旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻

安康市中医院胃溃疡幽门螺杆菌反流性胃炎 糜烂性胃炎最新知识陕西省第一人民医院消化病专家预约

来源:知道在线    发布时间:2019年09月23日 10:35:28    编辑:admin         

Technology Prevention of cancer Wonder drug科技 癌症预防 灵丹妙药Aspirin continues to amaze阿司匹林:继续给你惊喜FOR thousands of years aspirin has been humanitys wonder drug.阿司匹林作为人类的特效药实际上已存在了数千年。Extracts from the willow tree have been used for pain relief in folk medicine since the time of the ancient Greeks.早在古希腊时期,民间就使用柳树的提取物作为药物来缓解疼痛。By 1897 a synthetic derivative (acetyl salicylic acid) of the plants active ingredient (salicin) was created.到了1897年,一种取自柳树的活性成分柳醇(水杨苷)的衍生合成物——乙酰水杨酸诞生了。This allowed aspirin to become the most widely used medicine in the world.这使得阿司匹林成为世界上使用最为广泛的药物。In recent years its benefits as a blood-thinning drug have led to it being prescribed in low doses of around 50mg to reduce deaths from stroke and heart attack.因其具有稀释血液的作用,近年来医界已使用50mg左右的低剂量阿司匹林来降低中风和心脏病带来的死亡危险。There were also hints that aspirin may help prevent some cancers.也有消息称阿司匹林还可预防某些癌症,But these were mostly based on observational studies, which can be misleading.但大多都是基于观测研究得来的,不可全信。The gold standard of scientific evidence is the randomised controlled trial, preferably one with a lot of people and held over a long time.获得科学明的最佳标准就是随机临床试验,最好是长期且有大批人参加的。The results of just such a trial, published in the Lancet, suggest that aspirin is indeed an astonishing drug.正是这样一个试验,发表在Lancet上的结果表明,阿司匹林的确是一种令人称奇的药物。Peter Rothwell at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and his colleagues looked at deaths due to cancers during and after randomised trials of daily aspirin.牛津约翰拉德克利夫医院的Peter Rothwell与其同事们以随机试验的方式观察了罹患癌症的病人在每日使用阿司匹林期间与其后的状况。The trials had actually been started to look at how useful aspirin was for preventing heart attacks and strokes. Nevertheless, the data from the 25,570 patients enrolled in eight trials was also revealing about cancer.实际上开始试验的目的是为了查看阿司匹林对于预防心脏病与中风的效果,尽管如此,从25,570名病人身上收集的8个试验的数据同样表明了这种药物对癌症的作用。In trials lasting between four and eight years, the patients who had been given aspirin were 21% less likely to die from cancer than those who had been given a placebo.在长达四年到八年不等的试验过程中,使用阿司匹林的病人,因癌症死亡的概率比使用安慰剂的病人要低21%。These results were based on 674 cancer deaths, so are unlikely to represent the kind of statistical oddity that can beset studies on cancer risks that sometimes create headlines.这一结果是基于674名罹患癌症面临死亡的病人,因而对于那种围绕研究癌症风险给人提前判死刑(缓刑)的概率学数据,还不大能拉得上关系。The benefits of aspirin were also apparent many years after the trials had ended.阿司匹林的良性作用在试验结束多年后仍明显存在于用药人群身上。After five years, death rates for all cancers fell by 35% and for gastrointestinal cancers by 54%.试验结束五年后,所有癌症患者的死亡率下降了35%,肠胃癌症病人更是下降了54%。A long-term follow-up of patients showed that the 20-year risk of cancer death remained 20% lower in those who had taken aspirin.一项长期的跟踪观察试验表明,在患有癌症,并且有20年的;缓刑期;的人群当中,用阿司匹林的人其死亡率要低20%。The study revealed that the effect takes time to accrue, so aspirin must be taken over a long period.这一试验说明了阿司匹林的药效需要经过长时间的累积,因此阿司匹林需长期用才有效果。The latent period for improving oesophageal, pancreatic, brain and lung cancer was about five years of aspirin taking on a daily basis.对于食道癌、胰脏癌、脑癌及肺癌,大约需持续5年每日用阿司匹林才可见效;For stomach and colorectal cancer the effects took ten years and for prostate cancer about 15 years.对胃癌、直肠癌,需10年;前列腺癌则需约15年。The means by which aspirin prevents cancer is not well understood. It is believed that it inhibits an enzyme that promotes cell proliferation in tumours.阿司匹林预防癌症的机理现在还不明了,但人们普遍认为,它通过抑制一种有助于癌细胞繁殖的酶而起效。The researchers also found that small daily doses of aspirin were enough, and that taking more than 75mg conferred no additional benefits.研究者还发现,每日接受小剂量的阿司匹林就已足够,超过75毫克并没有过多的效用。Those starting on aspirin in their late 40s or 50s benefit most.而用者当中,接近50岁或50多岁的人收效最好。Current guidelines on using aspirin for reducing the chances of a stroke or heart attack rightly warn of the small risk of ulcers and of dangerous bleeding in the stomach.目前在用阿司匹林以降低中风或心脏病风险时,用药说明明确指出了其中存在较低的可能引起溃疡或危险性胃出血的风险。These guidelines will probably have to be revised given the new findings.估计这类说明需要将那些最新发现加上去了。However, it remains unlikely that popping aspirin will be recommended for everyone like a vitamin supplement.但是,还是不大可能推荐大家像嗑维生素片一样嗑阿司匹林。Aspirin is a highly cost-effective treatment: taking it for five to ten years easily beats initiatives to screen for breast and prostate cancers.用阿司匹林是一种高性价比的治疗方式:用阿司匹林五到十年绝对强过定期去做乳腺癌或前列腺癌的仪器检查。To put it another way, ask yourself what a pharmaceuticals firm might charge for a drug that would reduce the chance of death by cancer by 20%—and then note that 100 days supply of low-dose aspirin can cost less than a dollar.换个说法就是:你想把患癌症死亡的概率降低20%,只需每日用低剂量的阿司匹林,而每100天你只需向药商付不到1美元。By anyones measure, that is a bargain.还有比这更划算的事吗?相信对任何人而言,这都再便宜不过了。 /201301/219223。

Duct Tape and Warts管状胶带和疣Have you ever used duct tape to tape a duct? Do you even know what a duct is? Maybe not. But you definitely know what duct tape is, and you’ve probably used it to fix everything from glasses to flashlights. Now, thanks to one study, we can officially add to the aly long list of things to do with duct tape: curing warts. That’s right, duct tape might be used to cure warts.你曾经用管状胶带粘过管道吗?你知道管道是什么吗?也许你不知道。但你一定知道胶带,并且你可能用它来固定任何东西,比如眼镜或手电筒。现在,多亏了一项研究,我们可以正式在胶带能做的事情单上增加一件事:治疗疣。是的,胶带可用于治疗疣。The study tested duct tape against cryotherapy, which uses liquid nitrogen to freeze warts. Of a test group of fifty-one wart patients, roughly half received cryotherapy, the other half duct tape. The duct tape patients wore pieces of tape over their warts for six days and then removed it for twelve hours.该项研究对胶带治疗疣和通过液态氮冷冻治疗疣进行了对照测试。测试组有五十一名病人,大约一半的病人接受了冷冻疗法,另一半病人接受管状胶带治疗。管状胶带疗法病人在长疣的地方贴上胶带,贴6天后再取下。After soaking the wart in water and gently scrubbing it with pumice stone, the procedure was repeated for up to two months, or until the wart disappeared. The cryotherapy patients received a maximum of six treatments over the same time period. By the end, 85% of duct tape patients saw their warts vanish completely, while only 65% of cryotherapy recipients had similar results.在水中浸泡疣后,用浮石轻轻擦拭其表面,这样坚持2个月,或直到疣消失。冷冻疗法的病人在同样时间内接受了6次疗法。在治疗结束时,管状胶带治疗组中占85%的病人寻常疣完全消退;而冷冻疗法治疗组中只有65%的病人寻常疣完全消退。As for precisely what makes duct tape so effective, researchers are still uncertain. Scientists speculate that by mildly irritating the wart, the tape activates the immune system which suppresses the viral microbes that cause warts. Robbed of its microbes, the wart gradually vanishes.到底是什么使得管状胶带如此有效,研究人员目前还不能确定。科学家们推测也许是由于轻度地刺激疣,胶带激活了免疫系统,抑制了产生疣的病毒微生物的产生。微生没有了,疣就渐渐消失了。Although duct tape has gotten all the publicity, it may be the case that other kinds of tape would do just as well. In any case, the next time you get a wart, talk to your medical professional about duct tape.尽管管状胶带已经被广泛宣传,但可能另外一种胶带也同样有效。不管怎样,以后如果长了疣,与你的专业医师谈谈管状胶带吧。注释:疣是人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)所引起,以往认为这些疾病是慢性良性疾病,但发现HPV感染后有一部分会导致恶性肿瘤,如皮肤癌、舌癌和宫颈癌等,因而引起人们的重视。疣是病毒引起的以细胞增生反应为主的一类皮肤浅表性良性赘生物。受到感染后,约潜伏四个月左右发病。多见于青少年。 /201303/230666。

E. T. Phoned. Now What?外星人来电Suppose one day scientists pick up a transmission they think is generated by aliens. Now what? Do we build a landing strip and break out the welcome wagon?假如有一天,科学家收到到外星人发来的信号该怎么办呢?我们有建造飞碟起落跑道来欢迎它们吗?Well here’s the thing about picking up alien broadcasts. The receivers scientists are currently using to listen to space noise are designed to find constant signals, or signals that are pulsing at regular intervals. But any message carried by these signals would probably be lost because the receivers can’t pick up the modulation, or rapid variations, in the base signal. The SETI institute, which searches for extra terrestrial life, has compared picking up a signal’s modulation to picking up the sound of a flute when it’s masked by the noise of a waterfall.关于接收到外来广播的事情是这样的。科学家接者收目前会听航天噪音,然后找出不变信号或者找出那些常规跳动的信号。但是任何携带信息的信号都可能丢失,因为接收者在信号基地不能收集到变调或快速变化的信号。对外星智能的探索研究院,专门寻找外星生物。它他们对接受到信号的变调和被瀑布声掩盖的笛声做了比较。Luckily, scientists would still have enough data to pinpoint where in the sky the transmission is coming from. And any slow changes in the broadcast frequency would reveal information about the rotation and movement of the aliens’ planets.幸运的是,科学家们有足够的数据来确定信号广播的位置。广播频率的细微变化都会揭露外星人星球的旋转和运动情况。Okay, but how will we know if they are friendly? Well, If we ever do detect a transmission, this would be huge news. The government would definitely allocate funds to building larger instruments capable of picking up signal modulations. However, even once scientists are able to measure the modulation, it isn’t certain that we’ll be able to understand the message. I guess everyone’s hoping that if the aliens are anything like us, they’ll send simple pictures and easy-to-decode messages.我们怎样才知道那些是友好的信号呢?如果我们发现了外来广播,那就是很大新闻了。政府一定会拨款建造更大的仪器,能够接受信号变调。不管怎样,即使科学家能够测量变调,也不能确定我们能明白这些信息。我想每个人都希望外星人与我们多少有点相似之处,会发简单的图画和容易解码的信息。 /201303/228408。

Science and Technology科技Materials science材料科学Dont slag it off废渣别融掉How to make bricks out of industrial waste怎样用工业废渣制造砖块BUILDING houses and offices out of toxic waste sounds like a pretty eccentric idea.用有毒废料建造住房和办公室的点子听起来真怪。Yet it may become commonplace if Ana Andres of the University of Cantabria in Spain has her way.但是如果西班牙坎塔布里亚大学的Ana Andres成功的话,这项技术就会广泛应用。For Dr Andres and her colleagues suggest, in Industrial amp; Engineering Chemistry Research, that the humble brick need not be made of pure clay.Ana Andres士和她的同事们在《工业与工程化学研究》中提出,一般的砖不需要全用粘土烧制。Instead, up to 30% of its weight could be slag—the toxic gunk left over when steel is made.反而,高达30%的重量可以是矿渣,这是一种在制钢过程中产生的有毒废料。Waelz slag, to give its technical name, is composed mainly of silica but is also undesirably rich in poisonous metals like lead and zinc.学名是威尔兹的废渣主要由硅土组成,也不可避免的含有诸如铅和锌之类的有毒金属。Getting rid of it safely is thus a problem. Getting rid of it usefully might sound like a miracle.如何安全的去除这些金属是一个问题。能够去除听起来就是个奇迹。But that is what Dr Andres proposes.但这正是Andres士打算解决的。A series of experiments she has conducted over the past three years suggests this is not only possible but will make bricks cheaper and more environmentally friendly.再过去的三年中,她所做的一系列实验表明,安全去除有毒物质不仅可行,还可以降低制砖成本,更加环保。Her research started after she of previous work which had shown that many ceramics suffer no loss of integrity when the clay used to make them is mixed with other materials, and that the molecular structure of some ceramics acts to trap atoms of toxic heavy metals.一些研究表明,在用于烧制的粘土中添加了其他材料后,陶瓷整体的性质没有减弱,一些陶瓷的分子结构捕捉有毒重的金属原子,读到这些后,士开始了她的研究。She wondered whether these things might be true of brick clay and Waelz slag, and she began experimenting.她想知道这些原理对制砖粘土和威尔兹废料是否同样适用,她开始实验。The answer, she found, was that they are.发现是,同样适用。Bricks show no loss of useful mechanical properties even when 20-30% of their content is slag. Nor do they leak.就算20-30%的是废料,砖的力学性能也没有降低。有毒物质也没有泄露。To check that, Dr Andres and her team ground their bricks into powder and soaked them in water, shook them in special machines for days at a time, and even tried to dissolve them in nitric acid.为了验这一点,士和她的科研小组将砖头打成粉末,浸泡在水里,在特殊装置里几天不停地摇晃,甚至在硝酸中溶解粉末。The pollutants stayed resolutely put.污染物没有一丝一毫泄露。Moreover, adding slag to the clay reduced by a third the amount of carbon dioxide each brick released during its manufacture, because wood pulp is added to clay before it is fired, and less clay means less pulp is needed.而且,通过在砖头中增加废料,可以在制砖的过程中减少三分之一的二氧化碳排放,因为添加在粘土中的木浆没有经过燃烧,粘土越少,需要的木浆越少。The cost, too, fell, because slag is free, whereas clay costs money.成本也有所降低,因为废料是免费的,只有粘土需要用钱购买。There is, of course, the problem of customers.当然,消费者是个问题。Whether people will be willing to live and work in structures that double as waste dumps is moot.人们是否愿意住在工作在砖头含有有毒物质,但面积增加一倍的建筑物中还不得而知。But for those who want to make an eco-point, what better way could there be than, literally, to build their green credentials?但是对于那些想做点对生态有益的人,说实话,什么会比建造环保建筑这一绿色明更好的方式呢? /201211/209660。

I really want to ask you, all right?我真的想问你一些问题,可以吗?Come through.请便。What was it like when the postman turned up, the striking postman.当那名邮差,那位罢工的邮递员出现的时候,是什么样的情况。Paul Chalcroft.保罗·克劳福特。Paul Chalcroft.保罗·克劳福特。Its very exciting, actually.实际上非常令人兴奋。Is that one of his?那其中一个是他吗?Thats Van Gogh. And thats just Paul Chalcroft, too.那是梵高。而那只是保罗·克劳福特。He was obsessed of this, wasnt he?他沉溺于此,不是吗?He was absolutely knew everything about Vincent from the day he was born, and the day he went,他绝对是从他出生开始那天就知晓有关文森特的一切,而就是那一天他去了,in fact, his wife told me, I dont know where to put all those pictures drawn of Van Gogh, hes drawn above me.事实上,他的妻子告诉我,我不知道可以把所有这些梵高的绘画挂在哪里,因为他的画作凌驾于我之上。Not very like it when he was here.当他在这里的时候不是那样。Poorly, but itll still be more or less the same. 有些可怜,但它仍然会或多或少相同。How do you have few sort of, fenced in the stairs, havent you?你如何有几类,楼梯中的篱笆,不是吗?Yes, I did. This was the room he slept in.是的,我有。这是他睡的房间。This one here?是在这里吗?This one here. Two windows. Thats all the paintings in there.这一间。里面有两扇窗户。这是所有的绘画作品诞生的地方。Theres the church at Auvers.奥维尔的教堂就在那里。The church, thats right. Thats Paul Chalcrofts work again.教堂,是的。那是保罗·克劳福特的再次工作。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/188624。

Science and Technolgy.科技。Animal behaviour.动物习性。Smarter than the average bear.一只特别聪明的熊。The first case of ursine tool use.第一只会用工具的熊。PRIMATES apart, few mammals employ tools. Sea otters use rocks to smash clams open, dolphins wrap sponges around their noses to protect themselves while they forage on the seabed, elephants swat insects with branches and humpback whales exhale curtains of bubbles to trap schools of fish. Until now, these four examples had been thought the extent of the non-primate mammalian tool-users club. But a study just published in Animal Cognition, by Volker Deecke of the University of St Andrews, in Britain, has added a fifth and rather surprising one. That epitome of rugged wildness, the grizzly bear, seems to be the only species other than humans to have invented the comb.除了灵长类动物,会使用工具的哺乳类动物屈指可数。海獭会在石头上砸开蛤蜊;海豚在海床上觅食时,会将海绵绑在鼻子上以保护自身;大象会用树枝拍打昆虫;驼背鲸会呼出阵阵气泡来困住鱼群。至今,人们仍认为非灵长类动物中只有这四种会使用工具。但英国圣安德鲁大学的Volker Deecke在《动物认知》上刚发表的研究指出了第五种会用工具的动物,而且是令人相当意外的一种。粗犷野性的象征——灰熊,看来是除了人类以外唯一一种发明了梳子的动物。Dr Deecke made this discovery while studying grizzly-bear behaviour from a small boat in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, on July 22nd 2010. After a period of play-fighting with another bear and a short bout of feeding on a beached whale carcass, a bear of between three and five years of age, sex unknown, waded into the shallows of the bay. Once there, it picked up a fist-sized rock and carefully rotated it for about a minute before dropping it back into the water. Moments later, it picked up another, of similar size, and again rotated it. This time, rather than discarding the stone, it held it against its muzzle and started to rub. Using its left paw to press the rock against its skin and its right paw to support the rocks weight, the bear rubbed away at its muzzle and face for roughly a minute before dropping the stone back into the water. Then it grabbed a third stone of the same size, rotated it and rubbed its face, muzzle and neck for a further two minutes before discarding it. This done, it spent two minutes grooming its right paw with its teeth before returning to the whale carcass.这一点是Deecke士于2010年7月22日在阿拉斯加冰河湾国家公园一艘小船上研究灰熊习性时发现的。一只灰熊(年龄3-5岁,性别未知)在与另一只熊打闹了一阵并吃了一点被冲到沙滩上的鲸鱼尸体后,涉水来到了海湾的浅滩中。在那,它捡起了一块拳头大的石头,小心翼翼地旋转了约一分钟后,将其扔回水中。片刻之后,它又捡起了另一块差不多大小的石头旋转起来。但这次它没扔掉石头,反而把石头放到口鼻处开始来回磨蹭。那只熊用左掌将石头按在皮肤上,用右掌托着石头,将石头在口鼻和脸上蹭了大约一分钟后才将石头扔回水里。然后,它捡起第三块同样大小的石头并在旋转后用来磨蹭脸、口鼻和脖子将近两分钟后将其扔掉。做完这些后,它又花了两分钟用牙齿来梳理右掌的毛,之后便回到鲸鱼尸体处。Dr Deecke found, upon close examination of his photographs, that all three rocks were encrusted with barnacles and he reckons these were acting as the functional equivalent of the teeth of a comb. He thinks the bear was probably using its makeshift combs for comfort, rather than vanity. But crucially for the concept of tool-use, the animals rejection of the first rock it picked up shows a discriminating understanding of what was required to get the right amount of scratching from a comb; which rock, in other words, was the tool for the job.Deecke士在仔细研究所拍照片后发现,那三块石头上都粘有藤壶,而他认为这些藤壶的功能梳齿一样。Deecke士认为,那只熊自制梳子可能是想让自己舒,而不是为了美观。但是,那只熊没有用它捡到的第一块石头,这说明它有能力判断子什么样的梳子才好用;换言之,就是哪块石头可以拿来当梳子。这一点对判断动物是否会使用工具至关重要。An important question from a biological point of view is whether this animals behaviour is unique. Other tool-using mammals are social species. That means one individuals chance invention is easily copied by others of its group, resulting in a primitive culture. Grizzly bears have not been considered particularly sociable in the past, but if others in Glacier Bay are seen combing themselves in this way that view might have to change. It might, though, be that Dr Deeckes preening animal is unique. That would suggest it came up with the idea of using rocks as combs by itself, rather than copying someone else-truly smarter than the average bear.在此,有一个很重要的生物学问题:是不是只有这一只熊会使用工具?其他会使用工具的哺乳类动物都是群居动物,也就是说个体偶然的发明很容易被群体里的其他成员模仿,从而形成原始的文化。过去,人们并不认为灰熊具有明显的群居特征,但如果冰河湾有其他灰熊被发现使用这种方法梳理毛发,那上述观点就可能会被推翻。不过,也有可能只是Deecke士看到的那只梳理毛发的熊比较特别罢了。那就意味着这只熊拿石头当梳子是自己的原创,并非模仿——果然是只特别聪明的熊。 /201209/200897。

What Do Pupils Tell Us?The size of our pupils can give clues to our interest, emotions, attitudes, and thought processes.If you’ve seen a magician tell which card someone picked from a deck, you’ve probably been amazed. Well, the pupils often open up when the magician picks the right card,so one of the tricks they use is to look at the person’s eyes.The pupils tend to close in response to unpleasantness, and open in response to pleasure. For example, for those who find snakes loathsome, a picture of one will cause their pupils to close.For someone who likes snakes, the same picture will cause the pupils to open.The same thing happens to people with strong political preferences. A conservative’s pupils will close when shown a picture of a liberal.The liberal has the same reaction when shown a picture of a conservative. Their pupils open when looking at a picture of someone of their own persuasion. /201206/185224。