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For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. The state of the economy calls for action, bold and swift, and we will act-not only to create new jobs, but to lay a new foundation for growth. We will build the roads and bridges, the electric grids and digital lines that feed our commerce and bind us together. We will restore science to its rightful place, and wield technologys wonders to raise health cares quality and lower its cost. We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age. All this we can do. All this we will do.无论我们把目光投向何处,都有工作在等着我们。经济形势要求我们果敢而迅速地行动,我们将不辱使命——不仅要创造新的就业机会,而且要打下新的增长基础。我们将建造道路和桥梁,架设电网,铺设承载我们的商务和把我们紧密相连的电子通讯网络。我们将恢复科学应有的地位,利用高新技术的超常潜力提高医疗保健质量并降低成本。我们将利用太阳能、风力和地热为车辆和工厂提供能源。我们将改造我们的中小学和高等院校,以应对新时代的挑战。这一切我们都能做到。这一切我们必将做到。Now, there are some who question the scale of our ambitions-who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short. For they have forgotten what this country has aly done; what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to common purpose, and necessity to courage.现在,有人怀疑我们的雄心壮志——他们说我们的体制不能承受太多的宏伟规划。他们的记忆是短暂的,因为他们忘记了这个国家已经取得的成就,忘记了一旦共同的目标插上理想的翅膀、现实的要求鼓动起勇气的风帆,自由的人民就会爆发出无穷的创造力。What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath them-that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works-whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. When the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. When the answer is no, programs will end. And those of us who manage the publics dollars will be held to account-to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day-because only then can we restore the vital trust between a people and their government.那些冷眼旁观的人没有认识到他们脚下的大地已经移动——那些长期以来空耗我们的精力的陈腐政治观点已经过时。我们今天提出的问题不是我们的政府太大还是太小,而是它是否行之有效——它是否能够帮助人们找到报酬合理的就业机会,是否能够为他们提供费用适度的医疗保健务,是否能够确保他们在退休后不失尊严。当回答是肯定的,我们就要向前推进。当回答是否定的,计划和项目将终止。作为公共资金的管理者,我们必须承担责任——明智地使用资金,抛弃坏习惯,在阳光下履行职责——因为只有这样我们才能恢复人民对政府的至关重要的信任。201406/303279

Thanks to a mutual friend, we rented our garage to two graduate students at Stanford 经朋友介绍 我们将车库租给了两个斯坦福研究生who had just started a company, who were looking for office space 他们刚开了一家公司 正在寻找办公场所They seem nice 他们看起来很棒There ideas sounded kind of crazy 他们的想法听起来有些疯狂Back then 当时no one had heard of Larry Page and Sergey Brin 没人听说过拉里·佩奇和谢尔盖·布林or the new company with the funny name 或是他们开的那家名字滑稽的公司Google? 谷歌?What? 什么What does that mean? 这是什么意思It doesnt really matter 这没关系As long as you guys pay the rent on time, you guys can build your Google anything here 只要你们能够按时交房租 管你们是谷歌还是别的什么Wednesday moved in, we have late night 一个周三的深夜together in the garage, eating pizza and Mamp;Ms 我们一起坐在车库吃批萨和Mamp;Mwhen they talked to me about how their technology could change the world 他们跟我讲 说自己的技术能够改变世界But then they would go on equally excited 之后他们同样兴奋地告诉我about the fact that my house had a washer and dryer 说我家有洗衣机和烘干机真是太好了They made bold proclamations 他俩很大胆地宣布说We are going to organize the entire World Wide Web 我们将把全球网络组织到一起followed by -- which day is recycling day? 说完之后 他们问我 垃圾回收日是哪一天来着And when I asked them how much experience they had to back their ambitious plan 我问他们 你们有多少经验来持这一雄心壮志they would say well our combined age is almost 50 他们说 我们的年龄合起来可有将近50岁and they were entering a competitive area 他们进入是一个竞争性极强的领域There were many well-funded search engines 当时有很多资金充裕的搜索引擎公司famous at the time, although you probably never heard of them 当时这些公司都很有名 只是你们可能没听说过AltaVista, Lycos, Excite 比如AltaVista Lycos ExciteCan you imagine if you wanted to search for something online 想象一下 要搜索东西的时候你要说and you had to say Im going to AltaVista? 我要去AltaVista一下 这会是什么感觉The answer, that would be kinda awkward 肯定会显得非常笨拙201511/412779

But we put in a bid on Wednesday morning. By that, I was in Boston Montana.星期三的早上,我们出了一个报价。那时,我已经在蒙塔那了。And I talked to Bill McDonough at the New York Federal.我和纽约储备局的比尔·麦克唐纳通了话。At 10 oclock we were having a meet with bankers at 10 o’clock that morning in New York.他们在10点会和一批家碰头。And I called them, we actually..., then he called me in Wyoming before ten, New York time.我把意向传达过去了。比尔·麦克唐纳在10点前给在怀俄明给我打了电话。And we made a bid, because they were being done in a long distance, put the outline in the bid.我们做了一个报价。因为是打长途电话,所以只给出了报价的大概数。But in the end, we bid for 250 million essentially for the net assets but we would have put in 3 and 3/4 billion on top of that.最终,我们对2.5亿美元的净资产做了报价,但我们会在追加到37.5亿左右。We’d been 3 billion from Berkshire Hathway,700 million from AIG and 300 million from Goldman Sachs.伯克希尔·哈撒韦公司分到30个亿, AIG出7个亿, Goldman Sachs出3个亿。And we submitted that but we put a very short time limit on that because when you are bidding on 100 million worth of securities that are moving around,我们把投标交了上去,但是我们的投标时限很短,因为你不可能对价值以亿元计的券you dont want to leave a fixed price bid out there for very long,because you are going to getting a shot.在一段长时间内固定价格,我也担心我们的报价会被用来作待价而沽的筹码。In the end the bankers made the deal, but it was an interesting period.最后,家们把合同搞定了,过程很有意思。The whole (LTCM) Long Term Capital management that I hope most of you are familiar with it.整个长期资金管理基金的历史,我不知道在座的各位对它有多熟悉,But whole story is really fascinating其实是波澜壮阔的。because if you take John Meriwether, Eric Rosenfeld, Larry Hillenbrand, Greg Hawkins, Victor Haghani, the two Nobel prize winners: Myron Scholes and Robert Merton.如果你把那16个人,像约翰·梅里韦瑟,埃里克·罗森菲尔德,拉里·希任布兰德,格雷格·霍金斯,维克多·汉格汉尼,还有两个诺贝尔经济学奖的获得者,迈伦·斯科尔斯和罗伯特·默顿If you take the 16 of them, that they have about as highest average IQ as any 16 people working together in one business in the country, including Microsoft or what you want to name.把他们在一起,他们的IQ水平应该比像微软这样公司里的任何16人加起来的IQ都高。So that an incredible amount of intellect in one room. Now you combine that with the fact with those 16 and had extensive experience in the field they were operating in.那真的是一个有着|难以置信的智商的团队,而且他们所有人在业界都有着大量的实践经验。These were not a bunch of guys (who) made their money you know selling mens clothing and all of a sudden went into the securities business.他们可不是一帮在男装领域赚了钱,然后突然转向券的人。They had in aggregate, the 16, probably had 350 or 400 years of experience doing exactly what they were doing,这 16个人加起来的经验可能有350年到400年,而且是一直专精于他们目前所从事的领域。and then you throw in the third factor that most of them had virtually all of their very substantial networking with their business.还有一点,他们所有人在金融界都有着极强大极坚实的关系网,So they had their own money up. Hundreds and hundreds of millions of dollars is their own money up.数以亿计的资金也来自于这个关系网,其实就是他们自己的资金。Super high intellect and working in a field that they know. On essential they went broke.拥有超级智商,在他们内行的领域,结果他们却破产了。201308/254214

And in poorer countries, smaller countries, fragile countries,conflict-afflicted countries, remittances are a lifeline,as in Somalia or in Haiti. 在更穷,更小,或者正发生冲突的国家,移民汇款就如同救命稻草,比如说在索马里或海蒂。No wonder these flows have huge impacts on economies and on poor people.难怪这些资金流会对经济和贫困人口带来巨大的影响。Remittances, unlike private investment money,不同于私人资助基金,they dont flow back at the first sign of trouble in the country.移民汇款不会在国家一出现问题的时候就回流。They actually act like an insurance.它们更像保险金。When the family is in trouble,当家人遇到麻烦,facing hardship, facing hard times,碰到问题,遇到困难的时候,remittances increase, they act like an insurance.它会增加,就像保险金一样,Migrants send more money then.移民们会寄更多的钱回去。Unlike development aid money,它们也不像发展资助基金,that must go through official agencies,through governments, remittances directly reach the poor,reach the family,and often with business advice. 那些必须经过正式的机构,通过政府。而移民汇款直接到达穷人手中,到达家人手中,通常还附带着商业建议。So in Nepal, the share of poor people was 42 percent in 1995,the share of poor people in the population.在尼泊尔,1995年时穷人占人口总数的42%。By 2005, a decade later, at a time of political crisis, economic crisis,the share of poor people went down to 31 percent. 十年之后,2005年时,当时尼泊尔正遇上政治危机,经济危机,可是穷人的比例却降到了31%。That decline in poverty, most of it,about half of it, is believed to be because of remittances from India,another poor country. 贫困人口的减少,大部分,大约一半,是依靠从印度,另一个穷国,寄来的移民汇款。In El Salvador, the school dropout rate among children is lower in families that receive remittances.在萨尔瓦多,儿童辍学率在接受移民汇款的家庭中就比较低。In Mexico and Sri Lanka,the birth weight of children is higher among families that receive remittances.在墨西哥和斯里兰卡儿童的出生体重在接受移民汇款的家庭中较高。Remittances are dollars wrapped with care.移民汇款是被爱包裹的钱财。Migrants send money home for food,for buying necessities, for building houses,for funding education, for funding healthcare for the elderly, for business investments for friends and family. 移民们寄钱回去买食物,买必需品,建房子,用于教育,老年人的医疗,还有家人和朋友的商业投资。Migrants send even more money home for special occasions like a surgery or a wedding. And migrants also send money, perhaps far too many times,for unexpected funerals that they cannot attend.遇到特殊情况, 移民们还会寄更多的钱,比如手术或婚礼。也许更多的时候,遇上突如其来的葬礼,他们因为无法参加而寄钱回去。Much as these flows do all that good,there are barriers to these flows of remittances, these 400 billion dollars of remittances.虽然这些资金流动有这么多好处,它们的流动却受到很多阻碍,阻碍这四千亿美元的流动。Foremost among them is the exorbitant cost of sending money home.最大的障碍是寄钱回家的高额费用。Money transfer companies structure their fees to milk the poor.现金传递公司收费的方式就是在压榨穷人。They will say, ;Up to 500 dollars if you want to send, we will charge you 30 dollars fixed.;他们会说,五百美元以下,我们固定收取30元的手续费。If you are poor and if you have only 200 dollars to send,you have to pay that fee. 如果你很穷,只能寄两百块钱,你也得交30元的手续费。The global average cost of sending money is eight percent.寄钱的全球平均花费是8%。That means you send 100 dollars,the family on the other side receives only 92 dollars. 也就是说你寄100块钱,到了另一边你的家人只能收到92块。To send money to Africa,the cost is even higher:12 percent.寄钱到非洲的花费就更高:12%。To send money within Africa,the cost is even higher:over 20 percent. 在非洲内部寄钱,费用还要更高:超过20%,For example, sending money from Benin to Nigeria.比如从贝宁寄钱到尼日利亚。And then there is the case of Venezuela, where,because of exchange controls,you send 100 dollars and you are lucky if the family on the other side receives even 10 dollars.而在委内瑞拉,因为货币兑换受到控制,如果你寄了100块钱,你的家人在另一边如果能拿到10块钱就不错了。Of course, nobody sends money to Venezuela through the official channel.当然了,没人通过正式渠道往委内瑞拉寄钱。It all goes in suitcases.都是装在行李箱里带。Whereever costs are high,money goes underground.收费高的地方,钱都从地下走了。And what is worse,many developing countries actually have a blanket ban on sending money out of the country.更糟的是,很多发展中国家实际上还全面禁止往国外寄钱。Many rich nations also have a blanket ban on sending money to specific countries.很多富裕国也全面禁止向某些国家寄钱。So, is it that there are no options,no better options, cheaper options, to send money? 那是不是没有办法,更好,更便宜的办法寄钱了呢?There are.还是有的。M-Pesa in Kenya enables people to send money and receive money at a fixed cost of only 60 cents per transaction.通过肯尼亚的M-Pesa寄钱,手续费是固定的每笔60美分。201505/377315

Actor and social activist Martin Sheen delivered the commencement address at La Roche College’s 48th commencement on May 4, 2013.201412/348153


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