦外交部一名官员将印度的此决定称为“貌似出现的和平机遇之后的一次倒退”。预计巴外交部将在周一晚些时候发表正式声明。这位外交部官员表示,莫迪政府“很快开始强化了对巴基斯坦的立场”,并补充称,“似乎偏离了既定政策”。来 /201408/322182。

  U.S. senators welcomed an overhaul of Americas visa waiver program contained in a massive federal spending bill expected to pass both legislative houses in the coming days.美国参议员欢迎对免签项目进行全面审 这一计划包含在预计未来数天内将获得通过的大规模联邦开法案中。Once approved, the measures would constitute the full Congress first concrete steps to boost domestic security following the terrorist attacks in Paris and California.一旦获得通过,这些举措将使得美国国会首次可以采取切实步骤来加强国内安全。此前,在法国巴黎和美国加州接连发生了恐怖袭击。Under the overhaul, most nationals from more than three dozen countries would retain the ability to travel to the ed States without a visa. They would be excluded from the program, however, if they have traveled to Syria, Iraq, Iran or Sudan in the last five years.按照这项全面审查计划,来0多个国家的绝大多数公民将保持免签前往美国的能力。但是如果他们在过去5年中曾经前往叙利亚、伊拉克、伊朗或者苏丹,他们会被排除在这个项目之外。The legislation also aims to strengthen information-sharing among governments, and empowers the Department of Homeland Security to terminate a countrys participation in the visa waiver program if its data sharing is deemed inadequate.这项立法还旨在加强各国政府之间的信息情报共享,授权美国国土安全部在数据分享缺乏的情况下,中止某个国家免签的资格。The House of Representatives overwhelmingly approved the changes last week. Attaching them to a massive yearlong spending bill will help speed them to President Barack Obamas desk to be signed into law.美国国会众议院上周以压倒性多数批准了这些调整变动。把这个审查项目加入大规模的年度开法案之中,将有助于使之加速被奥巴马总统签署成为法律。来 /201512/416443

  Have you watched a keynote from a major technology company lately? If not, you’re missing out on what I would consider to be a modern-day circus. Google once had Sergey Brin and a team of skydivers jump out of a plane over the center of San Francisco to announce Glass, the company’s Internet-connected eyewear. Samsung attempted to have film director Michael Bay on stage to introduce curved televisions, only to see him walk off after flubbing a couple of lines. Apple reportedly paid million to the Foothill-De Anza Community College District where it held an event to announce its Watch in September.最近你是否看过哪家大型科技公司的产品发布会?如果没有的话,你可能错过了一场“现代马戏表演”。谷歌(Google)在发布Google Glass智能眼镜时,谢尔盖·布林和一帮特技跳伞运动员从飞机上跳下来,空降到旧金山。三星(Samsung)在发布曲面屏电视时,邀请到了知名导演迈克尔·贝,可惜大家发现他有几行台词没背熟。今年九月,苹果(Apple)付给福德希尔德安萨社区学院(Foothill-De Anza Community College District )100万美元,在那里举办苹果智能手表的发布活动。So when a product launches without any fanfare—simply appearing out of thin air in the early morning hours—it catches everyone by surprise. Microsoft’s MSFT -0.22% entry into the wearable technology market, the 9 Microsoft Band, wasn’t welcomed by a group of professional athletes. Microsoft’s CEO, Satya Nadella, did not walk us through a presentation outlining its key features. There were no step counts, exercise routines, or heart rates on giant screens. Instead, as the end of October neared, Microsoft simply hit “publishand began taking orders.因此,当一款产品静悄悄地来了,没有任何热闹与噱头,反而让所有人感到惊讶。这款售99美元的微软手环(Microsoft Band)是微软进入可穿戴市场的第一款作品,没有邀请一帮专业运动员捧场。微软CEO萨蒂亚·纳德拉并没有搞一场演讲来罗列微软手环的主要功胀?微软也没有在大屏幕上弄一些计步、锻炼、心率之类的画面。只是在10月末临近的时候,简单地点了个“发布”键,然后就开始接受订单。The Band, which is worn primarily on the wrist, is a fitness tracker with a 1.4-inch touchscreen on one side and a heart-rate monitor on the other. Like some other trackers, it can count steps, monitor sleep quality, calculate ultraviolet exposure, plan workouts, and map runs. The Band also doubles as a so-called smart watch, calling your attention to alerts with a gentle vibration.这款主要戴在手腕的手环,是一个健身追踪器,手环的一面搭载了一.4英寸的触摸屏,另一面安装了一台心率监测仪。像其它健身追踪器一样,它也有计步、监测睡眠质量、计算紫外线暴露程度、规划健身计划和跑步路线等功胀?同时,它也是一款“智能手表”,可以通过温和的震动提醒你注意。Using a series of gestures and swipes, you move through the familiar tile layout found across the various flavors of the Windows operating system. A tap on the home screen displays metrics for that day as well as a pulsating visualization of your heartbeat.通过一系列手势操作和滑动,你会发现,微软手环也采用了Windows操作系统熟悉的磁贴布局(tile layout)。轻点主屏幕就会出现当天的各种指标数据,同时以虚拟化的方式显示出你的心率。Microsoft’s Band is considered wearable technology, but after wearing the device for several weeks (with screen facing both inside and out) it’s clear that the “technologypart comes first. At no time did I go rock climbing or slam my wrist against a wall or desk, yet my Band has aly been rendered a scratched, rustic piece of hardware. Compare that to the Pebble Steel: I’ve been wearing it for the last eight months and it still looks almost brand new.微软手环被认为是一款可穿戴技术,但试戴了几周后(正戴、反戴都尝试过),最先让人注意到的是它“技术”的一面。我从来没有戴着它玩过攀岩,或是戴着它朝着墙或桌子什么的猛砸,但是我的微软手环已经有了划痕和毛糙。相比之下,我已经戴着我的Pebble Steel智能手表8个月了,但它看起来仍然像全新的一样。During my test of the Band, I wore it alongside a Fitbit Flex wristband to compare how the devices tracked step counts and sleep tracking. (To ensure a fair comparison, I swapped which wrist each band was worn on each morning.) The Flex averaged 1,500 more steps per day than the Band and generally reported a better night’s sleep.在评测的过程中,我曾经把它与一款Fitbit Flex腕带一起戴在手腕上,对比这两款设备的计步和睡眠监测功能。(为了保公平对比,我每天早上都会把这两只腕带戴的位置掉个个儿)。Flex腕带要比微软手环平均每天多计500步,而微软手环显示的睡眠结果要更好一些。These differences are to be expected. Each company has its own formula for how it translates a series of motions to “stepsor “sleep.Within reason, the most important metric for a fitness tracker is consistency: is the device’s monitoring ability dependable enough so that its wearer can rely on it to change their behavior? Good news to the folks in Redmond: the Band’s results were consistent.这些差别也是可以预期的。每家公司都有自己的一套公式,用于将人的一系列动作译解成“走路”或“睡眠”。当然,对于一款健身追踪器来说,最重要的指标是它的一致性:它的监控能力是否足够可靠,让穿戴者可以依赖它改变自身行为?好在微软手环的结果是具有一致性的,微软总部的那帮人应该感到安心了。One feature I was particularly fond of was the heart rate recordings that accompanied my step counts and sleep results. When I was experiencing my best sleep, my heart rate dropped to about 50 beats per minute. On the other hand, when I was most active during the day my heart rate would peak at 130 beats per minute.我尤其喜欢的一个功能就是它可以在我走路和睡觉时记录我的心率。当我进入最高质量的睡眠时,我的心率会下降到每分0次左右。当我处在一天中活动最多的时候,我的心率可能达到每分30次。Using the free Microsoft Health application, you can edit the Band’s settings and sync your activity to several mobile operating systems: Google’s Android, Microsoft’s Windows Phone and Apple’s iOS. The same app is required to receive (and in some instances, reply) to alerts from your wrist.通过免费的微软健康应用,你可以编辑微软手环的设置,而且微软手环同时持谷歌安卓(Android)、微软Windows Phone和iOS三大操作系统。该应用还要接收(有时还要回复)手环发出的提醒。I found the app frustrating at times. Sometimes my activity would sync to my iPhone in the background; other times I would launch the app only to be welcomed by an error message. Often the only remedy was to restart both the Band and my iPhone. Though no data is lost during a restart, the lapse of communication between devices is an irritating inconvenience–a broken promise in the era of interconnected devices.我发现这款应用有时非常令人不爀?有我的活动可以跟我的iPhone同步。但有时我打开应用时,欢迎我的却是一条错误信息。通常情况下,唯一的解决方案就是把手环和iPhone同时重启。虽然在重启中没有出现数据丢失的情况,但设备之间的通讯失联毕竟还是非常令人恼火的——在互联设备时代,它给人一种失信的感觉。I also found that the size and orientation of the Band’s screen make it difficult and awkward to notifications on your wrist. Wider than it is tall, the screen is only able to display a small line of text when an alert occurs. You can scroll through text using your finger, but it can feel silly to use multiple swipes to what amounts to a couple of sentences. Initially I had enabled all alerts to appear on the Band; after I realized that ing messages was more trouble than it was worth, I disabled notifications altogether.我还发现,微软手环的屏幕大小和方向,让人在手环上阅读通知消息时感觉很费劲、很尴尬。当提醒消息出现时,由于屏幕横宽竖窄,你只能看见提醒消息的一小行文字。虽说你可以用手指往下滚动,但是滑动好几次手指才能读完一两句话,还是感觉挺傻的。一开始我设置了在微软手环上显示所有提醒,后来我意识到,在手环上看消息其实挺麻烦的,于是我干脆关掉了提醒功胀?This problem isn’t unique to the Band, of course. Every company offering a wearable device is trying to figure out the best balance of screen size—too large can be unwieldy, too small can be impossible to —and how best to present information in a very limited environment. All I can say is that Microsoft hasn’t found the answer yet.这个问题并不是微软手环独有的。每个做可穿戴设备的公司都想达到屏幕尺寸的最佳平衡点——太大了显笨,太小了又没法阅读文字。同时,这些公司也希望能够以最好的方式,在一个非常有限的环境中展示信息。我只能说微软目前尚未找到。By forgoing a large announcement event for the Microsoft Band, the company avoided setting high expectations. The decision proves to be a wise one. I walked away from my time with the Band categorizing it somewhere between a competent fitness tracker and a mediocre smart watch. For a newly launched product—no matter the size of a welcome party—being in limbo just isn’t going to cut the fat.微软放弃了给微软手环办一个大型发布会,同时也就避免了给人以很高的预期。事实明,这是一个明智的决定。经过一段时间的评测,我认为微软手环介于一款合格的健身追踪器和一款平庸的智能手表之间。对于一款全新发布的产品来说——不管发布会的规模有多大,走中间路线是不会分到大蛋糕的。(财富中文网) /201412/348276

  Germany has arrested one of its most prominent Islamic extremists on charges he supported a foreign terrorist group.德国以持国外恐怖组织的指控逮捕了该国最知名的伊斯兰极端主义分子之一。German prosecutors announced Tuesday that they have arrested 35-year-old Salafist Sven Lau on four counts of aiding the Syria-based group known as Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar, or JAMWA. The group has been linked to Islamic State.德国检察官星期二宣布,他们以协助在叙利亚的“圣战组织移民和持者武装”等四项罪名,逮捕5岁的萨拉非斯特·史文·劳。该组织和伊斯兰国恐怖组织有牵连。Lau is suspected of recruiting fighters for the group as well as providing financial and material support.史文·劳涉嫌为该组织招募战士以及提供财政和物质持。Lau, a convert to Islam, gained fame last year when he organized a force of so-called ;Sharia police; in the German city of Wuppertal. The men wore orange jackets marked ;Sharia Police; and patrolled the streets trying to enforce strict adherence to Islamic law, demanding that nightclub patrons stop drinking, gambling, and listening to music.皈依伊斯兰教的史文·劳因为去年在德国伍珀塔尔市组织了一个名叫“伊斯兰法警察”的队伍而出名。该组织成员身穿印有“伊斯兰法警察”的橘色马甲在街上巡逻,试图严格实施伊斯兰法,并要求光顾夜总会的人停止酗酒、和听音乐。A Wuppertal court last Thursday decided not to prosecute the men. The ruling has sparked nationwide controversy.伍珀塔尔市法庭上周四决定不起诉这些人。这一裁决在德国全国引发争议。来 /201512/415972

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