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来源:周报    发布时间:2019年06月26日 15:55:25    编辑:admin         

The Oscar statuette is the symbol of the Academy Awards. Here are some facts about the trophy itself.奥斯卡小金人是奥斯卡金像奖的象征。这里有一些关于奖杯本身的事实。1. The original design of ;Oscar; was by MGM art director Cedric Gibbons. He came up with a statuette of a knight standing on a reel of film gripping a crusader#39;s sword. The Academy commissioned the Los Angeles sculptor George Stanley to create the design in three dimensions.“奥斯卡”的原始设计师是米高梅公司艺术总监塞德里克·吉奔斯。他构想出了一个骑士站在一个电影胶片卷轴上,手里紧握十字军之剑的雕像。学院委托洛杉矶雕塑家乔治·斯坦利来做三维设计。2. It was presented for the first time at the initial awards banquet on May 16, 1929 to Emil Jannings, named Best Actor for his performances in ;The Last Command; and ;The Way of All Flesh;.小金人在1929年5月16日的颁奖晚会上首次亮相,第一座小金人授予艾米尔·杰宁斯,他凭借在《最后的命令》和《众生之路》中的表演获选奥斯卡最佳男演员。3. Since then, 2,701 statuettes have been presented.自那时起,已经有2701座小金人被颁发出去。4. The new golden statuettes are cast, moulded, polished and buffed each January by RS Owens amp; Company, the Chicago-based awards manufacturer retained by the Academy since 1982.每年一月新的黄金雕像将由RS欧文公司进行浇铸和抛光,自1982年以来美国电影艺术与科学院就一直授权这家芝加哥奖杯制造商制造奖杯。5. Oscar stands 13#189; inches tall and weighs 8#189; lbs.奥斯卡小金人身高13#189;英寸,重8#189;磅。6. The film reel features five spokes, signifying the five original branches of the Academy: actors, directors, producers, technicians and writers. Although the statuette remains true to its original design, the size of the base varied until 1945, when the current standard was adopted.这个电影胶片卷轴上有五个辐条,标志着学院的五个原始分:演员、导演、制片人、技术人员和作家。在1945年前,虽然雕像一直忠于原始设计,但底座大小不一。直到1945年,目前的标准才被采纳。7. Officially named the Academy Award of Merit, the statuette is better known by its nickname, Oscar. While the origins of the moniker are not clear, a popular story has it that upon seeing the trophy for the first time, Academy librarian (and eventual executive director) Margaret Herrick remarked that it resembled her Uncle Oscar. The Academy didn#39;t adopt the nickname officially until 1939.奥斯卡的官方名称是学院成就奖,但是小金人的昵称“奥斯卡”更广为人知。虽然该昵称的起源不明,但是有个广为流传的故事提到,当学院图书馆员(后成为执行董事)玛格丽特·赫里克第一次看到小金人时,她说小金人长得就像她的叔叔奥斯卡。学院一直到1939年才正式起用这一绰号。8. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favour of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-carat gold.最初在奥斯卡颁奖礼上颁发的小金人都是镀金实心铜像。几年后小金人的原料被换成不列颠合金,这是一种类锡合金,然后镀上铜、镍银,最后再镀上一层24K黄金。9. Due to a metal shortage during the Second World War, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones.由于在第二次世界大战期间金属资源短缺,有三年的奥斯卡小金人是用石膏制成的。战争结束后,学院请这些获奖者拿石膏雕像来换镀金金属雕像。10. The Academy is not certain know how many statuettes it will hand out until the envelopes are opened on the night of the ceremony. Although the number of categories are known in advance, the possibility of ties and of multiple recipients sharing the prize in some categories makes it impossible to predict the exact number of statuettes to be awarded. Any surplus awards are housed in the Academy#39;s vault until the following year#39;s event.直到奥斯卡颁奖礼当晚信封被打开,学院并不清楚将颁发多少个小金人奖杯。尽管各奖项类别的数目已经提前知晓,但仍有可能在某些奖项产生多人获得同一个奖的情况,因此无法预知要颁发出去的小金人的准确数量。多出的小金人将放在学院的地窖里,等待来年奥斯卡再颁发出去。 /201602/428306。

It was with a mixture of scepticism and excitement that I headed for my British citizenship ceremony.当我前去参加自己的英国入籍仪式时,心中掺杂着怀疑和兴奋的感觉。Rituals have never been my thing. I haven’t been to any of my own graduations, despite having had three such opportunities. Dress up in an overpriced robe, listen to lofty lectures then clap for hours while queueing to receive a decorative piece of paper from a total stranger. How about no? Some weddings I find equally ridiculous. Why invite your favourite people from all geographies to one place just to not hang out with them? Instead of catching up, the couple reaches the pinnacle of a once-in-a-lifetime feat of logistics, recites a legally binding incantation and disappears on holiday.仪式从来都不是我喜欢的场面。我没参加过自己任何一次毕业典礼,尽管有过三次这样的机会。穿着昂贵的礼盛装出席,听着长达数小时豪情壮志的演讲而后鼓掌,同时排着长队等待从一个完全陌生的人手中接到装点门面的一纸文书。没有又能怎么样?我发现有些婚礼也是一样的荒谬。为什么要把你喜欢的人从各地请到一个地方,只为了不和他们共聚?新婚夫妇不和朋友们叙旧,而只是专注于完成自己的终身大事,背诵一句具有法律约束力的咒语,然后就消失度蜜月去了。By contrast, the ritual by which one completes the final step to becoming British proved surprisingly enjoyable. The ceremony I enrolled in took place two weeks ago in a south London registry office. The weather was on form — a mixture of grey skies, indecisive rain and occasionally worrying thunder. There was tea, biscuits and a longer wait than I was expecting before we even began. All in, it was the perfect setting in which to cement one’s place in the UK — in my case, after having studied here for seven years and worked for six, with stints in a couple of other countries in between.相比之下,成为英国人的最后一步的仪式却愉悦得令人意外。我参加的那场仪式是最近在伦敦南部的登记办公室进行的。天气中规中矩——灰蒙蒙的天空、连绵不断的细雨、偶尔响起的令人担忧的雷声。官方准备了茶和饼干,仪式开始前等待的时间比我预期的长些。所有这一切构成了夯实外国人在英国地位的完美情境——就我而言,这种身份是在英国学习了7年、工作了6年(其间曾在另外两个国家短期居住)之后才获得的。But something important was missing from the proceedings. Namely natives. Each soon-to-be Brit could bring up to two guests, and most appeared to be relatives or close friends. There wouldn’t have been space for more.但是,过程中少了某些很重要的事——本土英国人。每个准英国人都可以带来两位客人,其中多数客人似乎都是亲戚或密友。现场也没有场地让更多人参加。The danger of holding these ceremonies in small rooms off to the side is that few British people bear witness to the successes of settled migrants. Instead there are just headline statistics that group everyone together: those coming here to study, as I did back in 1997; or to work; or, in the case of refugees, to reach safety. Big faceless numbers can stoke fears about how many incomers the country can support, even though not all become permanent residents.在一个不起眼的地点的某个小房间内举行这类仪式的危险在于,鲜有英国人能亲眼见新移民的成功。相反,人们看到的是把同一类人捆绑在一起的整体数据:那些像我这样1997年就来英国学习的人;或者来英工作的人;再或者那些为了获得安全的难民。不分个体的大数字激起人们对这个国家能够承受多少移民的恐惧,即使并非所有来英国的人都会成为永久居民。What is clear, however, is that, for those who make it all the way to citizenship, it’s something to be celebrated by all. Ideally in a more public and personalised manner.然而,显而易见的是,对于那些终于成功入籍的人来说,这是值得所有人庆祝的事。在理想情况下,最好是以更加公开而个性化的方式来庆祝。It wouldn’t be practical for every citizenship ceremony to be open to a broader audience, of course. But, when naturalisation is approved, there could be an invitation to apply for a more elaborate public ceremony. From the applicants, a diverse group of people could be selected — from different parts of the world and professions. Much like how the recent “I am an immigrant” poster campaign in the UK did, when its organisers endeavoured to highlight the positive side of migration. A Polish firefighter was featured on one poster; a Syrian occupational therapist on another; and, full disclosure, this FT columnist made an appearance.当然,让每一场入籍仪式都向更多观众开放也不实际。但是,当入籍获得批准后,不妨邀请人们申请参加一个比较隆重的公众仪式。有关方面可以遴选来自世界不同地区、不同职业、形形色色的申请者来参加。就像英国最近“我是移民”的海报活动(其组织者努力彰显移民的积极面)。一名波兰消防员上了海报;还有一名叙利亚的职业理疗师也出现在海报上;基于全面披露原则,身为英国《金融时报》专栏作家的笔者也出现了。Given a larger venue, we could add local dignitaries, perhaps an MP, plus a touch of pomp and circumstance. This might entice British-born residents to accept invitations, without regarding the event as a duty akin to jury service. More tickets for applicants to give to friends and neighbours would further increase turnout.有了更大的场地,我们还可以邀请当地政要,或许请一位议员到场,再把排场搞得稍微隆重些。这或许会促使本土出生的居民也能欣然接受邀请,而不是把这当做类似于陪审团工作的义务。申请者可以向朋友和邻居分发的入场票更多,出席仪式的人数也会进一步增加。To make it more personal, would-be Brits could write their own vows in addition to the usual affirmation of allegiance. And participants could also do something natives struggle with but enjoy hearing others do: say how wonderful the UK is. Coming from the US, I’d have liked the chance to say how grateful I am for the National Health Service. I love it when, at the end of a doctor’s appointment, you just walk out. Straight past reception. There’s no “Show me your insurance, this is the co-payment you have to make, please can I have your credit card”. Having a health service looking after you, rather than a medical industry profiting from you, is just wonderful.为了使入籍更加个性化,准英国人不妨在标准版本的效忠誓词以外加入自己所写的誓词。同时,参与者还可以做一些本土居民自己很纠结、但又喜欢听到别人做的事:诉说英国有多么美好。来自美国的我,很愿意能有个机会表达一下自己对英国国民保健体系(NHS)的感激之情。医生问诊结束后,你可以一走了之,我非常喜欢这一点。直接走过前台。没有什么“给我看看你的保险,这是你必须做出的共同付,请把你的信用卡给我”之类的流程。拥有一个照顾你的医疗体系、而不是一个从你身上获利的医疗行业,那感觉太美妙了。Others less fortunate than me — trading one peaceful, developed country for another — would have even more solemn things to say.我是从一个和平的发达国家入籍到另一个和平的发达国家,没我那么幸运的人甚至会有更多事情需要郑重表达。As the UK prepares to welcome more migrants of all kinds, ceremonies should be open to the public to celebrate both those who make this country their permanent home and those born here who welcome them. Tea, biscuits, bad weather and all.在英国准备欢迎更多形形色色的移民之际,入籍仪式应该向公众开放,既让那些在英国安居乐业的人庆祝,也让出生在英国的本土人有机会欢迎他们加入。茶、饼干、坏天气以及所有的一切。 /201510/406663。

For anyone still wondering what to get the person who has everything this Christmas, one Seattle-based company might well have come up with the perfect unique - and bizarre - solution in the form of bacon-scented underwear.如果你发愁送什么圣诞礼物给一个什么都有的人,那么这家总部位于西雅图的公司会给你一个完美、独特又奇异的培根香味内裤。Food-focused brand JD#39;s, which specializes in all manner of bacon-themed products, from bacon salt to bacon-scented pillowcases, has launched a new line of meaty underwear, available for both men and women, which are infused with a strong smell of bacon.JD#39;s是一家专注于食品的品牌,尤其专业做各种以培根为主题的东西,从培根盐到培根味枕套,现在又新推出男女款肉味内衣,这种内衣上有浓浓的培根味。Using what they describe as #39;advances in bacon-scented printing technologies from NASA#39;, the creators of the unique bacon-y briefs explain that they have #39;married the ultimate in comfort and cured meat#39; in order to create the racy design.创造出这款独特的培根内裤的公司声称他们采用了源自NASA并加以革新的培根气味印染技术,解释说,为了制造这款火辣内裤,他们“将极致的舒适和培根完美结合在了一起”。#39;JD#39;s Bacon Scented Underwear represents the gold standard of meat-scented luxury undergarments,#39; the website description says of the underwear. #39;It#39;s like a hot frying pan in your pants.#39;该网站是这样描述这款内裤的:“JD#39;s的培根味内衣代表了肉香味豪华内衣的最高品质。就好像有一个热煎锅在你的裤子里。”In order to infuse the underwear with a bacon-y scent which would last beyond a first-time wear, the creators of the bacon-scented lingerie embedded the fragrance into the ink used in its design, a technology which was indeed first created by NASA.为了在内衣中注入持久的培根气味,设计者将肉味香料加入染料当中,这项技术的确是NASA首创的。And according to Justin and Dave, the two men behind JD#39;s, the underwear#39;s bacon scent #39;will last through multiple wash cycles and wearings#39;, with the website then adding a cheeky caveat that the length for which the aroma lasts #39;depends on the number of wearings and the strength of your own scent#39;.据JD#39;s公司创始人贾斯丁和戴夫说,该内衣的培根气味“在多次洗涤和穿着后仍会保留”,该网站还厚脸皮地警告说,内衣的香味持久度“取决于洗的次数和你自己的体味浓度。”The JD#39;s website also suggests that wearers wash their bacon-scented underwear, which retails for .99 a pair, with unscented detergent so as not to detract from the meaty scents with any other perfumes.JD#39;s的网站也建议穿着者洗这一款价值19.99美元的培根味内衣时,使用无味的洗衣液,以免其他香味冲淡了肉的气味。Unsurprisingly, many people took to social media to question the exact purpose of the porcine pants.意料之中的是很多人在社交媒体上质疑生产这款肉味内裤的目的。#39;Apparently bacon-scented underwear is a thing now. I#39;m not really sure why?#39; one person commented on Twitter, while another joked: #39;Bacon-scented underwear. Not recommended for mail men, circus performers, hikers and owners of dogs with large teeth.#39;一个人在推特上道,“很明显培根气味内衣已经面世,我真的不明白为什么要有这种东西?”另一个人开玩笑说:“培根味内衣。这对那些邮递员、马戏团演员、徒步旅行者和有大牙齿的主人不推荐。”But not everyone was quite so skeptical about the pungent clothing items, with many hailing them as the #39;best Christmas present ever#39;.但也不是每个人都对这种内衣持怀疑态度,很多人夸这个内衣是“最好的圣诞节礼物”。 /201512/413949。

Yu is the hero of controlling flood.禹是治水安民的历史英雄人物。It is said that in the reign of Yao and Shun, the overrunning flood was mischievous, so Yao assigned Gun to regulate it.尧、舜时期,洪水泛滥为害。尧命夏族首领鲧治洪水。Gun failed with embankment and was killed by Shun.鲧用筑堤防的方法治水无功,为舜杀死。Then, Shun recruited Yu,Gun,s son,to continue the work. Spending a backbreaking thirteen years and bypassing his house three times but never going in, Yu dredged new river channels as outlets, guiding water to river and river to sea.舜又命鲧之子禹治水,禹“居外十三年,过家门不敢人”,用疏导法治水,导小水入于川,导川水致于海。This not only eliminated the flood, but contributed to the development of agriculture.不仅消除了洪水,还为农业生产发展创造了良好条件。Yu was revered as Yu the Great for his achievement and selected to succeed to the throne by Shun.禹因有大功于人民,被尊称为“大禹”,并因此被舜选为接班人。 /201510/407407。

“Sving til venstre.” Jurgen issued instructions in his pleasingly Nordic voice, firm but encouraging. From behind the wheel, David nodded his head, and turned the car to the left. We were only a mile outside Edinburgh, but thanks to David, my Norwegian-American boyfriend, and Jurgen, the Norwegian speaker on David’s GPS, I aly felt deep into Viking territory.“Sving til venstre.”(挪威语“左转”——译注)于尔根(Jurgen)用他悦耳的北欧嗓音发出一句指示。握着方向盘的戴维点了点头,将车向左转。我们离开爱丁堡才一英里,但因为有戴维——我的挪威裔美国男友,还有于尔根——戴维的GPS里那个说挪威语的男人,我感觉自己已经深入到维京腹地。Scotland is perhaps not the most obvious place to look for traces of Nordic culture. But in the months leading up to the nation’s vote on independence from England last September, there was talk of it everywhere. Although it had been six centuries since any part of Scotland was in Norse hands, many nationalists were suggesting that Viking heritage formed part of the separate identity that lay behind an independence bid, which, although it failed at the polls, has grown stronger since the referendum.一般人大概不会想来到苏格兰寻找北欧文化的痕迹。但在去年9月独立公投前的几个月里,举国上下都在谈论这个话题。斯堪的纳维亚人占领苏格兰的历史,最近的也要追溯到六个世纪前,然而许多民族主义者提出,维京文化的血脉是苏格兰身份认同的一部分,进而成为独立的依据,公投以失败告终,但这种认同在公投后却变得越来越强烈。And it wasn’t all historic either: The Scottish Nationalist Party assured voters that Scotland’s similarities to its Scandinavian neighbors — its small size, its environmental awareness and its Norwegian-style oil reserves — would guarantee prosperity. And perhaps even justify membership in the Nordic Council, an intergovernmental body that fosters political, economic and cultural cooperation among the five Nordic nations and three autonomous regions.历史并非唯一因素:苏格兰民族党(Scottish National Party)还希望选民们放心,苏格兰和斯堪的纳维亚邻国的相似之处——较小的规模,环保意识以及挪威式的石油储备——足以保障它的繁荣。甚至有资格进入北欧理事会(Nordic Council),这个跨政府组织的职责是促进五个北欧国家和三个自治领的政治、经济和文化合作。As a recent transplant to Denmark, I was still trying to figure out Scandinavian identity myself, so this claim intrigued me. What did it take, besides a penchant for bicycles, brooding television series and salted licorice, to become Nordic? To find out, David and I would start in the capital, then drive as far into Scotland’s formerly Viking lands as we could.作为一个丹麦新移民,我还在努力寻找自己的斯堪的纳维亚认同,因此这样的主张对我很是吸引。要想成为北欧人,除了热爱自行车、郁郁寡欢的电视剧和咸甘草糖,还需要做什么?为了寻找,戴维和我将从首府开始,驱车一直深入当年维京人的土地,走得越远越好。We began at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. The first Viking invasions into the British Isles were recorded in the late eighth century; monks’ chronicles make frequent, terrified references to northerly marauders who raped and pillaged their way through the Highlands. But at the museum, the image of those rampaging Norsemen was changing: Not only were they not all raiding, bloodthirsty warriors, but they also weren’t even all men. Tools, jewelry and a reconstructed burial site on display all testified to the gentler side of Viking life, and proved that the Norse (male and female) set down roots in Scotland, engaging in agriculture, trade and family life. “Relations with local people,” the optimistic text on one case, “weren’t always hostile.”我们的起点是在爱丁堡的苏格兰国立物馆(National Museum of Scotland)。据史料记载,维京人最早入侵不列颠群岛是在八世纪末;心惊胆战的修士们时常在编年史中提起这些北方强盗,他们一路奸淫掳掠,杀向苏格兰高地。然而在物馆里,北欧人的残暴形象正在发生改变:他们并非全都是嗜血尚武的匪徒,甚至不全是男人。馆中展出的工具、珠宝和一座重建的墓葬都在明,维京生活也有祥和的一面,还表明斯堪的纳维亚(的男人和女人)曾在苏格兰扎根,开展农耕、贸易和家庭生活。“和当地人的关系并非总是敌对的,”在某个陈列柜上可以看到这样充满正能量的文字。On that day last August, they were rather the opposite. Near a barbershop full of men whose lumberjack beards marked them as either Scandinavian or Brooklynite, we found Timberyard. With its rough wooden floors and jars of fermenting vegetables on display, the restaurant would have fit as easily onto a lonely, windswept expanse of the Stockholm peninsula as it did in the Scottish capital. The food, too, was identifiably Nordic, from the chewy sourdough served with house-made butter and lovage salt that started the meal, to the foraged woodruff tea that ended it. In between came delicate dishes strewn with local herbs and flowers: nearly raw scallops shaved thin and adorned with wild garlic petals; mackerel grilled so that the char cut through the fish’s oiliness, served with yogurt and juicy nasturtium leaves.而在8月底的那一天,我看到的根本是敌对的反面。一间理发店里满是蓄着伐木工大胡子的男人,这说明他们要么来自斯堪的纳维亚,要么是布鲁克林人士。在理发店的附近,我们找到了林场餐厅(Timberyard)。粗犷的木地板,一罐罐正在发酵的蔬菜,让人很容易把这里想象成风声鹤唳、满目寂寥的斯德哥尔半岛,而不是苏格兰首府。至于菜式,从餐前嚼劲十足的酸面包配自制黄油和欧当归盐,到餐后的野生车叶草茶,都是明显的北欧风味。中间是洒满当地花草调味料的精致菜肴:几乎全生的扇贝薄片,装点着野葱花瓣;鲭鱼的表面炙烤成焦黑,瓦解了鱼肉的肥腻,再佐以酸奶和多汁的旱金莲叶。“It’s hard not to be influenced by it,” Ben Radford, the chef, said of the northerly elements in what he calls his “modern Scottish” cuisine. “Culturally, we’re very similar. And we’re working with the same ingredients, letting them shine through, so that each flavor is apparent, crisp and clean.”“很难不被影响,”本·拉德福德(Ben Radford)大厨这样评价本餐厅的北方元素,他称之为“现代苏格兰”菜。“文化上我们很相近。我们用一样的食材,让它们发挥自己的本色,这样一来,每一道调味都是鲜明、清脆、干净的。”In Glasgow, two recent graduates take the affinity even further. Through their consulting firm Lateral North, Graham Hogg and Alex Hobday help towns in the upper reaches of Scotland develop their Nordic potential as transportation and green energy hubs. “We have the same climate, the same landscape, even the same dark sense of humor, so we can take the Nordic countries as a model for economic development,” Mr. Hogg said. “We’re trying to get people to think of Scotland not as the end of Europe, but as the gateway to the North.”在格拉斯哥,两个刚刚大学毕业的年轻人将这种文化亲缘又往前推进了一步。格雷恩·霍格(Graham Hogg)和阿历克斯·霍布戴(Alex Hobday)创办的咨询公司Lateral North正在帮助苏格兰北部地区的城镇开发自己的北欧潜能——成为一个运输和绿色能源枢纽。“我们有一样的气候,一样的地貌,连黑色幽默都一样,”霍格说。“我们希望大家不要把苏格兰当作欧洲的尽头,它应该是北欧的入口。”It was time to head toward that gate. There are a number of Viking-related spots in the Western Highlands. But Mr. Hogg had said we would find the most striking examples of Scandinavian-style Scotland in Orkney and Shetland, so we fired up the GPS and headed north. “Rett frem,” Jurgen said, directing us straight ahead with what I interpreted as approval.那么,该去门口瞧瞧了。在西高地有一些维京文化相关的去处。但是霍格说,要在苏格兰寻找最强烈的斯堪的纳维亚风,得去奥克尼(Orkeny)和设得兰(Shetland),于是我们打开GPS向北行进。“Rett frem,”于尔根指示我们向正前方行驶,在我看来这是在认可我们的决定。Several hours later, Norway appeared on the horizon. In truth, it wasn’t really Norway, just a series of Nordic-style houses — pointy, clean-lined and painted in bright, saturated colors that stood out against the churning North Sea — that wouldn’t have been out of place in Bergen. We had reached John O’Groats, the purportedly northernmost (there is some contention) point of mainland Scotland. It consists of little more than a few souvenir shops and a parking lot big enough for all those tour buses to turn around in.几个小时后,挪威出现在地平线上。事实上并不是挪威,只是一些北欧风格的房子——尖顶、线条清晰、粉刷了明亮、鲜艳的颜色,跟涌动着的北海形成巨大反差——这一派景色,放到卑尔根也没人会觉得有什么异样。我们抵达了约翰欧格罗兹村,号称苏格兰大陆最北端(尚存争议)。除了几爿纪念品商店和一片大小够旅游大巴掉个头的停车场,这里什么都没有。But Natural Retreats, a hotel development company, has made the place much more appealing by taking a Gothic-style inn and adding several Nordic-style wooden houses onto the side. Each building is called a toft, a Norse-derived word for farmhouse or homestead. The tofts are painted different colors and contain apartments, which comprise the accommodations. The rooms are spare and tasteful, with the streaming light and clean lines that are the hallmarks of Scandinavian design. “It’s quite straightforward,” said Adam Gough, Natural Retreats’ head of technical services, when asked about Nordic style. “There is a lot of history and strong links with Scandinavia.”然而,从事酒店开发的自然疗养(Natural Retreats)公司给这里增添了不少吸引力,他们建了一座哥特式旅馆,在旁边又加了几座北欧式木屋。这些小屋叫做toft,一个自北欧的“农舍”或“家宅”变化而来的词。所有toft都刷了不同的颜色,里面有提供食宿务的公寓。这些房间既宽敞又有品味,良好的采光和清晰的线条彰显着斯堪的纳维亚设计的特质。“很直截了当,”自然疗养公司技术务主管亚当·高夫(Adam Gough)这样评价北欧风格。“有很悠久的历史,跟斯堪的纳维亚有着紧密的联系。”But neither Scandi chic, nor the newer, kinder version of the Vikings had made it to the nearby town of Wick, which gets its name from the Old Norse word for bay. Asked why the hotel where she worked was called the Norseman, the receptionist admitted that she wasn’t sure. “Because they came here raping and rampaging through the hills?” she asked. “You know, doing Viking things.”然而,无论是斯堪的纳维亚流还是更新潮、柔和的维京风,都没有影响到附近的威克(Wick),这个地名取自古诺尔斯语“海湾”一词。在一个叫Norseman(北人)的酒店,我们问前台为什么叫这么个名字,她说她也不太清楚。“因为他们曾经到这些山里来奸淫掳掠?”她说。“就是维京人常干的那些事。”It wasn’t hard to see why she persisted in that image. Wick, which Robert Louis Stevenson once referred to as “the meanest of mean towns,” has little in the way of tourist attractions except for a ruined castle that was probably built in the 12th century, presumably by the Norse earl, Harald Maddadson. One of the oldest and best preserved in Scotland, the castle’s tower still reaches four stories up, and its defensive ditches and perilous cliffs keep it cut off from the mainland. It is a stirring place, desolate and imposing, and not at all hard to imagine as the kind of stronghold from which one might have set out marauding.不难看出为什么她会保持这种印象。在曾被罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森(Robert Louis Stevenson)称为“世上最破的破镇子”的威克,唯一值得游客驻足的是一座古堡废墟,可能是在12世纪由诺尔斯伯爵哈拉尔德·马达逊(Harald Maddadson)所建。这是苏格兰最古老、保存最完好的城堡之一,至今仍有四层楼高,防御壕沟和险峻的峭壁将城堡和大陆隔开。这是个让人心潮澎湃的地方,荒凉而威严,不难想象它作为劫掠者的据点的样子。Did people in this part of Scotland feel Viking? As we stood on the ferry to the Orkney Islands, watching mainland Britain disappear, we pondered the question. “What I can’t tell,” David said, “is whether they actually identify with their Nordic past, or if it’s just a marketing ploy.” We had our first answer of a sort after landing at St. Margaret’s Hope, a pretty, stone-clad town that was a welcoming entry to Orkney’s main island. Rebooting Jurgen after his stay in the ship’s hold, we drove to Highland Park distillery in the market town of Kirkwall, the Orcadian capital. The northernmost whiskey distillery in Britain (there would be many claims to the northernmost on this trip), Highland Park makes a line of high-end Scotch whiskies named after Vikings real and imagined: Eibar, Thor, Loki.生活在这一带的苏格兰人,会觉得自己是维京人吗?当我们站在前往奥克尼岛的渡轮上,望着渐渐消失的不列颠大陆,心里想着的就是这个问题。“我说不好的是,”戴维说,“他们究竟是真的对自己的北欧历史有认同,还是只是一个营销伎俩。”在圣玛格丽茨霍普登陆后,我们算是找到了第一个,作为奥克尼主岛的入口,这个满是石壁房屋的漂亮小镇十分招人喜欢。我们重新启动了刚从船上下来的于尔根,向集市城镇、奥克尼群岛首府柯克沃尔的“高原骑士”酒厂(Highland Park)进发。那是不列颠最北的威士忌酒厂(我们此行会经过很多号称“最北”的地方),出品顶级的苏格兰威士忌,皆以真实或虚构的维京人物为名:Eibar、Thor、Loki。 /201512/414127。

Many of us choose antibacterial soap thinking we are taking extra measures to protect ourselves from germs.不少人在洗手时会用除菌皂,认为这能提供额外保护,是我们应对细菌的有效措施。But now, a study has found it is no more effective than plain soap at killing bacteria.但目前一项研究发现,它的除菌效果其实并不比普通肥皂好。Millions of consumers in the US use antibacterial hand soap and body wash products, spending nearly billion annually, researchers said.研究人员表示,全美境内有几百万人会选购除菌洗手皂和身体清洁用品,每年花费于此的金额约十亿美金。In the UK, the soap, bath and shower market, which includes both anti-bacterial and plain soap, was worth 638 million euros in 2014, according to Mintel.市场调查公司英敏特称,全英国境内,肥皂(包括除菌皂和普通皂)和各类沐浴用品市场在2014年市场价值约为6.38亿英镑。The expectation is that antibacterial products will provide more protection from germs than plain soap, the researchers continued.研究人员还补充道,顾客对于除菌产品的期望是:此类用品要优于普通肥皂,能为他们提供更好的保护,免于细菌的伤害。However, their study revealed there is #39;no significant#39; difference between antibacterial soap and the normal type.然而,他们的研究表明,除菌皂和普通肥皂其实并没有“显著”区别。Korean scientists examined the effect of triclosan, the active antiseptic ingredient most commonly used in these types of soaps.三氯生是此类肥皂中最常见的活性除菌原料,来自韩国的科学家做了实验来检验三氯生的除菌效果。They examined how effectively the ingredient killed bacteria, testing it against 20 strains.实验检验了此原料面对20多类细菌,杀菌能力到底有多强。They added triclosan to bacteria warmed to 22°C (room temperature) and 40°C (warm temperature) for 20 seconds, to recreate the conditions under which humans normally wash their hands.他们在22度的细菌培养皿(室内温度)和40度的细菌培养皿(暖和的温度)内加入三氯生,并等待20秒,来重现人们洗手的场景。They used a triclosan concentration of 0.3 percent - the maximum allowed by law.他们使用的是浓度为0.3%的三氯生,为法定最高浓度。They found triclosan had killed significantly more bacteria after nine hours or more, but not during the short time required for hand washing.他们后来发现,在等待九个多小时以后,三氯生的杀菌效果非常卓越,但洗手的短暂时间仍不足以杀死细菌。Then, they compared the ability of antibacterial and non-antibacterial soap to remove bacteria from human hands, by using 16 healthy adult volunteers.然后,他们通过16位健康成人志愿者的参与协助,再次比较除菌皂和普通肥皂去除手上细菌的能力。They found it was no more effective, both experiments indicating that there is #39;no significant difference#39; between the effects of plain soap and antibacterial soap when used under ‘real life’ conditions, they concluded.他们最后总结道,结果表明除菌皂不比普通皂有效,所有的实验结果都明这两种肥皂在“日常生活”中并没有“显著区别”。The paper#39;s lead author, Dr Min-Suk Rhee, of Korea University, said #39;advertisement and consumer belief regarding the effectiveness of antibacterial soaps needs to be addressed.#39;高丽大学的李敏硕士是本论文的第一作者,他表示,“关于除菌皂的能力,广告的错误引导和消费者扭曲的认知都需要改改了。” /201509/399928。

The patient was recovering after an operation. His friend came to visit him and asked how he was getting along.一位病人做完一个手术回到病房,他的朋友来看望他并问他感觉怎么样。;Well,; the patient began, ;after my first operation they had to cut me open again. The doctor had to take out the sponge1 left in me.; ;But you got over it all right?;“哎,”这位病人说,“第一次手术后他们又给我开了一刀,因为医生要取出忘在我体内的纱布.”“但是你挺过来了?”;Oh, yes. Only I had another operation yesterday. They found that they had operated on the wrong part.;“噢,是的,只是他们昨天又给我开了一刀,因为他们发现开刀开错了地方。”;Thank God. You#39;re all right now, though,; the friend said encouragingly.“感谢上帝,你现在总算没事了 。”朋友安慰他说。At that time the doctor came in saying, ;Has anyone seen my hat around here? I left it somewhere yesterday.;正在这时医生进来说:“谁在这儿看见我的帽子了?我昨天把它忘在什么地方了。” /201511/410124。