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2019年07月22日 21:50:20 | 作者:排名时讯 | 来源:新华社
Jerusalem is on the eastern edge of the Roman Empire.耶路撒冷地处罗马帝国东部边缘A vast network of roads and trade routes.道路四通八达 贸易便利One of the keys to mankinds progress:Mass communication.人类进步的关键之一 就是大众传播Now, an idea born in the middle east Can sp around the Roman world.现在 一种思想在中东诞生 并在罗马帝国蔓延开来Half a million people are in jerusalem for passover,五十万人在耶路撒冷纪念逾越节The Jewish festival celebrating the exodus from Egypt.这是犹太人纪念离开埃及的节日Among them, followers of Jesus.在他们中 有耶稣的追随者They believe he is the Messiah.他们相信他是弥赛亚(犹太人的复国救主)But his teachings threaten the peace.但他的教诲危及了国家的和平For that, he will be crucified.正因如此 他将被钉死在十字架上Romes special punishment For pirates, slaves and enemies of the state.这是罗马特殊的刑罚 为了惩处海盗 奴隶以及国家的敌人Thousands of people died this way,but we remember one man,千万人死于这种刑罚 但我们只记住了一个人we remember one death as if it was the only one,只记住了他的死亡 把他的死亡当成是独一无二的because this one death changed every part, every portion,因为这一例死亡改变了世界的每一个地方every corner of the Earth.每一个部分 每一个角落In the crowd, a bystander.人群中 有一个旁观者Simon from Cyrene, a colony in north Africa.他叫西蒙 来自北非的殖民地昔兰尼Simon of Cyrene was a guy who just happened to be in Jerusalem.昔兰尼的西蒙只是碰巧在耶路撒冷Here was this procession going by him.碰巧遇到了这次游行There was a man carrying a cross,surrounded by Roman soldiers.一个男人背着十字架 被罗马士兵包围着;Hey, come over here and carry this guys cross!;;嘿 你过来 背着他的十字架!;201510/401888With over 300,000 plants species on Earth,theres no doubt that they have highly developed senses to stay alive and thrive.But while some of their features may be compared to taste,sight,touch and smell in humans,have you ever wondered-can plants think?世界上共有三十多万种植物,毫无疑问,为了繁荣昌盛 它们的感官都已高度进化。不过,尽管一些特征可以与人类的味觉 视觉 触觉和嗅觉做比,你是否曾想过 植物会思考吗?On land,the cumulative mass of plants is 1000 times highter than that of animals.But these plants are immobile and cant move around in their environment;which is,seemingly,a pretty big evolutionary disadvantage.This has forced plants to adapt in amazing ways that often go unnoticed by the naked eye.陆地上,植物总重量比动物高1000倍。但这些植物都是固定不动的,似乎在进化中这也很不利。这点迫使植物采取些容易被眼睛忽略的奇特方式。Smell something funny?Plants do too-and they react to these chemicals in the air.For example,when fruits start to ripen,they release a chemical called ethylene.And when neighbouring fruits sense this pheromone,they ripen faster,so that all fruits mature at the same time.Plants also give off scents which attract insects to sp their pollen.味道怪味了?植物也能闻,并会对空气中的化学物质做出反应。比如,水果在成熟时会释放出一种叫乙烯的物质。当周围植物感测到这种信息素时,它们会更快成熟,而所有的水果就能同时成熟了。植物也会释放出吸引昆虫传粉的气味。In particular,the amazing carrion flowers grow tiny hairs,feel warm and smell like rotting flesh in an attempt to mimic a dead corpse.This is to attract flies and beetles as pollinators.On the other hand,when a plant is attacked by an insect,animal or pathogen,it knows.When acacia trees are grazed by animals,they quickly react by producing chemicals called tannins,which make their leaves unappetizing and tough to digest.特别地 大王花会长出腐肉味的绒毛 籍此模仿死尸。这是为了吸引传粉者 苍蝇和甲虫。另一方面 当植物受到昆虫 植物或病菌的侵害时 它也知道。当金合欢树被动物盯上时 它也会立即产生单宁酸,这让它们的叶子更难吃 难以消化。Some even produce enough toxin to kill the animal.Perhaps more impressive are some corn and cotton plants,which when eaten by caterpillars,release chemicals in the air that attract parasitic wasps,who fly in and ultimately kill the insects.有些甚至会产生足以杀死动物的毒素。更惊人的是一些玉米类和棉类植物 在被毛虫啃咬时,它们会释放化学物质 吸引寄生蜂,后者受吸引而来 杀死昆虫。On some level,they communicate with the wasps.Crazy as it seems,even sound recordings of caterpillars chewing leaves,trigger this response.Without any from of touch,the plants react,as if they can hear.On a large scale,plants also work together.A web of underground fungi can connect tree roots in forests,allowing them to exchange nutrients and information.一定程度上说,它们能与黄蜂交流。让人诧异的是,毛虫啃咬叶子的录音也会引起这种反应。没有任何形式的触碰,植物也像有听觉一样做出反应。多数情况下,植物也会齐心协力。地下的真菌网会将森林里的树根相连,让它们交换养分和信息。Using radioactive isotopes,scientists discovered that trees share water and nutrients with others in need.Large trees nourish smaller shaded ones until they are tall enough to reach sunlight,And trees that stay green all year round share nutrients with trees that lose their leaves in winter,helping them through the season.Which is then repaid in the summer months,like a transactional exchange.Some scientist refer to this as the ;wood-wide web;.科学家通过同位素观测发现 树木会与有需求者分享水和养料。大树会与受遮蔽的小树分享养分 直到它们能受到日照。四季常青的树木会与冬季落叶的树木分享养分 帮助它们过冬。在夏天它们得到偿还的养分 像是生物交换。一些科学家称此为“树联网”。Perhaps the most shocking fact,is that some plants seem to have memory.Mimosa pudica plants,are those leafy plants that close up when touched.This reflex is meant to scare away insects that land on them.In an experiment on these reflexes,scientists notice that when dropped from 15cm.they would close when they hit the groud,Not so surprising.But after repeating the drop 4 or 5 times,some of the plants stopped closing.as though they had realized the stimulus wasnt harmful.If they were shaken istead,they would close,but any time they were dropped from this same height,they stayed open.this effect lasted for weeks-the plants had memories.更惊人的是 一些植物似乎有记忆能力。含羞草 一种受触碰时叶子会合拢的植物。这种反射是为了吓唬落在它们身上的植物。在一项关于这种反射的实验中 研究者发现从15厘米高出落下 它们的叶子会在落地时合拢 没什么奇怪的。但重复四五次后 一些植物不再合拢(叶子)了,似乎它们也发现这种刺激不会伤害它们。受到摇晃时 叶子就会合拢,但无论何时 从同样的高度掉下 叶子仍然张开。这种效果会持续数星期,植物也有。Of course,plants dont have brains or other cells and organs that we deem necessary for intelligence.Brains and neurons are irreplaceable,but plants are immobile and often attacked,so they must be able to survive after part of them is eaten,or destroyed.A brain just wouldnt work.But if you measure intelligence or thought as the ability to solve problems,interact with an environment,and even work in groups,then plants are incredibly smart.当然 植物没有大脑或者其他“智力”不可或缺的器官或细胞。大脑和神经无可替代,但植物无法移动,也常受攻击,在部分被吃掉或毁坏后 它们还得能活下去。大脑没什么用。但如果你将智力或思维视作解决问题的能力,与周围环境的交互 甚至团队合作力,那么植物相当聪明。Its something to think about next time youre munching down on a piece of broccoli!下次嚼西兰花时,好好想想这点吧!201503/361976什么是Bromance?-Real Deal English201508/391548栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。201512/406409

The next morning,第二天清晨weve arranged to meet Jenny on the outskirts of the city.我们按照计划前往郊区同Jenny会面Chengdu is at the centre of the governments Go West policy.成都作为政府西部大开发政策的核心城市Its invested 0 billion吸引了3千亿美元的投资to spark an economic boom in western China.以促进中国西部地区的经济大繁荣On a par with Beijing and Shanghai.努力实现与北京和上海看齐Can you imagine this whole area, 你知道么 这一整片区域most of these buildings were not here.大部分建筑都是新兴的When I was here in 1989, it was still a fairly primitive place.1989年我在成都时 这里还相当落后Many of the streets were little more than dirt roads大部分街道比泥泞小道强不了多少and people brought produce in from the countryside人们使用驴拉的车on carts pulled by donkeys.把农产品从农村送进城市Now, Chengdu has a population of 14 million如今 成都拥有1400万的人口数量and the fastest rate of urbanisation in the world.和世界上发展最快的城市化速度In the next decade, its expected to increase by在下一个十年里 预计这里nearly a million people every year.每年都会增加近百万的人口There it is, thats the hotel.看 那就是我说的那所酒店了That is the hotel I stayed in.那里是我以前住的酒店It was the tallest building in Chengdu.曾经是成都最高的建筑物Thats it, and you see now,就是这样子的 现在你看its dwarfed by all these other buildings.它同旁边建筑物一比 都相形见绌了And they keep building,而且人们还在不停的建look how many cranes there are over there.看看那儿有多少台起重机啊Its just amazing.真是了不得I thought it would be a lot of change, 我有想过这里会变化挺大but not sort of this much.但没想到这么翻天覆地Its shocking at the beginning初见时真让我瞠目结舌because its sleepy backwaters here.因为这里就像一潭了无生气的死水You expect that from Shanghai and Beijing,北京或者上海如此倒不值得讶异but not from Chengdu.但成都变成这样 我是万万想不到的Jennys been kind enough to invite us to her grandparents homeJenny热情地邀请我们去她祖父母家做客where she spent her early childhood.她在这里度过了童年生活My cousins and I used to come我和表兄们过去常来这里and we would get together for family lunches,大家聚在一起吃团圆饭you know, dumplings and noodles.吃饺子和面条Its exciting for me, as Ive always believed the best cooking这让我无比兴奋 因为我一直坚信最好的厨艺is in the home, and a taste of family life is a great way来自寻常人家 而了解家庭生活的味道to get beneath the skin of a city.才是深刻体味一个城市的最佳方式201507/387500

You may have heard the saying ;the early bird gets the worm;,but when it comes to humans,do morning people really have an advantage over right owls?Does one come out on top as more intelligent or successful than the other in this battle over bed time? The somewhat surprising truth is that we have little say in sleep preference as its almost entirely genetically pre-determined.你可能听过“早起的鸟儿有虫吃”,而至于人类,起早的真比夜猫子好吗?就起床时间而言,一 类人真的会比另一类更成功吗?说实话,睡 眠倾向方面我们没啥好说的,因为这大多是由基因决定的。Chances are,if youre a night owl,it was likely passed down from an ancestor who was also a night owl.And from an evolutionary perspective.it makes sense;having individuals with varying sleeping patterns would allow for better protection of a group throughout day and right.Instead of everybody sleeping at one time,some people naturally stay up later,and some wake up earlier,aware of threats or predators while other sleep.很可能一只夜猫子,只是另一只夜猫子的后代而已。从进化的角度而言,这也不无道理;人群睡眠规律不同,有 助于更好地全天候保护这个群体。并非所有人都会同时入睡,一 些人熬得晚些,一些人醒得早,并 在他人睡觉时留心威胁和捕食者。But considering most modern societal activities happen between 9am-5pm,it may seem clear that night owls are put at a disadvantage.And researchers have actually coined the term ;social jet lag;to describe the sleep deprivation many experience to accommodate social norms.不过,介于大多现代社会活动都在上午9点到下午5点间,显然,夜猫子们略逊一筹。研究者们借“社交时差”一词,来描述人们为适应社会规范而产生的睡眠缺乏。For night owls,this social jet lag feels like living in a different time zone every single day.Considering chronic sleep deprivation has a direct effect on brain functioning,its no surprise that studies report night owl university students have lower overall grades.夜猫子们的“社交时差”就象每天住在一个不同的时区。慢性睡眠剥夺对大脑也有直接影响,无怪有研究表明,大 学夜猫子们的绩点更低。Not to mention early birds tend to display more positive social traits such as being proactive and optimistic,and are less prone to depression or addictions to nicotine,alcohol and food.And we can see these traits represented physically in the brain,particularly the white matter which helps neurons communicate.Night owls exhibit significantly less white matter and,as a result,there are fewer pathways for feel good hormones such as serotonin or dopamine to travel through.更不用说早起的人积极社交特征更多,比如,更积极,更乐观,不易焦虑,或是沉迷于纳尼克丁,酒 精或食物。这些特征在大脑内也有体现,在促进神经交流的白质中尤为明显。夜猫子的白质要少得多,因此,感 觉好好荷尔蒙,如 血清素和多巴胺,可 穿行的通路更少。But its not all bad for the late nighters.In fact,they tend to be much more creative,have been found to have higher cognitive abilities.and are known to be risk takers.What they lack in white matter,they make up in cortisol levels.不过,夜猫子们也并非罪该万死。其实,他们更有创造力,认知能力更强,更倾向于冒险。高水平的皮质醇也弥补了他们白质的缺陷。This stress hormone;gets your body y to face an immediate threat,contributing to their risk taking behaviour,which studies show can translate into opportunities and potentially more financial gain.Furthermore,even though morning people can be very energetic right after waking,they tend to lose steam faster than night owls throughout the day.这种“压力荷尔蒙”让你随时准备应对威胁,使他们更爱冒险,研究也表明他们更易抓住机会,挣得更多。此外,尽 管早起鸟起床后精神饱满,他们一天内精力下降的更快。Both sides perform eually well in reaction-time tests an hour after waking,but after 10 hours of being awake,night owls perform significantly better.Your inner clock is regulated by many proteins which are created from various genes in your DNA.Studies have even shown that a single change of the genetic code,near a gene called Period 1,can result in an hour difference in your waking time.在刚睡醒后,双方在反应时间比较上势均力敌,但起床10小时后,夜猫子的表现要好得多。你的生物钟由体内多种基因创造出的蛋白质共同管理。研究甚至表明Period 1 基因附近,一个基因序列变化会使你起床时间改变1小时。As crazy as it seems,scientists also found a correlation between these same genes and your time of death.The early risers were more likely to die around 11am,while the night owls were more likely to die before 6pm.What about teenagers,you say?Its true most tend to be night owls due to the hormonal changes during puberty,but this tends to wane out into your genetic default as you enter adulthood.疯狂的是,科学家也找到了这些基因与你死亡时间的关系。早起的鸟儿更可能在上午11时左右过世,夜猫子更多在晚上6点前。那年轻人呢,的 确,青 春期的荷尔蒙变化造就了无数夜猫子,不过,成 年后基因再度决定了一切。So while there may be some truth to early birds getting the worm,night owls arent exactly lagging behind in life.Theyre just lagging behind in time!因此,尽管早起鸟儿有虫吃有一定的道理,夜猫子并未沦落为人生输家。他们只是慢了半拍而已!201504/367531

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201601/421754

通过使用休假和胃肠镜检查的例子,诺贝尔奖获得者及行为经济学创始者丹尼尔·卡纳曼向我们揭示了“经验自我”和“记忆自我”是如何使用不同角度来理解快乐。201507/387063

Ive never tried this before,but survival requires that you think on your feet.我以前没试过这个办法 但是逆境求生就是要打破常规思考方式Or on your knees.Okay, Ill turn this over,and it should start to freeze and stick pretty quickly.哪怕用膝盖思考 我要把它翻转过来了 它应该要开始结冰并紧紧地黏在雪橇上And look, this should have snow,yeah,there you go, stuck to the bottom of it.看 有雪黏在上面了 成功了 雪黏在雪橇底部了Okay, lets get going.Actually, look, these are climbing quite nicely.Urine skeins -- thats what they are.好了 出发吧 看 这样上坡就顺畅多了 尿冻防滑 就这么简单Im always inspired by the legend of a polish second world war prisoner who escaped a russian gulag deep in the arctic.一个二战波兰俘虏的传奇一直激励着我 他从俄国位于北极圈的古拉格集中营逃出Its said he hiked for 3 years across terrain like this before finding rescue.传说他在这种地方逃亡跋涉了三年 才得到救援Theres a big lake ahead.Man, just look at this place.Absolutely vast and pretty featureless.前面有个大湖 天哪 瞧瞧这地方 又空旷又平坦But, you know, thats the way I want to be heading.可我要走的正是这个方向But really, I dont want to hang around long on a lake as big as this.但说真的 我不想在这么大的湖边 呆太长时间The lake is 5 miles across,but theres only one hour of daylight left.Ill never cross it before dark.横过这座湖要走5英里 但是再过一小时就晚上了 天黑之前我绝对到不了对岸With no shelter,this exposed stretch of ice is no place to get stuck for the night.没有遮盖物的话 在这片开阔的冰层上过夜不是好主意Actually, the winds picked up now quite a lot,and I reckon I can actually use my reserve parachute as like a kite,而且风开始变大了 我突然想到 我可以把降落伞当风筝用to pull me across the ice here,and that will get me across much quicker.借风力拉我过这片冰湖 这样我的速度就会快些201601/422319

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