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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月22日 02:56:04
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Elon Musk roared into the Detroit Auto Show last week and made plain that it’s not only his Tesla TSLA 2.42% electric cars that are expected to meet the very highest performance standards, gunning from zero to 60 miles per hour in a McLaren-like 3.2 seconds. He rides his employees awfully hard, as well.上周,埃隆o穆斯克在底特律车展上明确表示,特斯拉电动汽车有望达到最高的性能水平,从静止到时速60英里只需3.2秒——这完全是麦克拉伦赛车的加速水准。穆斯克还说,在他的调教下,员工们个个都很努力。“If you are fighting a battle, it’s way better if you are at the front lines,” Musk told the Wall Street Journal, describing himself not as a mere micromanager but as something far more intense—a “nano-manager.”穆斯克对《华尔街日报》表示:“如果你在打仗,亲临前线的效果要好得多。”他说,用“微管理”来形容自己还不够确切,他对员工的管理达到了更细致的“纳米级管理”。Indeed, Musk makes no apologies for what theJournal described as “a hands-on obsession with the tiniest operational and car-design details at Tesla.” It’s safe to say that his domineering style doesn’t differ at SpaceX, the rocket company he founded and runs.《华尔街日报》报道称,在特斯拉公司,穆斯克“事必躬亲,无论是日常运营,还是汽车设计的细节,他都会亲自过问”。穆斯克认为,这种描述其实并不夸张。穆斯克在他创办并运营的SpaceX火箭公司,他的管理风格也是如此。Musk is the envy of many—and why not? He’s abillionaire. He was married (twice) to a beautiful actress. He has plans to visit Mars someday. He nonchalantly tosses around the word “Hyperloop.”Heck, he’s the model for Tony Stark, the swashbuckling genius played by Robert Downey Jr. in the “Iron Man” films.穆斯克是很多人羡慕的对象。这当然很好理解,这位亿万富翁结过两次婚,而且娶的都是美艳动人的女明星。他还打算在将来的某一天去火星逛逛,并且经常兜售他的“超回路高铁”理念。小罗伯特o唐尼扮演的钢铁侠,就是以他为原型塑造的。不过,在大批高管试图尝试“纳米级管理”理念之前,我们必须提醒他们:这种管理并不能发挥员工的最大潜能。When people’s autonomy in the workplace is sharply curtailed, they feel as if they’ve lost control—and, in turn, their brains react as if they’re being threatened. That raises their level of stress, which often causes them to perform poorly. “Feeling in control, even if it’s an illusion, is key to … cognitive ability staying intact,” Amy Arnsten, a professor of neurobiology and psychology at Yale, has pointed out.如果人们在职场中的自主性被剥夺,他们就会觉得自己失去了控制力,这会令他们的大脑产生一种被威胁感。这种感受将提高员工感知的压力,从而导致他们的工作效率进一步下降。耶鲁大学神经生物学与心理学教授艾米o阿恩斯坦指出:“觉得自己具有控制力,哪怕那只是一种幻觉,是保持完整认知能力的关键所在。”Great managers have always known the trouble with dictating to employees. Successfully motivating employees “involves teaching rather than telling,” William B. Given Jr., the president of American Brake Shoe Co., wrote in his 1949 classic Bottom-Up Management.优秀的管理者通常都知道搞“一言堂”的后果。美国制动蹄有限公司总裁小威廉oBo盖文在其1949年的经典著作《自下而上的管理》中指出,要想成功地激励员工,需要的是“教育,而非说教”。 /201502/358749

DAKAR, Senegal—Only days after declaring the lowest number of new Ebola cases in Guinea and Sierra Leone this year, officials at the World Health Organization said Tuesday that there had been a nearly fourfold increase during the most recent week of reporting, to about 35 new cases.塞内加尔达喀尔——世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)宣布几内亚及塞拉利昂今年的新增埃拉病例数量达到最低,但就在几天之后,也就是周二,世卫组织官员表示,在最近一周,新增病例提高了将近四倍,达到35例。With Liberia, the other West African nation at the center of the epidemic, being declared free of Ebola this month, the recent drop in infections in Sierra Leone and Guinea had offered hope that the worst Ebola outbreak in history might end soon.随着利比里亚——另一个爆发埃拉疫情的西非国家——本月宣布埃拉疫情结束,塞拉利昂和几内亚的感染病例也有所减少,人们满怀希望地认为,史上最严重的埃拉疫情可能很快就能结束。Officials warned against ing too much into the latest uptick, given the steep overall decline in Ebola cases. As recently as the week of March 15, there were 95 new cases in Guinea alone. A May 13 report showed the lowest weekly total this year: nine new cases, seven in Guinea and two in Sierra Leone.官员们警告称,由于埃拉病例总数大幅下降,不应对最近病例的增加做出过度解读。就在3月15日那周,单单是几内亚就出现了95例新增病例,5月13日一份报告中的数据显示,那一周是今年新增病例最少的一周:九例,其中几内亚七例,塞拉利昂两例。Health officials said that sharp falls and rises were normal as an epidemic approached its end. But they also said that some persistent risky practices, like unsafe burials of Ebola victims in Guinea, had contributed to the rise.卫生官员表示,随着疫情接近尾声,病例的剧增和锐减都是正常的。但他们还表示,一些持续存在的危险做法部分导致了病例的增加,比如几内亚地区埋葬埃拉患者的危险行为。Most of the new cases, about 27, are in Guinea, and one area in particular is a problem spot: the Forecariah district southeast of the capital, Conakry. It is far from where the outbreak started, in Guinea’s Forest Region, but it is in an area where there has been resistance to the sanitary burials necessary to contain Ebola.大部分新病例——大约27例——出现在几内亚,有一个地区已经成为重点疫区:首都科纳克里东南部的福雷卡里亚区,那里距离几内亚森林区的疫情源头非常远。但在福雷卡里亚区,以卫生的方式掩埋遗体的做法遇到过阻力。卫生的掩埋方法是遏制埃拉疫情的必要手段。“We’ve been concerned about a number of cases coming from there, of people dying in the community,” said Dr. Margaret Harris, a spokeswoman for the W.H.O., referring to the failure to turn corpses over to the authorities in Ebola hot spots, a refusal that has bedeviled health officials since the outbreak began.“我们一直担心这个社区会出现一些病例,导致很多患者死亡,”世卫组织发言人玛格丽特·哈里斯(Margaret Harris)说,她指的是人们未能将尸体移交给埃拉疫区的官方机构处理的情况。从疫情爆发以来,拒绝交出尸体的做法让卫生官员深受困扰。“There is still some concern that there are unsafe burials going on,” she said. “The burial issue is still a very tough one.”“我们仍然担心还有一些不安全的埋葬行为,”她说。“埋葬问题非常棘手。”Dr. Harris said a team of experts had been sent to the Forecariah area to help combat the sp of the disease.哈里斯表示,已经派出专家小组前往福雷卡里亚区,帮助遏制疫情的蔓延。“It doesn’t surprise us that within the tail of the epidemic there are peaks and valleys,” said Brice de la Vigne, the Brussels operations director of Doctors Without Borders, which has led the response to the epidemic over the last 14 months.“在疫情终结之前会出现病例增加和减少的情况,我们对此并没有感到吃惊,”无国界医生(Doctors Without Borders)驻布鲁塞尔的运营总监布里斯·德拉维涅(Brice de la Vigne)说。该组织在过去14个月中领导着应对埃拉疫情的行动。“This is not scaring us beyond reason; it is normal,” Mr. de la Vigne said, but “we know that there are still people who are contaminating themselves at funerals.”“这绝不会把我们吓跑,这很正常,”德拉维涅说,但“我们知道仍然有人在葬礼上感染疾病”。Adding to the cases are renewed efforts by officials to find the sick, said Sylvie Jonckheere, a Doctors Without Borders official in Conakry. “They’ve been doing a roundup,” she said. “They have plenty of people looking for the sick in the villages. It’s not really different from what we’ve seen with Ebola in the past.”无国界医生驻科纳克里的官员西尔维·约恩克海勒(Sylvie Jonckheere)表示,官员们新一轮寻找患者的行动,也导致了发现病例增加。“他们一直在搜罗,”她说。“派很多人在村子里寻找患者。这与我们过去看到的埃拉疫情没什么不同。”It is not a coincidence that the disease is lingering longest in Guinea, where the outbreak began 18 months ago. In Guinea, resistance to the intervention of outsiders — doctors, health officials, politicians — has been stronger than in either Sierra Leone or Liberia.埃拉在几内亚传播时间最长并非巧合,18个月前,疫情就是在几内亚爆发的。几内亚对外界——医生、卫生官员、政治人物——干预的抗拒要比塞拉利昂或利比里亚强烈。Guinea has reacted with occasional violence to efforts to contain the disease. In the Forest Region, eight officials and journalists were killed by villagers during an anti-Ebola rally in September. Before that, doctors and health officials were repeatedly attacked, and villages were classified as “closed” or “open” by health officials, depending on whether they would allow outsiders in to fight the disease.在几内亚,也不时有民众以暴力手段抵制控制疫情的行动。去年9月,在森林区,八名官员和记者在一场反埃拉的集会上被村民打死。在那之前,医生和卫生官员多次遭袭,卫生官员根据村庄是否允许外部人士进入对抗疫情,将各个村庄分为“封闭”和“开放”两种。More than 11,000 people have died of Ebola in the three countries, and there have been over 26,000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases, according to the W.H.O.’s May 13 situation report on the epidemic.世卫组织5月13日公布的疫情报告显示,在这三个国家中,已有逾1.1万人死于埃拉,另有超过2.6万例确诊病例及潜在和疑似病例。But one telling statistic in the report indicates how sharply the Ebola epidemic has dropped off: Out of 55 districts in the three countries that had reported at least one case of the disease, 43 have not reported a single one for more than six weeks.但该报告中一项重要的数据说明,埃拉病例正在大幅减少:在这三个国家里,曾经报告过至少一个病例的55个地区里,有43个地区在六个多星期的时间里,没有报告过任何病例。 /201505/376286

  

  Of all the furniture you’ll ever buy, “the bed, the sofa and dining table are the three biggest things,” Jeffrey Bernett said.在所有你将会购买的家具当中,“沙发、餐桌和床是体积最大的三件。”杰弗里·贝尔内特(Jeffrey Bernett)说。Mr. Bernett, 50, is a product designer with a particular interest in the last item, thanks to a back injury in his mid-20s that still gives him trouble.今年50岁的贝尔内特是一名产品设计师,他对最后所提到的这件家具尤其感兴趣,因为在二十五、六岁时他的背部曾经受过伤,这让他至今仍有困扰。When you’re buying a bed, “you only have a few basic choices in size,” he said, because “the bed is so defined by the mattress.” But the range of aesthetic choices is wide.当你去买床的时候,“在规格上,你只有几种最基本的选择,”他说,因为“床的大小局限于床垫。”但在审美样式上,你可选择的范围就很宽了。Mr. Bernett’s personal preference can be seen in his recent collection for Design Within Reach, a line of modern, low-slung bedroom furniture called Parallel. “Because we live in tall cities,” he said, “keeping things horizontal and a little bit lower helps ground people and create a sense of nesting.”贝尔内特的个人偏好可以从他最近为Design Within Reach公司设计的系列作品中看出来。这是一整套现代、低矮的卧室家具,名为“平行线”(Parallel)。“由于我们都住在高楼林立的城市里,”他说,“所以让东西尽量处于水平状态,并且高度略低一点,可以让人住得安稳,给人一种安逸的感觉。”Like his DWR series, the ultra-minimal ’64 bed from Cappellini is well suited to tight urban spaces. It has been reduced “to its bare-minimal components,” he said, and “allows for the most effective footprint possible.”卡佩里尼(Cappellini)公司的一张’64系列(指该款家具设计于1964年——译注)的超级迷你床,正如贝尔内特设计的DWR系列作品一样,非常适合空间局促的都市住宅。这张床已经精简到了“几个不能再少的组件,”他说,并且“将有限的面积尽可能地效用最大化。”For traditionalists, Mr. Bernett suggested the Arc Four Post from Calvin Klein Home, which has the architectural structure of a four-poster without the fussiness. “The lines are a bit more modern,” he said. “Calvin Klein really thinks about the home, and their pieces embody the rigor and structure that I admire.”贝尔内特为一些因循守旧的买家推荐了一张Calvin Klein Home的弧形四柱床(Arc Four Post),它有四柱床的框架结构,但免去了那些复杂的雕花装饰。“床架的线条更具现代感,”他说,“Calvin Klein充分考虑了家庭的需要,而且他们的东西体现了我所崇尚的设计结构和严谨的做工。”The Highlands bed by Patricia Urquiola for Moroso, on the other hand, is anything but rigid: The headboard is split into two sections that flip up or down, depending on the preference of the person on that side of the bed. For couples with different sleeping styles, “it’s an interesting solution,” he said. “You can have your independence but still spend time together.”相比之下,帕奇希娅·奥奇拉(Patricia Urquiola)为Moroso公司设计的那张高地床(Highlands bed),则一点也没有严谨的感觉:这张床的床头被劈成了两部分,可以让睡在其中一侧的人按其喜好,折起或放平。对于那些睡姿不同的夫妻来说,“这是个有趣的解决方法,”他说,“你们可以各自享受自由,但依然与对方同床共眠。”Whatever kind of bed you’re buying, Mr. Bernett said, it’s a good idea to give the corners a hard shove with your thigh, to make sure the construction is solid and won’t creak.但无论你要购买什么样的床,贝尔内特说,最好还是用你的大腿去压一压那几个床角,以确保这张床足够结实,而不会嘎吱作响。Presumably this wouldn’t be necessary with the massive Slab, which he admired at BDDW, in TriBeCa. A king-size bed with built-in nightstands, it had a monumental headboard nearly 13 feet across.这个方法,大概不必用于他在翠贝卡(TriBeCa)的BDDW商店里看上的那张Slab大床。这是一张特大号(king-size)的床,两边有嵌入式床头柜,硕大的床头板宽度将近13英尺(约4米)。It also had a monumental price tag: ,000. Still, Mr. Bernett noted, “Nothing speaks volumes like big pieces of well-made material.”这张床,还有一张奇贵的价格标签:7.2万美元(约合人民币44万)。尽管如此,贝尔内特指出,“什么都比不上材质精良的大件家具更能彰显特色。”No matter what your budget, he added, the most important thing is to make sure you’re comfortable. “If you can’t sleep well on your bed,” he said, “this city will eat you alive.”但不管你的预算是多少,他补充道,最重要的还是确保你能睡得舒。“如果你在自己床上睡不好,”他说,“这座城市就会把你活生生地吃掉。” /201412/347241。

  What is a virus?病毒是什么?Influenza. Ebola. The common cold. HIV/AIDS. Measles.流行性感冒,埃拉病毒,普通感冒,艾滋病毒,麻疹。Viruses cause these diseases - and many more. Some are serious. Others, not so much. For better or worse, viruses are part of life.病毒会导致上述疾病,或者更多。有些很严重,有些则不然。不论怎样,病毒都是我们生活中的一部分。It surprises many people to learn that viruses ;live; in us but aren#39;t technically alive. Viruses can replicate only inside the cells of their host. A host can be an animal, plant, bacterium or fungus.要知道病毒虽然寄居在我们身上并不意味着它就是活的,这可能会令很多人大吃一惊。病毒仅在宿主的细胞内进行复制。它的宿主可能是动物、植物,也可能是细菌、真菌等等。Viruses are sometimes confused with another family of germs: bacteria. But viruses are much, much smaller. Think of a virus as a tiny package jacketed in a protein covering. Inside is either DNA or RNA. Each molecule serves as an instruction book. Its genetic information provides instructions that tell a cell what to make and when to make it.通常我们会把病毒与它的另一个家庭成员-细菌混淆,其区别就是病毒小得多多了。病毒身穿蛋白质外套,内含脱氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸。每一个分子充当着一本说明书。其遗传信息为细胞提供指导,告诉他们什么时候该做什么。When a virus infects a cell, it sends that cell a simple message: Make more viruses.当病毒侵入细胞内时,它会给该细胞发送一个简单的信号:复制更多的病毒!In that sense, this virus is a hijacker. It breaks into a cell. Then it makes the cell do its bidding. Eventually, that host cell dies, spewing new viruses to attack more cells. That is how viruses sicken a host.在这个意义上,病毒就变成了一名劫持犯,它闯入细胞,迫使其按指令行事。最终宿主细胞死掉,吐出新病毒攻击更多细胞,这就是病毒入侵细胞的整个过程。(By the way, a computer virus isn#39;t a real virus. It#39;s a type of software, meaning computer instructions. Like a real virus, however, a computer virus can infect - and even hijack - its host computer.)(顺便提一下,电脑病毒不是真正的病毒,他是一种软件,一种计算机指令。然而与真实病菌类似的是,电脑病毒也会入侵主机内部并将其劫持。)The body can rid itself of many viruses on its own. Other viruses may present too big a challenge. Medicines to treat viruses exist. Called antivirals, they work in different ways. Some, for example, block the entry of a virus into a host cell. Others interrupt the virus as it attempts to copy itself.身体可以自行清除许多病毒,但有些病毒表现的像一个巨大挑战。能对抗病毒的药物是存在的,叫做抗病毒药。他们以不同的方式起作用,比如有的会阻止病毒侵入宿主细胞内。有的会中断病毒复制。In general, viruses can be hard to treat. That#39;s because they live inside your cells, which shelter them from medicines. (It#39;s also important to note that antibiotics don#39;t work on viruses.)总之,病毒很难对付,那是因为它们寄生在你的细胞内部,增加了药物使用困难。(还需注意的是抗生素可能不会对病毒起什么作用) /201506/380719

  SEATTLE — It’s hard to believe that this coffee-crazed city would get excited about yet another coffee shop, particularly another Starbucks.西雅图——你可能很难相信,这个以咖啡闻名的城市会因为一家新咖啡馆而激动不已,何况只是另一家星巴克(Starbucks)咖啡馆。For over a year, the Seattle coffeecenti has been buzzing with speculation about the opening of the Starbucks Reserve Roastery and Tasting Room, the flagship of a planned chain of 100 plush stores selling high-end coffees from around the world.在一年多的时间里,一直有传闻称,这个诞生于西雅图的咖啡品牌将开设一家名为“星巴克精品烘烤品尝室”(Starbucks Reserve Roastery and Tasting Room)的旗舰店。星巴克计划开设100家这样的精品咖啡连锁店,销售来自世界各地的高端咖啡。With this new venture, Starbucks has signaled that it intends to lure aficionados of high-end coffee, as it eyes the growing market for rare coffees, those beans grown in small quantities that sell for as much as for less than a pound.这个新项目表明,星巴克打算吸引高端咖啡爱好者,该公司正着眼于稀有品种咖啡日益庞大的市场。稀有咖啡豆种植规模小,不到一磅的售价就可能高达45美元(约合280元人民币)。But it aly faces considerable competition from boutique chains like Stumptown Coffee Roasters, Dillanos Coffee Roasters and Blue Bottle Coffee that have aly developed thriving businesses in what are known as single-origin coffees and microlots. Such coffees come from a single farm or small collective, typically hard to reach and fickle, so that production is limited and often available only at specific times of the year. Their customers tend to shun the sort of big-business ubiquity that a mass-coffee purveyor like Starbucks embodies.不过,星巴克面临着斯邓姆顿咖啡馆(Stumptown Coffee Roasters)、迪拉诺斯咖啡烘烤公司(Dillanos Coffee Roasters)和蓝瓶咖啡(Blue Bottle Coffee)等精品咖啡连锁店的激烈竞争,它们凭借所谓的单一产地和微批次(microlot)的模式而风生水起。这些品牌的咖啡只来自单一的农场或小型合作社,一般很难买到,因此产量有限,通常只能在一年中的特定时间才有。而这些咖啡的消费人群往往是那些厌倦了以星巴克为代表的无处不在的大众品牌的消费者。In fact, Laila Ghambari, director of coffee at Cherry Street Coffee House, which has 10 shops in the Seattle area, calls Starbucks the “McDonald’s of coffee.”事实上,樱桃街咖啡馆(Cherry Street Coffee House)的咖啡负责人莱拉·甘巴里(Laila Ghambari)把星巴克称作“咖啡中的麦当劳”。樱桃街咖啡馆在西雅图地区有10家门店。So to distinguish Reserve from its mass-market cousin, Starbucks is banishing, to a great extent, its green mermaid logo at the new shops and in the product line. The Reserve stores and line of coffees instead carry a star logo, along with a red “R.”为了与星巴克的大众市场品牌区别开来,星巴克精品烘烤品牌的新店和产品线,很大程度上摒弃了绿色美人鱼的商标,而是使用了一个星形标志,加上一个红色字母“R”。The reach into a higher-end market is another sign that coffee consumption in the ed States is growing only modestly, according to trade data on imports collected by Panjiva. The popularity of single-serve coffee makers like Keurig and Nespresso have added pressure.星巴克进军高端市场的努力还显示出,美国的咖啡消费增长缓慢,磐聚网(Panjiva)收集的进口贸易数据也印了这一点。Keurig和Nespresso等胶囊咖啡机的超高人气,也加剧了市场的竞争压力。“If you look at coffee imports over all for the last several years, it looks like a pretty mature market,” said Josh Green, chief executive of Panjiva. “There’s been a roller coaster in terms of price, but in terms of volumes, we’re talking about very modest growth — and that kind of market is usually where you see companies trying to go upmarket in terms of price and exclusivity.”“从过去几年咖啡进口的整体状况来看,市场似乎已经相当成熟,”磐聚网CEO乔希·格林(Josh Green)说。“价格上忽高忽低,但进口规模一直增长有限——在这类市场,通常会有许多企业想要走向高端,在价格和产品的独特性上提高档次。”The new Starbucks Roastery is rumored to have cost more than million. Part retail store, part manufacturing facility and part theater, the store intentionally evokes the chocolate room where Augustus Gloop met his fate in Willy Wonka’s candy factory. See-through tubes snake up out of the floor and under the ceiling, ferrying green coffee beans to copper-clad roasters and roasted beans to the coffee bars scattered like islands around the 15,000-square-foot space.据称,新的星巴克烘烤品尝室成本超过2000万美元。它集零售店、生产加工和剧场与一身,而且还故意营造出了奥古斯塔斯·格鲁普(Augustus Gloop)进入威利·旺卡(Willy Wonka)的巧克力工厂时的那种梦想成真的感觉。透明的管子在地板和天花板上蜿蜒,把绿色的咖啡豆送进镀了铜的烘烤机,接着将烘烤好的咖啡豆,送往向岛屿一样散落在1.5万平方英尺(约合1400平米)面积里的吧台。“This is a magical place where coffee comes to life,” said Liz Muller, director of concept design for Starbucks.“这是一个神奇的地方,它让咖啡拥有了生命,”星巴克的概念设计总监利兹·穆勒 (Liz Muller)。The noise the beans make as they rattle through the tubes — “like rain,” Ms. Muller says — is punctuated by the click-clack of an old-fashioned railway station split-flap display, except the schedule tracked here is of varieties of coffees being roasted. They are small lots from remote highlands in Africa, Latin America and Asia.咖啡豆在管子里哗哗作响的声音——“就像下雨,”穆勒说——中间夹杂着老式火车站里的信息屏,翻着字母牌显示信息的那种咔咔声,只不过这里的时刻表显示的是各种咖啡的烘烤时间。这些咖啡都来自非洲、拉丁美洲和亚洲遥远高地上的小块田地。“We’re going to take the customer on a journey, immersing them in an interactive environment where they’ll be introduced to handcrafted, small-batch coffees within feet of where they’re being roasted,” said Howard Schultz, chief executive of Starbucks.“我们要把消费者带上一段旅程,让他们沉浸在互动的环境里,让他们近距离地了解小批量手工生产的咖啡,”星巴克CEO霍华德·舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)说。Virginia Morris, vice president for consumer insights and strategy at Daymon Worldwide, a private-brand development company, noted that consumers were seeking singular experiences that would include individualistic brews. But specialty brewers who have attracted loyalists doubt that a giant in the mass-market will be viewed favorably.私营品牌拓展公司达曼国际咨询(Daymon Worldwide)的消费者洞见和战略副总裁弗吉尼亚·莫里斯(Virginia Morris)指出,消费者正在寻求独一无二的体验,包括个性化的咖啡制作工艺。但吸引了一批忠实拥趸的专享咖啡店十分怀疑,这样一个面向大众市场的巨人,能否受到青睐。“I think you can start out small and grow large, but once you’re large, it’s really hard to get the consumer’s perception that you are authentic,” said David J. Morris, half-owner of Dillanos.“我觉得品牌可以起步时很小,后来再逐步扩大,但一旦规模变大,真的很难让消费者认为你很正宗,”迪拉诺斯的半个老板戴维·J·莫里斯(David J. Morris)说。The company says the price per cup of a Reserve line will be to , depending on the exclusivity of the beans, of course.星巴克透露,每杯精品系列咖啡的价格将在4至7美元,当然具体视咖啡豆的独特性而定。Single-origin coffees typically are named for the places they are grown, not just the country. Stumptown’s website includes a link to Google maps, so a customer can see, say, where its Colombia San Isidro is grown.单一产地咖啡通常以它们的种植地,而不仅仅是国家命名。斯邓姆顿的网站上有可以跳转到谷歌(Google)地图的链接。这样,消费者就能看到这家店里诸如Colombia San Isidro这样的品类生长在哪里。Microlots come from a specific parcel of land, like the section of the Finca El Manzano coffee farm in El Salvador that grows Dillanos’s El Manzano Porton Lot, which produced just 60 bags of coffee last year and was used by Ms. Ghambari when she won the ed States Barista Championship this year.微批次咖啡来自具体的某块地,比如萨尔瓦多Finca El Manzano咖啡园中,为迪拉诺斯种植El Manzano Porton Lot的那块地。去年,那块地仅出产了60袋咖啡。甘巴里今年在美国咖啡师锦标赛(ed States Barista Championship)中夺冠时,用的就是那里出产的咖啡。“Each one has a signature nature, and each year it may be different, depending on when the rain comes and how much shade it gets,” said David Schomer, the proprietor of Espresso Vivace, which has three locations in Seattle, including a sidewalk stand in the Capitol Hill neighborhood, not far from the Reserve Roastery. “Each one will be roasted differently by the roaster, who may develop more or less caramelization or more or less bitterness.”“每块地都有标志性的特质,每年的情况都有所不同,取决于雨季到来的时间,以及植株能得到多少阴凉,”Espresso Vivace的老板戴维·绍默(David Schomer)说。该品牌在西雅图有三家店,其中一家位于国会山地区的一条人行道旁,距离星巴克的精品烘烤店不远。“烘烤师会以不同方式对每一个品类进行烘烤,焦糖化反应有轻有重,苦味也有轻有重。”Until recently, Dillanos Coffee Roasters largely served commercial customers, roasting private-label coffees and helping them develop house blends. “They need lots of coffee, not small lots of great coffee, and consistency is very important there,” said Chris Heyer, who owns the business together with his half brother, Mr. Morris.直到不久前,迪拉诺斯咖啡烘烤公司还主要务于商业客户,烘烤专属咖啡并帮助客户研发自有的调配咖啡产品。“它们需要大量的咖啡,而不是少量优质咖啡,而且口味的一致性非常重要,”克里斯·海尔(Chris Heyer)说。他和同母异父的兄弟莫里斯共同拥有该公司。About a decade ago, they started the One Harvest Project, a line of fair-trade, sustainable coffees, providing education, health and other benefits to growers with whom the company wished to develop long-term relationships.大约十年前,他们启动了“一次收获项目”(One Harvest Project)。这是一个推行公平贸易、可持续的咖啡业务线,该公司向希望与其达成长期合作关系的咖啡种植户提供教育、健康和其他方面的福利。That led to an even more exclusive line of coffees, DCR, which Phil Beattie, the Dillanos coffee director, called a natural progression that included the El Manzano microlot.这又催生了更为独特的咖啡品牌DCR。迪拉诺斯公司的咖啡总监称,这是包括El Manzano微批次在内的自然发展。The company may purchase less than 300 pounds of such coffees. In comparison, it roasts 2,000 pounds of its signature Dillons Blend coffee each day.该公司可能会购买不到300磅这种咖啡。相比之下,它每天会烘烤2000磅自有的主打品类“迪隆混合”(Dillons Blend)。So what happens when a company the size of Starbucks begins shopping for those precious beans, some of which may only be available for less than a month a year? Peet’s Coffee is selling a half-pound bag of scarce Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee, one batch roasted on Wednesday and the second scheduled for roasting next week, for .因此,如果一家像星巴克那么大规模的公司开始采购罕有品种的咖啡豆,会发生什么?那些咖啡豆中,有一些每年出产的时间可能都不到一个月。皮特咖啡(Peet’s Coffee)正在以45美元的价格,出售半磅装的牙买加蓝山咖啡(Jamaica Blue Mountain),第一批是上周三烘烤的,第二批定于这周烘烤。Specialty coffee companies say relationships established over many years with growers will protect them from competition from bigger players. “We have worked with our growers for a long time and we expect to continue to work with them,” said Eric Hoest, director of operations at Stumptown, which is based in Portland.精品咖啡公司称,多年来与咖啡种植户建立起来的关系,能保护它们免受更大品牌的竞争。“我们已经和种植户合作了很长时间,我们希望继续与他们合作,”总部位于波特兰的斯邓姆顿公司的运营总监埃里克·赫斯特(Eric Hoest)说。To expand in this area, Starbucks bought Hacienda Alsacia in Costa Rica, an estate that will produce specialty coffee just for the company.为了在该领域扩张,星巴克买下了哥斯达黎加的Hacienda Alsacia咖啡园。该咖啡园将仅为该公司供应精品咖啡。Starbucks roasters will be available only at five or six new sites, but some of the Reserve coffee brands will be for sale in over 1,000 Starbucks stores.星巴克的烘烤设备仅会在五六家新店配置,但部分精品咖啡品牌将在1000多家星巴克咖啡店出售。Mr. Schultz said his vision for the Reserve Roastery store stretched back a decade or more, and he collected a scrapbook with ideas for finishes and furnishings. But it wasn’t until a used car dealership nine blocks up Pine Street from the first Starbucks store became available that he began executing his plans.舒尔茨称自己对精品烘烤店的设想可以追溯到十年甚至更久之前,而且他还用一个剪贴簿,收集了有关涂漆和室内装饰的想法。但直到可以买下松树街上距离第一家星巴克咖啡店九个街区远的一家二手车店,他才开始执行自己的计划。He said the Reserve stores would be run as a business and must make a profit to survive. “At the end of the day,” he added, “this all has to be proven in a cup — and it will be.”他说,精品烘烤店会作为一家企业来运营,并且要想存活下来,就必须盈利。“说到底,”他接着说,“所有这些都需要在咖啡杯里得到明——也会得到明。” /201412/347248Most of us who#39;ve ever had tapioca know it to be the chewy, small pearls found in a bowl of pudding. Or maybe the bigger, still chewy balls floating around in the now-globally-popular sweet Asian bubble teas. But not many of us actually know what these little pearls are -- what they#39;re made of or where they come from. We#39;re going to fix that.大部分吃过木薯粉的人都知道木薯粉可以用来做布丁里有嚼头的小珍珠、或者是现已风靡全球的亚洲珍珠奶茶里的大珍珠。但是并没多少人真正知道这些珍珠是什么——它们是用什么做的、是从哪里来的?我们现在就来揭晓。This is what tapioca pearls look like before they#39;re added to some of our favorite sweets.木薯粉做的珍珠在加入我们喜爱的甜味之前是这个样子的。And this is what tapioca looks like before it#39;s been made into cute little pearls.木薯在加工成可爱的小珍珠之前是长这样的。The photo above is of cassava root (also known as yuca in some parts of the world). It#39;s mainly cultivated and eaten in tropical regions; it started off in Northern Brazil, but eventually made its way across the South American continent and over to Africa and Asia. It#39;s prized for its ability to grow in low-nutrient soils and harvest quickly. It#39;s also loved for its culinary versatility. Cassava can be mashed, cooked into soups or fried into, well, fries. And it#39;s also used to make tapioca. This is what tapioca looks like in flour form.上面这张照片里的是木薯根(在世界上某些地方也被称为yuca),主要在热带地区种植食用。木薯原产于巴西北部,后来被广泛引进南美的其他地区以及非洲和亚洲,因其能在贫瘠的土壤里生长并快速收成而备受青睐。另外,木薯也因在烹饪中用途广泛而广受欢迎。木薯可以切碎、用来煮汤或者炸成薯条,也可以用来加工成木薯粉。木薯粉加工成面粉状的时候是这样子的。Tapioca is a starch extracted from the cassava root. It is used as a thickening agent in many foods. It can be made into flour -- it has a similar texture to cornstarch -- which is often times used in gluten-free bs. It can also be made into pearls in varying sizes. Personally, we like it best when it#39;s floating in a tall glass of bubble tea.木薯粉是从木薯根提取出来的一种淀粉,在很多食物中被用作增稠剂。木薯粉可以加工成面粉,跟玉米淀粉有相似的口感,经常被用来做不含麸质蛋白的面包。木薯粉也可以做成不同大小的珍珠。对我们来说,我们最喜欢的还是那一大杯奶茶里的珍珠。If you don#39;t live in a place where the bubble tea craze has hit yet, you should try it. You can make it yourself at home, giant tapioca pearls (or cubes) and all. 如果你住的地方珍珠奶茶还没有流行起来,那你更加要尝一下了。超大的木薯珍珠(或者方块)和其他所有的东西你都可以在家里自己做。 /201507/388288In 2009, after half a century of nearly unbroken rule, the Liberal Democratic party was finally drummed out of office by a new force in Japanese politics. The Democratic Party of Japan, led by Yukio Hatoyama, promised a new contract with the Japanese public and a new relationship between elected officials and the powerful bureaucracy. Yet when Hatoyama went to Washington the following April, he was shunned.在几乎未曾间断地执政半个世纪后,自民党(LDP)最终在2009年被日本政坛的新力量赶下台。由鸠山由纪夫(Yukio Hatoyama)领导的日本民主党(DPJ),承诺与日本民众签订新契约,并在民选官员和势力强大的官僚体系之间建立新的关系。然而,当翌年4月鸠山访问华盛顿时,他遭遇了冷遇。The ostensible reason was that Hatoyama had displeased Washington by reneging on a deal to build a new US Marine base on Okinawa. However, according to R Taggart Murphy, professor of international political economy at Tokyo’s Tsukuba university, Hatoyama was attempting much more than that: he wanted to regain the sovereignty that Japan had lost when it became a virtual “protectorate” of the US after 1945. “Japan cannot be an ally of the ed States — or anyone else — until it is first a sovereign state,” Taggart Murphy writes. In this view, one shared by many on both the Japanese right and the left, Japan remains essentially an occupied nation, subject to a US-written constitution and honeycombed by US military bases. Rather like Hatoyama, he recommends Japan taking responsibility for its own defence and seeking a new accommodation with China.表面上的原因是,鸠山拒绝履行冲绳美国海军基地新建协议,触怒了华盛顿。然而,东京筑波大学(University of Tsukuba)国际政治经济学教授塔R#8226;塔格特#8226;墨菲(R Taggart Murphy)认为,鸠山想要的比这多得多:他想收回日本1945年后成为美国事实上的“保护国”时所丧失的主权。墨菲写到:“在首先成为一个主权国家之前,日本无法做美国(或任何其他国家)的盟国。”这种观点(得到日本右翼和左翼的很多人认同)认为:日本本质上仍是一个被占领国,要遵守一部由美国制定的宪法,本土遍布美国军事基地。跟鸠山的观点相像,墨菲建议日本自己担负国防责任,并寻求与中国取得新的和解。Taggart Murphy knows his Japanese history. His theories about Japan’s political economy — of which more later — shed interesting light on the country. They can, however, be taken to extreme. In the case of Hatoyama, the author contends that he was brought down by Washington. Certainly, the US was disturbed by Hatoyama, who casually announced in an essay that he wanted to recast Japan’s relationship with the US and China, omitting to mention this sea-change in foreign policy to his allies in the US. But while US diplomats may have schemed against him, to lay his demise squarely at Washington’s door is too much. (To be fair, as well as the Pentagon and Japan-handlers in Washington, the author also blames the LDP, the Japanese bureaucracy, Beijing, Pyongyang and the 2011 earthquake. Only the kitchen sink, it seems, was not in on the conspiracy.)墨菲了解日本历史。他关于日本(当代)政治经济史的理论提供了一些有意思的观点,有助于我们了解这个国家。但是,有些观点可能有些过头。就鸠山来说,作者认为他是被华盛顿搞下台的。当然,美国被鸠山弄得心神不宁——他在一篇文章中漫不经心地地宣布,要重塑日本与美国以及中国的关系,但却没有向他在美国的盟友事先提及这一外交政策突变。虽然美国外交官可能曾密谋对付鸠山,但把他的下台完全归咎于华盛顿有点太过了。(平心而论,除五角大楼以及华盛顿负责处理日本事务者之外,作者还指责自民党、日本官僚体系、中国政府、朝鲜政府以及2011年那场地震应该为鸠山下台负责。看起来只有厨房里的水槽没有参与这场阴谋。)The book’s intellectual foundations owe much to Karel van Wolferen, whose classic The Enigma of Japanese Power (1989) revolutionised the way people thought about Japan. In Taggart Murphy’s hands, the crux of the theory is that power relations have not properly evolved from the quasi-feudal system that operated for more than 250 years when Japan was an isolated shogunate. Then the nominal head of state was the emperor, though in reality he was little more than a figurehead. The Meiji Restoration of 1868, which overthrew the existing order in order to protect Japan from encroaching colonialism, supposedly restored the emperor to his rightful position. Unlike in Europe, this was not a bourgeois revolution mounted from below, but a putsch organised by a clique of samurai. Japan, in other words, has never properly destroyed the old order, a state of affairs perpetuated when the US occupation ducked its chance to topple the emperor.这本书的知识基础大大得益于卡雷尔#8226;范沃尔夫伦(Karel Van Wolferen),后者关于日本的经典著作《日本:权力结构之谜》(The Enigma of Japanese Power,1989)彻底改变了人们对日本的认识。在墨菲笔下,这一理论的核心是,权力关系还没有真正超越半封建体制,这一体制在日本还是个孤立的幕府国家期间运转了超过250年。那时,名义上的国家元首是天皇,尽管实际上他不过是一个傀儡。1868年的明治维新 (Meiji Restoration)为保护日本免受殖民主义入侵而推翻了原有秩序,据信恢复了天皇应有的地位。与欧洲不同,这不是一场自下而上的资产阶级革命,而是由武士集团组织的一场政变。换句话说,日本从来没有完全摧毁其旧秩序,而美国在占领期间放弃废除天皇的机会,使这一状态得以永久化。There is much useful rumination here. The section on the Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868) is particularly well done, and there are also many colourful, often acerbic, observations about modern Japan — a foreigner working for a Japanese company, for example, is likened to a rap artist joining a string quartet. The tragedy of Japan, says the author, stems from the fact it merely grafted the trappings of a modern state on to its existing system. To this day, he contends, there continues to be a “yawning gap between the political reality in Japan and the fictions with which that reality” is understood.本书中有很多有益的思考。关于德川幕府时代(Tokugawa shogunate,1600-1868)的章节写得格外好,书中对现代日本也有许多生动(往往也很尖刻)的——例如,书中将一个效力于日本企业的外国人比作加入了弦乐四重奏的说唱歌手。作者说,日本的悲剧源于它只是把现代国家的外表嫁接到了原有的体制之上。他说,时至今日,“日本政治现实与人们对这种现实的臆想之间仍存在巨大差距”。For the author, this gap explains more or less everything. It is why, for example, there are endless debates in parliament about matters that have long been decided upon behind closed doors. It is why it took a foreigner, unfamiliar with honour codes, to blow the whistle on the fictional accounts at Olympus. It is also why the salaryman can believe he is “a soldier for a cause” but can also recognise that ultimately he is an “exploited cog in a faceless, industrial machine”.在作者看来,这种差距几乎可以解释一切。例如,它解释了为什么议会要对早已秘密决定的事情进行无休止的辩论。它也解释了为什么举报奥林巴斯(Olympus)账目造假的是一个不熟悉日本荣誉守则的外国人,以及为什么一个工薪族既可以相信自己是“献身事业的士兵”,也可以承认自己最终是“千篇一律的工业机器上一颗被剥削的螺丝钉”。This latter example reveals the author’s propensity to see in every facet of modern Japan the ghosts of an unreconstructed past. The alienation of labour he describes could apply equally to almost anywhere. Similarly, many other features of the country, from teenage fashion to sexual relations, are shoehorned into an overarching theory with sometimes illuminating or far-fetched consequences.后面那个例子显示出,作者倾向于认为,那段未得到重建的历史的幽灵存在于现代日本的方方面面。他所描述的劳动异化(alienation of labour)可能同样适用于几乎任何地方。类似地,这个国家的许多其他特征(从青少年时尚到两性关系)都被硬塞进一个包罗一切的理论中,得出的结论有时发人深省,有时有些牵强。Shinzo Abe, the nationalist prime minister, becomes yet another throwback — one of the “vampires” from the darkest period of Japan’s history, in Taggart Murphy’s description. For this sorry state of affairs, the author concludes, Washington has only itself to blame. It “cavalierly” destroyed Japan’s best hope of revamping its political system and of repairing poisonous relations with China. Yet this is to credit the Democratic Party of Japan with a revolutionary agenda that it simply did not possess. It is also to depict modern Japan, for all its many faults, in too unrelentingly gloomy a light.日本的民族主义首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)则成为另一大倒退的象征——用墨菲的话来说,他是来自日本历史中最黑暗时期的“吸血鬼”之一。对于这种糟糕的状态,作者认为,华盛顿只能怪它自己:美国“傲慢地”摧毁了日本改造其政治体制以及修复糟糕的日中关系的最好机会。然而,作者这样说相当于认为日本民主党有一份革命议程,但实际上它根本没有。此外,尽管现代日本存在种种缺陷,但作者这样说也未免过于无情和悲观,没有公允地反映现代日本的真实面貌。Japan and the Shackles of the Past, by R Taggart, Murphy OUP USA RRP#163;20/RRP.95, 472 pages《日本及其历史枷锁》(Japan and the Shackles of the Past),R#8226;塔格特#8226;墨菲著,牛津大学出版社美国部(OUP USA)出版,建议零售价20英镑或29.95美元,472页David Pilling is the FT’s Asia editor and author of ‘Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival’ (Allen Lane)注:戴维#8226;皮林(David Pilling)是英国《金融时报》亚洲版主编,著有《弯折逆境:日本与生存艺术》(Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival),由艾伦莱恩出版社(Allen Lane)出版。 /201501/355259

  A new debate has broken out between some of the world#39;s top Shakespeare experts over whether the playwright#39;s sonnets prove he was attracted to men.在世界顶级莎士比亚学者中间,一个新的舆论炸开了锅:这位剧作家的十四行诗是不是在暗示他被男性所吸引着?Sir Brian Vickers, a visiting professor at University College London, began the row by condemning a book review which suggested Sonnet 116 appears in a #39;primarily homosexual context#39;伦敦大学学院的客座教授布莱恩·威克斯爵士第一个对此论调提出怀疑,他抨击了一本解读莎士比亚十四行诗的第116首“首先是一个同性恋文本”的书评。In a letter to the Times Literary Supplement, he said the claim was #39;anachronistic#39; because scholars now accept there were forms of rhetoric that allowed men to express love without implying sexual attraction.在写给《泰晤士报文学增刊》的信中,他说道,因为如今学者都承认,在不表明性向的时候,有一些特定的修辞用来表达对男性的爱意,这种论调是“不合时宜的”。He also said that any attempt to find biographical information in the sonnets was doomed because Shakespeare was a professional who wrote under the identity of a #39;poet-persona#39;.他也说道,任何试图在十四行诗中寻找传记信息的企图都是注定失败的,因为莎士比亚是个专业的带着“诗人面具”写作的人。Fellow academics have since hit back at Mr Vickers#39; comments, accusing him of promoting #39;one of the great fallacies of modern Shakespeare criticism#39;.随后的一些学者开始攻击威克斯的论调,指控他在传播“一个现代莎士比亚界的大谬误”。Scholar Arthur Freeman, who described himself as a #39;friendly acquaintance#39; of Mr Vickers when responding to him via the letters page, accused him of introducing #39;presuppositions that many of us would question, if not reject out of hand#39;.亚瑟·弗里曼学者,声称自己是威克斯先生的“友人”,在信上指控他“再不住手的话,我们都要对你的假设提出怀疑了”。He wrote: #39;I cannot think of any responsible editor ... who would dismiss the premise of homosexual, as well as heterosexual passion pervading [the sonnets].他写道:“我不能想到任何一位有责任的编辑……在读着这些弥漫了异性恋热情的十四行诗时,会对同性恋这个前提置之不理。#39;Why should Shakespeare alone be thought so committed to the ;negative capability; of his dramatic craft that all his most personal writings are treated as potentially artificial?“为什么莎士比亚所有个人作品都要被认定有人工合成的可能性,并他这些戏剧性的作品被认为是拥有了“消极的才能”?‘And even if we insist on regarding the sonnets, wholly or in part, as a kind of long-term dramatic narrative ... why on earth would Shakespeare choose so often to impersonate a pathetically ageing, balding, lame and vulnerable bisexual suitor, abjectly whingeing about rejection and betrayal — unless the self-humiliation that surfaces again and again through these particulars were both genuine and cathartic?#39;“而且即使我们这么认定他的十四行诗(全部或部分),作为一种长时间的充满戏剧性的叙事……究竟为何莎士比亚要选择如此频繁的去扮演一个可悲的,秃着头,跛着脚,脆弱且垂垂老矣的双性恋的起诉人,悲惨地抱怨着拒绝和背叛——除非通过这些细节可以看出其一次又一次浮出水面的自卑情结,是真实可信的。”Mr Vickers responded by saying he could not stop people from speculating, adding: #39;Thought is free.威克斯先生回应道,他不能阻止人们的猜想,并补充道:“一千人心中有一千个哈姆雷特。#39;But if you fix these codes and then say that his 126 poems are like this, then people stop ing them as poems. They them as biographical documents, looking for imputed sexuality.#39;“但是如果你纠结于这些暗示,并且认定他的126首诗都是如此,那么人们就不会把他的诗当作诗,而是作为传记文献开始寻找性向的蛛丝马迹。”Although there are few references to anything other than noble love, some sonnets appear more explicit than others.虽然描写高尚爱情的文献没有很多,一些十四行诗显露的还是比其他要明显。Sonnet 20 is largely interpreted as being dedicated to a man, declaring: #39;A woman#39;s face with nature#39;s own hand painted / Hast thou, the master mistress of my passion.#39;十四行诗第20首,很普遍的被认为是专写给男人的,其写道:“造物手绘你女性的脸庞-你是我钟爱的娇娇檀郎!”In 2012, Shakespearean actor Sir Ian McKellen boldly announced that there was absolutely #39;no doubt#39; the bard was bisexual.在2012年,扮演莎士比亚的演员伊恩·麦克莱恩爵士大胆宣称,“毫无疑问”这位吟游诗人是双性恋。The 75-year-old thespian said he came to his conclusion after studying the English poet#39;s work.这位75岁高龄的演员声称自己在研究这位英国诗人的巨作后得出了这个结论。At the time, he said: #39;I#39;d say Shakespeare slept with men.当时他说道:“我敢说他肯定和男人睡过。#39;The Merchant of Venice, centering on how the world treats gays as well as Jews, has a love triangle between an older man, younger man and a woman.“在《商人》中,其宗旨放在说明全世界怎样像对待犹太人一样对待同性恋,且在一个老人,一个青年和一个女人中存在三角关系。#39;And the complexity in his comedies with cross-dressing and disguises is immense.’“而且在他的喜剧中异装癖和化妆非常常见。” /201412/347536

  Breast biopsies are good at telling the difference between healthy tissue and cancer, but less reliable for identifying more subtle abnormalities, a new study finds.一项新的研究发现,乳房活检尽管在分辨健康组织和癌变组织差异的时候相当有效,但要辨别出更细微的异常,这种方式就不太可靠了。Because of the uncertainty, women whose results fall into the gray zone between normal and malignant — with diagnoses like “atypia” or “ductal carcinoma in situ” — should seek second opinions on their biopsies, researchers say. Misinterpretation can lead women to have surgery and other treatments they do not need, or to miss out on treatments they do need.研究人员表示,由于存在这样的不确定性,如果一位女性的活检结果处于正常和恶性之间的灰色地带——诊断书中有“异型性”或“导管原位癌”这样的字眼——她就应该寻求关于活检结果的第二诊断意见。误判可能会导致女性接受其实并不需要的手术等治疗方法,或者让她们没有得到确实需要的治疗。The new findings, reported Tuesday in JAMA, challenge the common belief that a biopsy is the gold standard and will resolve any questions that might arise from an unclear mammogram or ultrasound.人们普遍认为活检是最可靠的标准,可以解决不明朗的乳房X光或超声波检查结果提出的任何疑问,而本周二发表在《美国医学会杂志》(The Journal of the American Medical Association,简称JAMA)上的这项研究结果对这个观点提出了挑战。In the ed States, about 1.6 million women a year have breast biopsies; about 20 percent of the tests find cancer. Ten percent identify atypia, a finding that cells inside breast ducts are abnormal but not cancerous. About 60,000 women each year are found to have ductal carcinoma in situ, or D.C.I.S., which also refers to abnormal cells that are confined inside the milk ducts and so are not considered invasive; experts disagree about whether D.C.I.S. is cancer.在美国,每年约有160万女性做乳房活检;约20%的活检发现存在癌细胞。10%诊断为异型性,即发现乳房导管内的细胞异常,但没有发生癌变。每年大约有6万名女性发现患有导管原位癌(ductal carcinoma in situ,简称DCIS)。这同样指的是异常细胞仅存在于乳管内,因此不具侵袭性。DCIS究竟是否属于癌症,专家的意见也尚未统一。“It is often thought that getting the biopsy will give definitive answers, but our study says maybe it won’t,” said Dr. Joann G. Elmore, a professor at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle and the first author of the new study on the accuracy of breast biopsies.“人们常常认为,活检可以给出确切,但我们的研究显示未必如此,”在西雅图的华盛顿大学医学院(University of Washington School of Medicine)担任教授的琼·G·埃尔莫尔(Joann G. Elmore)说。她是这篇关于乳房活检准确度的新研究论文的第一作者。Her team asked pathologists to examine biopsy slides, then compared their diagnoses with those given by a panel of leading experts who had seen the same slides. There were some important differences, especially in the gray zone.她的团队请病理医师查看活检切片,并让一个权威专家小组查看相同的切片,然后把病理师和专家小组的诊断结果进行比较。研究发现,二者之间存在一些重大差异,在灰色地带尤其如此。An editorial in JAMA called the findings “disconcerting.” It said the study should be a call to action for pathologists and breast cancer scientists to improve the accuracy of biopsy ings, by consulting with one another more often on challenging cases and by creating clearer definitions for various abnormalities so that diagnoses will be more consistent and precise. The editorial also recommended second opinions in ambiguous cases.JAMA发表了一篇社论称这个发现“令人不安”,并表示此项研究应该提醒病理医师和乳腺癌方面的科学家行动起来,提高活检诊断的准确性,方法是互相讨论疑难病例,并对各种异常状况给出更明确的定义,以便提高诊断的一致性和准确性。社论还建议在遇见模棱两可的病例时寻求第二诊断意见。A second opinion usually does not require another biopsy; it means asking one or more additional pathologists to look at the microscope slides made from the first biopsy. Dr. Elmore said doctors could help patients find a pathologist for a second opinion.第二诊断意见通常不需要再做一次活检;而是指请另外一位或多位病理医师查看第一次活检获得的显微镜切片。埃尔莫尔士称,医生可以帮助患者去找另一位病理医师,以便获得第二诊断意见。A surgeon not involved with the study, Dr. Elisa Port, a co-director of the Dubin Breast Center and the chief of breast surgery at Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan, said the research underlined how important it is that biopsies be interpreted by highly experienced pathologists who specialize in breast disease.埃莉萨·波特士(Elisa Port)在曼哈顿西奈山医院(Mount Sinai Hospital)担任杜宾乳房中心(Dubin Breast Center)的联合主任兼乳房手术负责人,没有参与这项研究。她认为,该研究强调了活检应由擅长乳房疾病的经验丰富的病理医师来解读的重要性。“As a surgeon, I only know what to do based on the guidance of my pathologist,” Dr. Port said. “Those people behind the scenes are actually the ones who dictate care.”“作为一名外科医生,我进行治疗的依据就是病理医师的诊断意见,”波特士说。“这些幕后工作者才是真正决定治疗方案的人。”In Dr. Elmore’s study, the panel of three expert pathologists examined biopsy slides from 240 women, one slide per case, and came to a consensus about the diagnosis.埃尔莫尔士的研究使用了240名女性的乳房活检切片,每个病例一个切片。由三名病理学专家组成的小组会查看这些切片,并对诊断结果达成共识。“These were very, very experienced breast pathologists who have written textbooks in the field,” Dr. Elmore said.“这些病理学家对乳房疾病有非常、非常丰富的经验,一直在撰写这个领域的教科书,”埃尔莫尔士说。Then the slides were divided into four sets, and 60 slides were sent to each of 115 pathologists in eight states who routinely breast biopsies. The doctors interpreted the slides and returned them, and the same set was sent to the next pathologist. The study took seven years to complete.然后,切片被分成四组,每组60个,分别送往8个州的115名在日常工作中对乳房活检结果进行判断的病理医师。他们每一个人都对这组切片做出解读,然后返还。同一组切片再被送到下一名病理医师那里。整项研究历时七年才完成。The goal was to find out how the practicing pathologists stacked up against the experts. The task was tougher than actual practice, because in real cases pathologists can consult colleagues about ambiguous findings and ask for additional slides. They could not do so in the study.研究的目标是找出日常执业的病理医师与专家的意见有多大差异。这个任务要比一般情况更加困难,因为在现实工作中,病理医师遇到疑难病例时可以和同事讨论,并且要求提供更多的切片。而在这项研究中,他们不能这样做。There was good news and bad news. When it came to invasive cancer — cancer that has begun growing beyond the layer of tissue in which it started, into nearby healthy tissue — the outside pathologists agreed with the experts in 96 percent of the interpretations, which Dr. Elmore called reassuring. They found the vast majority of the cancers.研究结果表明,好消息与坏消息并存。当出现侵袭性癌症时——癌细胞已经超出最初生长的组织层,发展到了附近的健康组织中——日常执业的病理医师和专家的意见吻合度达96%。埃尔莫尔士说这一结果让人感到安心。绝大多数的癌症都被他们发现了。For completely benign findings, the outside pathologists matched the experts in 87 percent of the ings, but misdiagnosed 13 percent of healthy ones as abnormal.对于完全良性的病例,日常执业的病理医师与专家的意见吻合度为87%,但他们把13%的健康切片误判为异常。The next two categories occupied the gray zone. One was D.C.I.S. For this condition, the pathologists agreed with the experts on 84 percent of the cases. But they missed 13 percent of cases that the experts had found, and diagnosed D.C.I.S. in 3 percent of the ings where the experts had ruled it out.接下来的两个类别则属于灰色地带。第一个是DCIS。对于这种情况,日常执业的病理医师和专家的意见吻合度为84%。不过,有13%的病例经专家发现存在DCIS,但医师没有看出来;还有3%的病例被专家认为不存在DCIS,却被他们判断为存在。The finding is of concern, because D.C.I.S. sometimes becomes invasive cancer, and it is often treated like an early-stage cancer, with surgery and radiation. Missing the diagnosis can leave a woman at increased risk for cancer — but calling something D.C.I.S. when it is not can result in needless tests and treatments.这一发现令人担忧,因为DCIS有时会发展成侵袭性癌症,而且通常被当成早期癌症在治疗,会动用手术和化疗手段。没有判断出实际存在的DCIS,可能会增加女性的患癌风险——但误判没有DCIS的病例的话,则会导致不必要的检查和治疗。The second finding in the gray zone was atypia, in which abnormal, but not cancerous, cells are found in breast ducts. Women with atypia have an increased risk of breast cancer, and some researchers recommend surgery to remove the abnormal tissue, as well as intensified screening and drugs to lower the risk of breast cancer.灰色地带的第二个发现涉及异型性,即乳房导管里发现了异常但并未癌变的细胞。这类女性患乳腺癌的风险会有所上升,除了通过加强筛查和使用药物来降低罹患乳腺癌的风险之外,一些研究者还建议用手术来去除异常组织。But in the study, the outside pathologists and the experts agreed on atypia in only 48 percent of the interpretations. The outside pathologists diagnosed atypia in 17 percent of the ings where the experts had not, and missed it in 35 percent where the experts saw it.这项研究发现,在异型性方面,日常执业的病理医师和专家的判断只有48%的吻合度。有17%的病例专家认为不存在异型性,却被医师判断为存在;还有35%的病例专家认为存在异型性,但医师并没有发现。“Women with atypia and D.C.I.S. need to stop and realize it’s not the same thing as invasive cancer, and they have time to stop and reflect and think about it, and ask for a second opinion,” Dr. Elmore said.“有异型性和DCIS的女性不要匆忙采取行动,而是要认识到它们和侵袭性癌症不是一回事。她们有时间停下来考虑一下,想想这件事,寻求第二诊断意见,”埃尔莫尔士说。Abby Howell, 57, who lives in Seattle, two years ago had some calcifications show up on a mammogram, which are sometimes a sign of cancer. She was given the option of just mammograms every six months or having a biopsy. She chose the biopsy, thinking it would be definitive. But instead, it showed atypia.57岁的艾比·豪厄尔(Abby Howell)住在西雅图。两年前, X光检查显示她的乳房有钙化现象,而有时这是癌症的征兆。她可以选择简单地每半年做一次乳房X光检查,也可以选择做活检。她选择了后者,以为活检结果会明确无误。但检查结果为异型性。Ms. Howell, who has a master’s degree in public health, looked up the condition and realized it was unclear whether those odd-looking cells would ever lead to cancer. Surgery was recommended, but she decided to watch and wait instead. So far, her mammograms have been normal, but the experience has shaken her peace of mind.豪厄尔拥有公共卫生硕士学位,她了解了一下情况,发现目前还不清楚这些异常细胞会不会导致癌症。医生建议手术治疗,但她决定观望等待。迄今为止,她的乳房X光检查结果一直正常,但这段经历让她感到心里不踏实。“If I had to do it all over again, I wouldn’t have jumped for the biopsy,” Ms. Howell said. “I really regret it. In a way it’s made more anxiety in my life.”“如果不得不再来一遍的话,我就不会匆忙选择活检了,”豪厄尔说。“我真的很后悔。从某种程度上说,这给我的生活带来了更多的焦虑感。” /201503/365369

  

  

  HONG KONG — Hong Kong health officials have slaughtered thousands of chickens from mainland China, closed one wholesale market and banned imports of live poultry after tests found some birds were infected with a strain of bird flu.香港——在检测发现有些鸡感染了一种禽流感后,香港的卫生官员屠宰了成千上万只来自中国内地的鸡,还关闭了一处批发市场,并禁止进口活禽。The city’s secretary for food and health, Ko Wing-man, said that sales of all live chickens in Hong Kong might be banned if wholesalers do not step up measures to control bird flu, The South China Morning Post reported Friday. Earlier this week, the H7N9 strain of the avian influenza virus was found in some birds from a farm in Huizhou, in Guangdong Province in southern China.《南华早报》(The South China Morning Post)周五报道称,香港食物及卫生局局长高永文(Ko Wing-man)表示,如果批发商不加强控制禽流感的措施,香港所有的活鸡交易都可能被禁。本周早些时候,来自广东省惠州一家养殖场的部分鸡只检出了H7N9禽流感菌株。Many people in Hong Kong buy pork and poultry from wet markets, unrefrigerated open-air shops that sell freshly slaughtered animals. Much of the city’s food supply comes from farms in mainland China, though in the case of chickens, the supply is segregated from birds bound for mainland markets.很多香港人在菜市场购买猪肉和家禽肉。菜市场是由处于室温状态的露天店铺组成的,这些店铺出售新鲜宰杀的家禽肉。在香港,很多的食物供应来自内地的农场,不过在活鸡供应方面,面向香港的供货与面向内地市场的供货是分开的。Avian influenza outbreaks have not been confined to China. In recent weeks, Hong Kong has banned poultry imports from certain regions of Japan, Germany, Italy and Canada after bird flu strains were detected there. Last month one woman in Hong Kong became infected with the virus after she traveled to a wet market in mainland China. In 2013 an outbreak of the H7N9 strain near Shanghai infected 131 people, killing 26 of them.禽流感疫情并非仅限于中国。最近几周,在日本、德国、意大利和加拿大某些地区检测出了禽流感后,香港针对那些地区发出了家禽进口禁令。上月,香港一名女性在去了内地的菜市场后感染禽流感。2013年,上海附近爆发的H7N9禽流感感染了131人,并导致其中26人死亡。Wholesalers are threatening to protest the inspection measures on Saturday by releasing live chickens on some of Hong Kong’s busiest streets, The Morning Post reported.《南华早报》报道称,批发商威胁要在周六抗议相关检查措施,方式是将活鸡放到香港部分最繁忙的街道上。 /201501/352421

  

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