明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月16日 09:52:43

  Apple continues to make billions of dollars from mobile apps sold in its App Store. The company said on Thursday that in 2014, billings from app sales rose 50 percent from the previous year, which results in roughly billion in revenue for app developers and a .5 billion cut for Apple.苹果(Apple)又通过其应用程序商店App Store售卖的移动应用程序赚到了数十亿元美元。该公司周四表示,2014年的应用程序销售额同比上涨50%,应用程序开发者的收入达到了150亿美元左右,公司从中分账45亿美元。Apple takes a 30-percent cut of each app sale made in its App Store. The .5 billion sum is a tiny sliver for Apple, which makes more than 0 billion in annual sales. But it is still a considerable sum for providing a storefront for developers to sell their apps.苹果可以从应用程序商店售卖的每一款应用程序的销售收入中获得30%的分成。45亿美元对苹果来说是小意思,该公司的年营业额在1800亿美元以上。但考虑到它只不过是给开发者们提供了一个售卖其应用程序的店面,这笔收入还是相当巨大的。By comparison, Google’s Android is the largest mobile operating system in the world, but its app store, Google Play, generates far less money than Apple’s. That’s partly because Apple’s iPhone customers are wealthier and spend more money than people who own Android phones. App Annie, an analytics firm that tracks mobile app sales, said that in the third quarter of 2014, Apple’s App Store revenue was 60 percent higher than revenue generated from Google Play.相较之下,谷歌(Google)的安卓(Android)是全球最大的手机操作系统,但该公司的应用程序商店谷歌市场(Google Play)赚的钱,比苹果应用程序商店少得多。这在某种程度上是因为苹果的iPhone客户比使用安卓手机的人更富有,花钱也更多。跟踪移动应用程序销售额的分析公司App Annie称,2014年第三季度,苹果应用程序商店的营收比谷歌市场的高出60%。App Annie said it had not yet released numbers for annual sales for Google Play. In June 2014, Google said it had paid out billion to developers in the previous 12 months. Gina Johnson, a Google spokeswoman, said the company did not have newer statistics to share.App Annie表示,谷歌尚未公布谷歌市场的年度营收数据。2014年6月,谷歌称其在过去12个月中已经向开发者付了50亿美元。谷歌的女发言人吉娜·约翰逊(Google spokeswoman)表示,公司没有新的统计数据可供分享。Apple said its App Store serves 1.4 million apps for iPhones, iPads and iPod Touch devices. Google Play hosts 1.72 million apps, according to App Annie.苹果称,其应用程序商店为iPhone、iPad和iPod Touch等设备供应了140万个应用程序。根据App Annie的数据,在谷歌市场出售的应用程序共有172万个。 /201501/353589

  The world#39;s most human-like robot has begun work as a university receptionist as scientists predict the new technology will eventually provide childcare and offer friendship to lonely elderly people.世界上最逼真的人形机器人“纳丁”已经开始了她作为大学接待员的工作。科学家预计这种机器人最终将能承担保姆和护工的工作,为幼儿和孤寡老人提供务。With her soft skin and flowing brunette hair, Nadine does not only meet and greet visitors, smile, make eye contact and shake hands, but she can even recognise past guests and spark up conversation based on previous chats.纳丁有着细嫩的皮肤和柔顺的深褐色头发,她不仅会跟参观者打招呼、微笑、进行眼神交流和握手,甚至还能认出老熟人,并与他们继续上次未聊完的话题。Unlike conventional robots, Nadine has her own personality, mood and emotions. She can be happy or sad, depending on the topic.不同于传统机器人,纳丁有自己的个性、情绪和情感,她可以根据谈话内容表现出高兴或是悲伤。Powered by intelligent software similar to Apple#39;s Siri or Microsoft#39;s Cortana, she is the brainchild of scientists at the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and is based on her creator Prof Nadia Thalmann.纳丁是新加坡南洋理工大学(NTU)科学家们的智慧结晶,其运行机制类似苹果Siri或微软小娜,她的外貌完全是按照其创造者纳迪娅·塔尔曼教授的样子为蓝本。Prof Thalmann, the director of the Institute for Media Innovation who led the development of said robots such as Nadine are poised to become more visible in offices and homes in future.塔尔曼教授是媒体创新研究所主任,她负责领导此次的机器人研究项目。像纳丁这样的机器人未来会在办公场所和居民家中扮演越来越重要的角色。“Robotics technologies have advanced significantly over the past few decades and are aly being used in manufacturing and logistics,” she said.塔尔曼表示:“机器人技术在过去几十年里发展迅速,并已经开始应用于制造业和物流工作中。”;As countries worldwide face challenges of an aging population, social robots can be one solution to address the shrinking workforce, become personal companions for children and the elderly at home, and even serve as a platform for healthcare services in future.;“当全球都面临人口老龄化的挑战时,社交机器人可以成为解决劳动力萎缩的工具之一,可以是家中老人孩子的陪伴者,甚至未来还能充当提供卫生保健务的平台。”;Over the past four years, our team at NTU have been fostering cross-disciplinary research in social robotics technologies -- involving engineering, computer science, linguistics, psychology and other fields -- to transform a virtual human, from within a computer, into a physical being that is able to observe and interact with other humans.;“过去四年,我们团队致力于社交机器人技术的跨学科研究,涉及的技术包括工程学、计算机科学、语言学、心理学等领域。我们的研究将计算机里的虚拟人物变成了现实里客观存在的机器人,她能够察言观色并与人类交流。” /201601/419615。


  The real action in the July to September quarter, according to Gartner’s latest report, was in developing markets.市场研究机构高德纳(Gartner)的最新报告显示,今年7-9月份,发展中国家是全球手机市场中的最大亮点。With the price differential between dumb phones and smart rapidly shrinking, whole populations seem to be trading up. Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa recorded their highest growths ever in Q3, according to Gartner, with sales of smartphones growing almost 50% year-over-year.随着传统手机和智能手机之间价格差异迅速缩小,似乎所有人都在更新换代。高德纳指出,东欧、中东和非洲市场第三季度出现了历史上最高的增速,智能手机销量同比增幅几乎达到50%。So although Samsung and Apple are still the biggest single vendors, with Xiaomi coming on strong, the quarter goes to “others,” which now accounts for 38% of total mobile phone sales and 47.5% of smartphones.尽管三星(Samsung)和苹果公司(Apple)两家仍然销量最大,小米奋起直追,这个季度是属于“其他手机制造商”的,这些厂商目前占整个手机市场销量的38%,在智能手机市场中的份额为47.5%。Within three years, Gartner’s Roberta Cozza predicts, nine out of 10 phones will be smartphones.高德纳研究部门负责人罗伯塔o科扎预计,3年内智能手机的比重将达到90%。What Gartner’s report had to say about the three most closely watched companies:在这份报告中,高德纳对三家最受关注的公司描述如下:Samsung:Sales of Samsung’s feature phones and smartphones declined in the third quarter of 2014, and Samsung lost market share in both markets. Samsung’s deepest decline came from feature phones, which decreased by 10.8 percent year-over-year. Demand for Samsung’s smartphones weakened mostly in Western Europe and Asia. Samsung’s smartphone sales declined 28.6 percent in China, the biggest market for Samsung.三星:2014年第三季度,三星功能手机和智能手机销量双双下跌,在这两个市场均出现份额流失。跌幅最大的是功能手机,同比下降了10.8%。三星智能手机的下跌主要出现在西欧和亚洲市场。作为三星最大的市场,中国的三星智能手机销量下滑了28.6%。Apple:Sales of iPhones grew 26 percent in the third quarter of 2014. With the introduction of two large-screen phones for the first time, the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, Apple managed to neutralize the advantage of Android competitors. Gartner expects Apple to experience its biggest ever fourth-quarter sales, with both of its large-screen phones seeing demand exceed supply since their launch.苹果:2014年第三季度,iPhone销量上升26%。通过首次推出的两款大屏幕手机,iPhone 6和iPhone 6 Plus,苹果成功地在与使用安卓(Android)系统的对手的竞争中扳回一局。高德纳预计苹果将迎来历史上最高的第四季度销量,原因是这两款大屏幕手机上市以来一直供不应求。Xiaomi:Xiaomi made its debut among the top-five smarpthone vendors. It experienced the highest growth of the quarter, with an increase of 336 percent driven by strong performance in China where it became market leader.小米:小米首次跻身五大智能手机厂商之列。第三季度小米实现最快增速。在国内市场336%的增长率使得小米成为中国市场龙头。Below: Gartner’s smartphone spsheet.下表为高德纳统计的智能手机数据。 /201412/349375Chinese internet search engine Baidu has come under attack from the country’s technology regulator after a flood of complaints over false advertisements, pornography and leaks of personal information.中国互联网搜索引擎百度(Baidu)受到国内技术监管部门的抨击,有大量举报投诉百度存在虚假广告,淫秽色情,泄露个人隐私等违法违规行为。Nasdaq-listed Baidu has enjoyed a rapid rise, helped by Google shutting down its China site over censorship concerns in 2010, and along with Alibaba and Tencent is one of China’s internet trinity. However, disappointing half-year earnings in July suggest its star may be waning.由于谷歌(Google)在2010年因担心审查制度而关闭了中国网站,纳斯达克上市的百度迅速崛起,与阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和腾讯(Tencent)一起成为中国互联网三巨头。但是百度去年7月发布的半年度盈利令人失望,似乎表明其星光可能正逐渐暗淡。The latest scandal shows it is not too big to fend off criticism of unethical behaviour — or to evade the attentions of the regulator. The State Internet Information Office said it had grilled Baidu executives on Friday and that the company would face unspecified punishment.最新爆出的这起丑闻表明,百度并未大到足以挡开对其不道德行为的批评,或逃过监管机构的关注。上周五,国家网信办约谈了百度高管,该公司将面临未指明的处罚。In addition to several breaches, the regulator said: “Some search results on Baidu are not impartial or objective, and its news channel has sp harmful information involving violence and terrorism.”国家网信办表示,除了存在违法违规信息,“百度还存在部分搜索结果有失客观公正、百度新闻炒作渲染暴力恐怖等有害信息问题。”Baidu has apologised for seeking to financially exploit medical information bulletin boards and said it would stop the practice on its Tieba, or Post Bar, site.百度已就企图利用医疗信息公告栏赚钱的行为作出道歉,并表示将制止其“贴吧”网站的这种做法。Chinese netizens had attacked the company for replacing the volunteer moderator of its haemophilia-themed bulletin board with a private hospital that was accused of providing substandard care. The popular Tieba platform hosts about 19m forums devoted to a wide range of topics.百度将血友病贴吧的志愿吧主换成一家被指不具备医疗资质的民营医院,此举受到中国网民的抨击。贴吧平台深受欢迎,它拥有1900万个论坛,主题范围广泛。Baidu previously faced accusations of altering search results to feature entities that paid it to have their sites highly ranked. The incident also comes amid widesp public distrust of doctors and hospitals over accusations of corruption and shoddy care.百度曾因改动搜索结果、让向其付费的实体提高排名而受到指责。最新事件发生之际,中国的医生和医院因腐败和低劣的医护务而被指责,受到公众普遍不信任。“Sixteen years ago, the two search engine companies [Google and Baidu] started at almost the same time. Sixteen years later, one company is researching the feasibility of quantum computing. By contrast, the other one is researching how to help other people sell fake medicine,” Sina Weibo user 5718276383 said on the Twitter-like social media platform.新浪微用户5718276383在微(Weibo)——类似Twitter的社交媒体平台——上表示:“十五年前,美国和中国,两个搜索引擎公司几乎同时起步,十五年后,一个叫谷歌在研究量子计算机的可行性,另一个叫百度在研究如何帮人卖假药。”Baidu said on Saturday it would partner with non-profit organisations to raise the quality of medical information on its Tieba site. In addition to problems on the haemophilia board, local media raised doubts about the qualifications of for-profit hospitals and pharmaceutical companies in charge of Tieba forums to dispense advice on high blood pressure, liver disease, vascular disease and uterine fibroids.上周六百度表示将与非营利组织合作,提高贴吧医疗信息的质量。除了血友病贴吧爆出问题外,中国媒体还就一些营利性医院以及药企吧主是否有资质提供高血压、肝脏疾病、血管疾病和子宫肌瘤等疾病的建议提出质疑。Local media reported that moderation rights to the most popular forums could fetch more than Rmb1m (2,000) a year, with advertising agencies taking a commission for connecting Baidu with for-profit hospitals and pharmaceutical companies.据中国媒体报道,一些热门贴吧的吧主权可以卖到每年100万元人民币(合15.2万美元)以上,广告公司负责联系百度与营利性医院和药企,从中抽取佣金。“We’ve heard a broad range of criticism and advice from media and netizens, as well as the voices of Tieba users. This incident has exposed a dereliction of duty in the management of our Tieba commercialisation,” Baidu said on in a statement on its official Weibo account.百度在官方微账户上发声明表示:“我们收到广大媒体、网友的批评建议,也听到很多贴吧吧友的心声。这一事件暴露了我们在贴吧商业化运营管理上的失责。”Baidu’s apology failed to quell all the critics. A group of 36 non-profits has filed a complaint with the Beijing Administration of Industry and Commerce accusing Baidu of violating China’s advertising law.百度的道歉未能平息所有批评。36家非营利组织已联名向北京市工商局举报百度公司涉嫌违反中国广告法。A Baidu spokesman declined to comment.百度的一名发言人拒绝置评。 /201601/423731

  Ma Jun, a former journalist who has become one of China’s most prominent environmentalists, was recently honored with a Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship for the work of his nongovernmental organization, the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, in increasing awareness about sources of pollution in China.In an interview, he described recent changes in the public’s concerns about the environment, his efforts to increase transparency about the sources of pollution and his organization’s launch of a new version of a mobile phone application that allows users to track the state of air and water degradation and learn how to make more environmentally sound decisions when they shop. Excerpts follow:作为中国最为杰出的环保主义人士之一,曾作过记者的马军所创办的非政府组织公众与环境研究中心(Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs)增强了中国公众对污染源的意识。近日,他因此获颁“斯科尔社会企业家奖”(Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship)。在接受采访时,马军谈到了公众近年在环境关注方面的转变,自己在提高污染源透明度方面的努力,以及公众与环境研究中心所推出的新版移动应用,它能够帮助用户追踪各省空气和水质恶化的情况,并且学习在购物时如何才能做到更加环保。 采访节选如下:Q. How did you come up with the idea for this app?问:制作这个应用的想法是怎么来的?A. It was 2013. At that time, after we released the pollution map on the PC platform, we were able to motivate more than 1,700 companies to change their behavior. But there were many more and obviously we needed to scale up our work.答:那是2013年的事。当时我们在PC平台上推出了污染地图后,成功地动员了超过1700家污染企业改变他们的排污行为。但是还有更多这样的企业,很明显,我们需要扩大工作规模。We needed more people to join this effort and we needed a higher level of transparency. So we decided to launch a transparency initiative with 25 organizations and N.G.O.s calling for a total release of monitoring data.我们需要更多人一起共同努力,需要更高的透明度。所以我们决定同25家组织和NGO一起发起一场透明度倡议,呼吁发布整体监测数据。Our first request was for online monitoring data. For more than 10 years this kind of data could only be accessed by environmental agencies, not by the public. To our surprise, the Ministry of Environmental Protection came up with a bylaw to require real-time disclosure.我们首先要求的是在线监测数据。在过去十多年里,只有环保部门才能获取这类数据,公众是无法获得的。不过让我们惊讶的是,国家环保部发布了一项规定,要求对数据进行实时披露。Starting in 2004, more than 20 provinces created platforms to carry real-time monitoring data on China’s largest industries.2004年开始,20多个省搭建了平台,公布对中国最大几个行业的实时监测数据。Toward the end of 2013 we started preparing this app. The real-time disclosure created a need and also made it possible to sustain such a product.到2013年底,我们开始筹备这款应用。数据的实时披露创造了一种需求,同时也使它能撑得起这样一个产品。The mobile Internet is so popular. We believe it can help people to access the data and, more than that, tap into social media. So people can not only access monitoring data but also share it.移动互联网非常受欢迎。我们相信它不仅能够帮助人们获取监测数据,还能让人们通过利用社交媒体分享数据。Q. How does the app work?问:它是怎么用的呢?A. The 1.0 version was launched on June 9, 2013. It provided people access to air quality data in 190 cities, plus monitoring data for major air pollution emitters. Air quality data is something that people really need in China. Many cities can’t meet healthy air quality standards, and people check air quality data like they check weather forecasts.答:我们在2013年6月9号推出了应用的1.0 版本。它向人们提供190座城市的空气质量数据,以及主要空气污染源的监测数据。空气质量数据是中国人特别需要的东西。很多城市无法达到健康的空气质量标准,人们像查看天气预报一样频繁地查看空气质量数据。Then we added monitoring data. There are many people who don’t just want to know which day the air is bad and when they need to keep their children indoors, they want to solve this problem. This app gives them chance to join the fight against pollution.之后我们增加了监测数据。很多人不只是想知道哪一天空气糟糕,什么时候孩子不宜出门,他们想要解决这个问题。这款应用提供机会让他们一起加入对抗污染行列。They can share monitoring data on Weibo and let more people understand the pollution problem and the violation record of those major emitters.人们可以通过微来分享监测数据,让更多的人了解污染问题和主要污染源的违法记录。Through this more than 400 emitters have openly addressed their emissions records. Sometimes they claim something is wrong with the data. Many more explain what went wrong and how they solved the problem. Some provide detailed correction plans. In Shandong Province, government agencies gave them deadlines to fix the problem. We created a countdown clock attached to each factory, so when users click it they can see the corrective action plan with the countdown clock.超过400家污染企业对他们的污染记录做出了公开回应。有些时候,污染企业声称数据有误。更多的时候则是对污染问题和他们的解决方案进行解释。有些企业则提供了详细的整改方案。在山东省,政府机构要求企业限期整顿污染问题。我们在应用上给每一家工厂设置了倒计时,这样用户点开应用就能看到整改行动计划和倒计时。If they comply with the standards, the company turns blue, otherwise it’s shown in red. It’s quite visual and the whole process is under public scrutiny.如果企业遵守标准,那么它们在应用上就会显示为蓝色,否则就为红色。这是相当形象的,整个过程都受到了公众的监督。The 1.0 version only addresses air quality, but the new version, which is being officially launched on the 28th [of April], will help people access water quality data for rivers and lakes in different parts of China and monitoring data for major sewage plants, paper mills, dye houses and chemical factories.新版本的应用将于4月28号正式推出。和只提供空气质量数据的1.0版本不同, 新版本的应用将会帮助人们获取中国各地的河流湖泊的水质数据,以及主要污水处理厂、造纸厂、印染厂和化工厂的监测数据。Q. How many downloads have you had?问:已经有多少下载量?A. Including tests of the 2.0 version, so far more than three million.答:包括2.0测试版本,目前已有超过300万次下载。There has been such interaction between ordinary people and environmental agencies. I haven’t seen anything quite like this before.普通民众和环境部门之间的互动非常活跃,这是我以前从未见过的。Q. What has the official response been? Sometimes from the government you see both sides. They want public involvement, but they’re also wary.问:官方的反应怎么样?有时政府表现出两面性,他们想要公众参与,但又很警惕。A. I would say that’s definitely true with our app. The most proactive players are Shandong and Zhejiang provinces and a few others. There are also many local environmental agencies that have concerns and complaints. It caught some unprepared, when you suddenly get so many reports against some of the largest companies in a region.对我们的应用而言,真的是这样。最积极的参与者在山东、浙江以及其他几个省份。也有许多地方的环境部门有担心和抱怨。有的地方觉得猝不及防,突然收到那么多针对当地大公司的举报。Sometimes they have gaps in their capacity, human resources and budget. And sometimes they have restrictions. The local officials, their superiors, interfere with enforcement. They get stuck in the middle.他们有时在能力、人力资源和财政方面有困难。有时还遇到限制。地方官员,他们的上级,还会强制干预,这让他们左右为难。We need to communicate with those local agencies to try to help them deal with this, to work out plans to handle this new situation.我们需要和那些地方上的政府部门沟通,帮助他们想出处理这种新情况的办法。There are proactive ones. In Shandong, the head of the provincial Environmental Protection bureau invited us there. That’s a province with 100 million people burning 400 million tons of coal a year, probably half the total U.S. consumption. It’s quite energy intensive.有的很积极。在山东,省环保局的领导向我们发出了邀请。这个有着一亿人口的能源消耗大省,每年燃烧四亿吨煤,几乎相当于全美国一半的消耗量。I thought we were going to be under pressure, but actually he said, “This is exactly what we want. I’ve been told to solve this smog problem. We try hard but we can’t do it single-handedly. We need the public. The app will help. We just want make sure people don’t misinterpret the fact we have more red dots.”我当时以为是要向我们施压,但是那位领导说,“这就是我们想要的。我受命要解决这个雾霾问题。我们很努力,但是仅靠我们是不行的。我们需要公众。这款应用会起作用。我们只是想确保不要被人误解,为什么我们的红点特别多。”We help them explain [to citizens] it’s better to have an environmental agency give more comprehensive data.我们帮他们(对公众)解释,环境部门提供更详实的数据是件好事。Last year there was a statement by the premier [Li Keqiang] about going to war against pollution. Actions followed to really make it happen. In my view this decision to make online monitoring data transparent, this is a sign of China’s political will to fight pollution. I said that in the Skoll Award ceremony, and it got a standing ovation. It’s clear that if you give data to people you empower them. It’s no longer possible to continue to cover up or give continued protection to major polluters.去年[李克强]总理做出了向污染宣战的声明。随后有切实的行动。在我看来,这项让在线监督数据更透明的决定,表明中国是愿意打击污染的。我在斯科尔颁奖典礼上这么说了,观众都起立鼓掌。很明显如果你把数据公布给民众,就不会有遮掩或者是继续保护主要污染者的事了。In China the biggest barrier is not technology or money. It’s lack of motivation. Enforcement remains weak. In the West, people go to court. In China that judicial protection is not yet y. We need to find alternative ways. In my view public participation is one of the few options.在中国最大的障碍不是技术或者钱,而是缺乏动力。环境执法部门依然弱势。在西方可以上法庭。而在中国,司法保护还没准备好。我们需要找到更多方式。在我看来公众参与就是其中之一。If people can check on their cellphone who is in violation, those who gave protection [to polluters] can be held accountable.如果人们能在手机上找到谁在违法,那些给予(污染者)保护的人就能受到问责。Q. Do you think public attitudes about pollution are changing?问:你认为公众对污染的态度在改变吗?A. Over all in China there is so much more recognition. I basically think this is a clear sign for the central government. There is political will to try to solve the problem. They understand this matter is a public health issue, a resource issue, a social stability issue and, last but not least, there’s the global issue to fight climate change. There’s a recognition. They are genuinely trying to bring this pollution issue under control. They created an air action plan and a water action plan.答:总的来说认识上已经有很大提高。基本上我认为这对中央政府是一个清晰信号。他们有政治意愿试图解决问题。他们明白这事关公众健康问题、资源问题、社会稳定问题,尤其还有应对气候变化的全球问题。有了这样的共识,他们真心想要控制污染问题,还就空气和水的问题分别制定了行动方案。Having said that, on the ground it’s still challenging to turn this into action. There are so much interests that could be offended, that could be impacted. And also there’s the gap we have in environmental governance. Because the cost of violations is still lower than the cost of compliance, market forces are not on our side.即便如此,要把这些变为行动在事实上仍有困难。有太多利益会被冒犯,会被影响。同时在环境治理方面也有缺口。因为违规的代价仍旧低于合规,市场的力量没有体现出来。Even from the government side there’s a recognition that fighting pollution needs public participation. That’s why last year we saw the Environmental Protection Law revised for the first time in 25 years. It created a special chapter with a title on transparency and public participation. It shows there’s more social consensus for the need of transparency.连政府方面都承认,治理污染需要公众参与。这也是为什么我们看到去年环境保护法得到了25年来的第一次修改修订。新的环保法专门加入了一个以信息公开和公众参与为题的章节。这展现了需要更多透明度的社会共识。Q. What was your reaction to receiving a Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship this month in Oxford?问:你对本月去牛津接受“斯科尔社会企业家奖”作何感想?A. Of course I’m honored, but also quite humbled. They’ve done it for quite a few years, with hundreds of social entrepreneurs recognized in different parts of the world. This is the first time there’s been someone from China. I think this will be a major support.答:当我很荣幸,也感到受宠若惊。他们颁发这个奖已经好几年了,全球各地数百位社会企业家获得了他们的嘉许。这是首次有中国人获奖。我认为这是对我们的巨大持。The meeting itself has aly benefited us because we can learn so much from other social entrepreneurs. This helps us to gain credibility with the business community, because some of the largest multinationals are there. And then the other people, the other awardees, I think some were quite surprised about our work because this is a different type of story than they usually hear from China.这个会议本身已经令我们受益,因为我们可以向其他社会企业家借鉴良多。它也有助于我们赢得商业界的信任,因为有一些大型跨国公司也在场。那里还有其他人,其他获奖者,我感觉其中有些人对我们的工作感到非常惊讶,因为这与他们通常听到的中国的事情不太一样。Q. The award comes with .25 million in prize money. What will you do with it?问:这个奖项有125万美元的奖金。你会怎么花这些钱呢?A. We will spend most of that to build on our pollution map. We now have a 2.0 version called the Blue Map. We hope the image of the blue sky that has been lost in most of our cities can inspire people to join the effort. We will use most of the prize money to try to further develop that.答:我们会把大部分钱花在绘制污染地图上。我们现在有一个2.0版本,称为“蔚蓝地图”。我们希望蓝天的图片可以激励人们加入这项活动,因为中国大部分城市的天空都不再蔚蓝了。我们会把大部分奖金用在进一步开发这个地图上。One of the functions we are going to add is taking a picture, so you can actually get data printed on that. So people can share their own pictures on social media and get data on that from our sources.我们要添加拍照功能,这样你就可以在自己的照片上显示从我们的数据源获得的数据,然后你可以在社交媒体上分享这些照片,更多的人就可以看到我们的数据。Another, much bigger function we need is to add a platform for green consumerism. It is quite important for us to engage with consumers. If we help people visualize the link between air and water pollution, factory behavior and then consumer choice. Then we develop a methodology to score those brands. If we help to visualize that, then we provide another way for people to fight pollution. I hope this gives those brands a better incentive for responsible corporate behavior.另外,我们还需要一个更大的功能,就是增加一个绿色消费平台。让消费者参与进来,这对我们很重要。如果我们把空气和水污染、工厂的行为以及消费者的选择之间的联系进行可视化,然后制定一种方法来给那些品牌打分。如果我们做出这种可视化的资料,那么我们就提供了另一种方式,让人们来与污染做斗争。我希望这是一种更好的激励方式,来促进那些品牌采取负责任的企业行为。With the launch of the 2.0 version, air quality data will be extended from 190 to 380 cities in China every hour. We will also have some forecasts, not just weather forecasts but also forecasts of air quality, so people better arrange their activities to avoid the worst exposure. For the first time it will have data on water quality in rivers and lakes in different parts of China. China has made remarkable progress. Three years ago no cities in China released PM 2.5 [fine particulate matter] data. Today there are 380 that do.随着2.0版本的推出,我们提供每小时空气质量数据的中国城市数目将从原来的190个增加到380个。我们也会提供一些预报,不仅仅是天气预报,也包括空气质量预报,让人们更好地安排自己的活动,避开最糟糕的环境。这也会是首次为中国不同地区的江河湖泊提供水质数据。中国已经取得了显著的进展。三年前,中国没有任何城市公布PM 2.5[细颗粒物]数据。如今已经有380个城市在这么做。We have to handle this quite carefully. Transparency is what we depend on. It’s very positive for the government. We give credit to the government. But it’s not easy. I hope that this can continue. If it does, it will drive more polluting factories to change. This boosts confidence for further transparency, which I think is so important.我们必须相当小心地开展这些工作。透明度是我们的立足之所。政府对此是非常明确的。这方面我们要肯定政府。但是这并不容易。我希望能持续下去。如果真能继续,它就会推动更多污染企业做出改变。而这将进一步提高人们对透明度的信心,我认为这一点极为重要。 /201505/373184

  Coming to San Francisco for the first time in a few years brings home how much it has been transformed. Whatever you call what is happening — a boom, a bubble or a flood of money into what was known as new technology before the “new” became redundant — has augmented the city’s reality.有些年没来过旧金山,这次来到这里,我意识到这座城市发生了巨大的变化。不管你怎么形容这里正在发生的事情——繁荣、泡沫或者大量资金流入技术(以前曾被称为“新”技术,现在“新”字可以省略了),这座城市的现实状况因此而提升。Once, there was a gaping divide between southern and northern California — between Hollywood and Silicon Valley. To the south was the dream factory of fantasy and imagination; in the north was science, hardware such as the transistor and chino-clad venture capitalists who worked in business parks on Sand Hill Road and lived in sprawling suburbia. San Francisco was a pretty, but unexciting tourist town.过去,加利福尼亚州的南部和北部——好莱坞和硅谷——之间存在巨大的鸿沟。南部是制造幻想和想象的梦想工厂;北部则属于科学,属于晶体管等硬件,以及那些在沙山路(Sand Hill Road)商业园工作、在不断扩张的广大郊区居住、衣着休闲的风险资本家。旧金山那时是一个美丽,但也平淡乏味的旅游城市。It feels more like Hollywood now, full of people writing scripts and honing pitches. “Brave new world companies create something that was not there before. They do not just save somebody money,” a middle-aged man told a young entrepreneur at a nearby table in a diner on Monday morning. The ingénu should portray his venture as more than “faster, better, cheaper”.现在这里给人感觉更像好莱坞了,满是写“脚本”和打磨推介词的人。那个周一的早上,餐馆邻桌的一名中年男子对一名年轻创业者说:“这些建造‘美丽新世界’的企业创造过去不存在的事物。它们不仅仅是帮某些人省了钱。”这个生涩的小伙子应该将他的项目描述为不只是“更快、更好、更便宜”。Later that day one venture capitalist described his own firm’s decision to turn down Uber when it was first raising money as “a lamentable failure of imagination”. The partners should have realised that the pitch for a smartphone limousine service in San Francisco implied a platform to revolutionise global transport. Instead of thinking of the legal obstacles, they ought to have suspended their disbelief.当天晚些时候,一名风险资本家讲述了他自己的企业在优步(Uber)首次募集资金时拒绝了它的事情,称那个决定是“一次令人惋惜的想象力失灵”。他的合伙人们当时应该意识到,那场关于一款旧金山智能手机叫车软件的推介活动,预示着一个将为全球交通出行带来变革的平台。他们本不应考虑法律方面的障碍,而应暂时放下自己的怀疑。The old things are shrunken — the San Francisco Chronicle is thin and full of wire stories — and others are exploding. An entire district has sprung up around China Basin on the edge of the city; Apple, which used to carve its stores into old buildings, has levelled a building by Union Square to build a Foster + Partners retail temple; the city’s bars are sleek and vibrant.陈旧的东西正在萎缩——旧金山的编年史不长,充满了新鲜事物——其他的东西则在爆炸。在这座城市的边缘,围着China Basin,一整片城区拔地而起;过去曾将门店挤进老旧建筑中的苹果(Apple),拆除了联合广场(Union Square)上的一栋大楼,建造了一座由Foster + Partners建筑事务所设计的标志性零售门店;这座城市的酒吧既时髦又充满活力。Silicon Valley is at one of those historic moments when a set of technologies start to work — and to work together — in unexpected ways. In this case, the interaction of mobile, robotic and artificial intelligence is producing a wave of applications and devices, from voice-activated software to self-driving cars. The machine knows what you want and where you are, and is steadily learning how to serve you.硅谷正处在这样一个历史性时刻:一系列技术开始以一种意想不到的方式发挥作用——并且协同并进。在这种情况下,移动智能、机器智能和人工智能的互动产生了大批应用和设备,从语音激活软件到自动驾驶汽车。机器知道你想要什么,身处何地,并且不断地学习如何为你务。Andrew McAfee, co-author of The Second Machine Age, describes the experience of being transported in one of Google’s self-driving cars as going “from terrifying to thrilling to boring in 15 minutes”. The machine not only drives competently but with tedious predictability, always observing the speed limit and slowing at every obstacle, as if constantly trying to pass a driving test.《第二次机器革命》(The Second MachineAge)的合著者安德鲁#8226;麦卡菲(Andrew McAfee)称自己乘坐谷歌(Google)自动驾驶汽车的心路历程是“15分钟内从害怕到兴奋到索然无味”。机器不仅能胜任驾驶,还开得极为标准,其驾驶表现毫无悬念到令人厌烦的地步——总能观察到限速标志,在每一个障碍物前都会减速,就像总在参加路考一样。Behind innovations that have suddenly come to feel routine, such as facial and voice recognition, lie rapid ad#173;vances in pattern recognition and emerging forms of artificial intelligence. The capacity of computers to sift through databases and comprehend what people are saying, what they mean and what they desire is evolving faster than many researchers had anticipated.在面部和语音识别等人们骤然感觉习以为常的创新背后,模式识别迅速发展,各种新型人工智能纷纷涌现。计算机筛查数据库并理解人们在说什么、意思是什么、以及想要什么的能力,发展得比许多研究者预想得更快。As a result, plenty of investors are eager to throw money at start-ups that look as if they possess a piece of technology and a business idea that will form at least part of the brave new world. The fear of missing out is overwhelming the fear of losing money, as Bill Gurley of Benchmark Capital warned recently.结果是,许多投资者急切地向这样一些初创企业大举投资——它们看上去拥有一样技术或一个商业点子,能至少部分构成这美丽新世界。Benchmark Capital的比尔#8226;格利(Bill Gurley)最近警告称,错过的恐惧压倒了赔钱的恐惧。History’s famous investment bubbles often formed around such combinations of easy money and fantastical inventions, and some of today’s venture capitalists suffered through the dotcom bust of 2000. Prod them about that and the optimists respond that the bn invested by US venture capital funds last year is only half the amount sloshing around at the last peak 15 years ago.历史上著名的投资泡沫往往萌生于这种轻易可得的金钱和美妙非凡的发明的结合。如今的风险资本家中,有一些曾经历过2000年互联网泡沫的破灭。我故意问起关于那次泡沫的事情,一些乐观的人回应说,美国风投基金去年投资了480亿美元,这仅是15年前上一次高峰时期总额的一半。This ignores the fact that a lot of the new money is coming not from venture funds but from other investors, including mutual funds such as T Rowe Price and Fidelity. Three-quarters of recent fundraising rounds by “unicorns” — start-ups valued at bn or more — were led by “non-traditional” investors, according to a recent study by Fenwick amp; West, a Silicon Valley law firm.这种说法忽略了一点,很多新投资并非来自于风投基金,而是来自其他投资者,包括普信集团(T Rowe Price)和富达(Fidelity)等共同基金。硅谷律师事务所Fenwick amp; West的最新研究表明,“独角兽”公司(指价值10亿美元或者以上的初创企业)最近几轮融资中,有四分之三是由“非传统”投资者牵头。One is Carl Icahn, the activist investor, who this week put 0m into Lyft, a rival to Uber. Mr Icahn often makes life difficult for his investment targets but is as enamoured as everyone else with his Silicon Valley picks. “We’ll be the first to admit that you are more knowledgeable in these areas than we are,” he wrote fulsomely to Apple this week.维权投资者卡尔#8226;伊坎(Carl Icahn)就是其中之一。不久前伊坎给优步的竞争对手Lyft投资了1亿美元。伊坎经常让他的投资目标公司日子不好过,但他还是像其他所有人一样迷恋于他挑选的硅谷公司。不久前他写给苹果的信极尽恭维:“我们将头一个承认你们更懂这些领域。” /201505/377707


  The US Federal Reserve must do a better job of responding to the rising tide of economic anger in America that is leading to a surge in protectionist rhetoric on the presidential campaign trail, according to the newest member of its policy committee.美联储(Fed)政策委员会的最新成员表示,美联储在回应美国国内日益高涨的经济愤怒浪潮时必须做得更好,这股愤怒正导致总统竞选过程中保护主义言论升温。In an interview with the Financial Times, Neel Kashkari, who took over as head of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve at the start of the year, warned the Fed must work harder to rebuild public trust and communicate with US citizens. Economic anger, he said, was “all around the country and it is non-partisan”.在接受英国《金融时报》采访时,今年初接任明尼阿波利斯联邦储备(Minneapolis Federal Reserve)行长的尼尔愠什卡利(Neel Kashkari)警告称,美联储必须在重建公众信任、与美国公民沟通方面更加努力。他称,经济愤怒“遍布全美,不分党派”。Mr Kashkari’s first public forays this week have quickly positioned him as an outspoken voice among policymakers.卡什卡利在本周的首次公开发难,使他迅速树立起直言不讳的政策制定者的形象。As a senior Treasury official during George W Bush’s administration and the first term of Barack Obama, Mr Kashkari was a key architect of Wall Street’s 2008 bailout. But on Tuesday, in his first speech since joining the Minneapolis Fed, he called for regulators to consider breaking up the largest US lenders, which were still “too big to fail”.作为乔治圠布什(George W. Bush)政府时期以及奥巴马第一任期时的财政部(Treasury)高级官员,卡什卡利是2008年华尔街纾困计划的关键设计师。但在本周二,在他加入明尼阿波利斯联储后的首次演讲中,他呼吁监管部门考虑拆分美国规模最大的一些,称它们仍然“太大而不能倒”。In his FT interview he blamed the bailouts he oversaw as one of the “root causes for the loss of trust” in the US’s economic managers. Those actions had “really violated a core American belief” that risk takers had to bear the consequences of things going wrong, he said, and “it really leads to great anger if you violate the core beliefs of a society”.在接受英国《金融时报》采访时,他指责当年由他负责的纾困计划是民众对美国经济管理者“失去信任的根源”之一。他称,那些举措“确实违反了美国的核心信念”,即风险承担者不得不承担事情出错的后果,“如果你违反一个社会的核心信念,确实会造成极大的愤怒”。The impact, he said, had been made worse by a history of opacity at the Fed and a past institutional reluctance to explain monetary policy clearly.他称,这股冲击波因美联储不透明的历史和以往在机构层面不愿明确解释货币政策而变得更糟。The Fed was now paying the price for decades of “very poor” communications as it “adopted this Wizard of Oz routine that ‘We are so mysterious and you can’t understand what we are doing’”, he said, “and that really hurt trust between the people and the institution”.他称,美联储正在为数十年来“采取‘我们那么神秘,你搞不懂我们在干什么’这一绿野仙踪般的套路”、导致“非常糟糕”的沟通付出代价,“而这确实损害了人们与这个机构之间的信任”。Anger about the economy was also fuelling support for those advocating new barriers to protect US industry. “I don’t think protectionism is the right path. I think we need to promote free markets around the world. But some of the anger is understandable,” he said.对于经济的愤怒也使那些提倡设置新壁垒来保护美国产业的人得到更大持。“我不认为保护主义是正确的道路。我认为我们需要在世界各地促进自由市场。但是其中一些愤怒是可以理解的,”他称。“We need to promote free markets on both sides. It can’t just be the American economy that is free and our trading partners are not free. So I understand that anger that is there. We need to push back against that [protectionist rhetoric] but also push out globally for free markets everywhere.”“我们需要促进双方的自由市场。不能只有美国经济是自由化的,而我们的贸易伙伴的经济不自由。所以我理解当前存在的愤怒。我们需要顶住(保护主义言论),但也要在全球各地推动自由市场。”His words come amid a presidential election campaign dominated by frustration about sluggish growth since the 2007-09 financial crash. Some 72 per cent of people feel the economy is still in recession, according to the American Values Survey released in November, even though economic analysts say the Great Recession ended in mid-2009.他发表言论之际,人们对自2007-09年金融危机以来增长乏力的沮丧感主导着美国总统竞选的氛围。去年11月发布的《美国价值观调查》(American Values Survey)显示,大约72%的人觉得经济仍然处于衰退状态,尽管经济分析人士称“大衰退”已在2009年年中结束。That frustration has spilled over into antipathy towards the Fed itself, and on both sides of the political divide. Democratic lawmakers have questioned the central bank’s decision to lift interest rates, warning it could stifle wage growth, while Republicans are calling for greater scrutiny of the Fed’s decisions amid lingering anger over the scale of its interventions during the crisis.这种沮丧感已弥漫为人们(政治分界线的双方都是如此)对美联储本身产生厌恶。民主党议员质疑美联储加息的决定,警告它可能抑制工资增长,与此同时,共和党人士呼吁对美联储的决策加强审查,其背景是人们仍对金融危机期间美联储的干预规模耿耿于怀。But above all it has helped fuel the rise of populist candidates such as Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, and Republican frontrunner Donald Trump, who have both urged greater effort to protect US industry from cheap imports and foreign competition.但最重要的是,这助长了民粹主义候选人的气焰,比如自称民主社会主义者的伯尼儠德斯(Bernie Sanders)和共和党领跑者唐纳德礠朗普(Donald Trump)。他们二人都敦促为保护美国产业免受廉价进口商品和外国竞争的冲击付出更多努力。Mr Kashkari praised the work of Janet Yellen, the Fed chair, but said the central bank needed to go further.卡什卡利称赞了美联储主席珍妮特耶伦(Janet Yellen)的工作,但是他称美联储需要更进一步。Ms Yellen was “trying to do the right thing for the country”, and if people got to know her and other people in the Fed system “they would be very proud we have this institution in our country”, but “we don’t really let them see in”.耶伦“正尝试着为国家做正确的事”,如果人们了解她和美联储系统内的其他人员,“他们会为我们国家拥有这样的机构感到非常自豪”,但是“我们没有真的让他们了解”。“I think we could do a better job,” he said. “The press conferences [held quarterly by the Fed chair] are a step in the right direction and Chair Yellen is very candid in those press conferences and addresses the questions directly. That’s positive.” But the Fed needed to “look for more opportunities like that. It has to happen on all levels.”“我觉得我们能做得更好,”他称,“(美联储主席每季度举行一次的)新闻发布会是向着正确方向迈进的一步,耶伦主席在新闻发布会上非常坦诚,直接回答问题。这是积极进展。”但是美联储需要“寻找更多这样的机会。进步必须体现在所有层面。”Monetary policy was hugely complicated and it was not possible to explain every twist and turn to the whole population. That meant it was critical the public trusted the Fed, he said.货币政策非常复杂,不可能向所有人解释清楚政策制定的每个环节。他称,这意味着公众信任美联储很关键。“You are not going to have the population as a whole understand all the nuances of what we are talking about here. They need to trust us. They need to know that we care. If they trust us and know that we care, they are going to give us the benefit of the doubt on some of the complexities they may not fully understand.”“你没法让所有人都理解我们现在所讨论的每个细微之处。他们需要信任我们。他们需要知道我们在意。如果他们信任我们,知道我们在意,他们就会在一些他们可能不能完全理解的复杂问题上对我们‘疑罪从无’。” /201602/427486

  Astronomers said on Wednesday that they had discovered a lost generation of monster stars that ushered light into the universe after the Big Bang and jump-started the creation of the elements needed for planets and life before disappearing forever.天文学家在周三表示,他们发现了失踪的一代巨型恒星,是它们在宇宙大爆炸之后将光照入宇宙,并在永远消失之前,瞬间启动了星球及生命所需要的所有元素的创造。Modern-day stars like our sun have a healthy mix of heavy elements, known as metals, but in the aftermath of the Big Bang only hydrogen, helium and small traces of lithium were available to make the first stars.太阳等现代恒星拥有大量重元素,也就是金属元素,但在宇宙大爆炸之后,构成第一代恒星的元素只有氢、氦和少量锂。Such stars could have been hundreds or thousands of times as massive as the sun, according to calculations, burning brightly and dying quickly, only 200 million years after the universe began. Their explosions would have spewed into space the elements that started the chain of thermonuclear reactions by which subsequent generations of stars have gradually enriched the cosmos with elements like oxygen, carbon and iron.根据计算,此类恒星的质量可能是太阳质量的数百或数千倍,这些形成于宇宙大爆炸后2亿年的恒星猛烈燃烧,迅速消失。它们的爆炸应该向太空喷射了开启一系列热核反应的元素,后续的几代恒星通过热核反应逐渐为宇宙增添氧、碳、铁等元素。Spotting the older stars in action is one of the prime missions of the James Webb Space Telescope, to be launched by NASA in 2018. The discovery of such stars “would be wonderful,” James Peebles, a Princeton professor and one of the fathers of modern cosmology, said recently.寻找有活动的古老恒星是美国国家航空航天局(NASA)詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜的主要任务之一,该望远镜将于2018年发射。普林斯顿大学(Princeton)教授詹姆斯·佩布莱斯(James Peebles)最近表示,发现此类恒星“会是一件非常美妙的事情”,他是现代宇宙学奠基人之一。Now, in a paper to be published in The Astrophysical Journal, an international crew of astronomers led by David Sobral of the University of Lisbon, in Portugal, and the Leiden Observatory, in the Netherlands, said they had spotted the signature of these first-generation stars in a recently discovered galaxy that existed when the universe was only about 800 million years old. Its light has been traveling to us for 12.9 billion years, while succeeding generations of stars have worked their magic to make the universe interesting.在《天文物理期刊》(The Astrophysical Journal)即将刊登的一篇论文中,由葡萄牙里斯本大学(University of Lisbon)的戴维·索夫拉尔(David Sobral)、荷兰莱顿天文台(Leiden Observatory)带领的国际天文学家小组表示,他们在最近发现的星系中找到了第一代恒星的识别标志,该星系在宇宙只有大约8亿年历史的时候就出现了。该星系发出的光用了129亿年才到达地球,在此期间,后续的几代恒星施展魔法,让宇宙变得有趣。The galaxy, known as CR7, is three times as luminous as any previously found from that time, the authors said. Within it is a bright blue cloud that seems to contain only hydrogen and helium.作者表示,这个被称为CR7的星系的亮度是之前发现的同期星系的亮度的三倍。该星系里面是一个似乎只包含氢和氦的亮蓝色星云。In an email, Dr. Sobral called this the first direct evidence of the stars “that ultimately allowed us all to be here by fabricating heavy elements and changing the composition of the universe.”索夫拉尔在邮件中称,这是第一个直接明这些恒星“通过创造重元素,改变宇宙的构成,最终使得我们得以存在”的据。In a statement from the European Southern Observatory, he said, “It doesn’t really get any more exciting than this.”在欧洲南方天文台(European Southern Observatory)发表的声明中,他表示,“没有什么比这个更令人激动的了。”Garth Illingworth, an astronomer at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a veteran of the search for early galaxies, pointed out, however, that these stars were appearing far later in cosmic history than theory had predicted.但加州大学圣克鲁斯分校(University of California, Santa Cruz)天文学家加思·伊林沃思(Garth Illingworth)指出,这些恒星在宇宙历史中出现的时间比理论预测的时间要晚得多。伊林沃思在寻找早期星系方面有丰富的经验。Dr. Sobral and his colleagues were using the Very Large Telescope of the Southern Observatory in Chile and the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, among other big telescopes, to build on an earlier search for glowing clouds of hydrogen that might represent very early galaxies. Galaxy CR7 — short for Cosmos Redshift 7, after the method by which distant objects in the universe are dated — stood out.索夫拉尔和他的同事利用南方天文台在智利设置的甚大望远镜(Very Large Telescope)、夏威夷的W·M·凯克天文台(W. M. Keck Observatory)及其他大型望远镜,继续之前寻找由氢组成的发光星云的工作,这些星云可能代表着早期的星系。他们发现了GR7星系——宇宙红移7号(Cosmos Redshift 7)的缩写,得名于追溯宇宙中遥远物体所使用的方法。In an expanding universe, the farther away or back in time an object is, the faster it is receding, which causes the wavelength of light from it to lengthen, the way the pitch of a siren sounds lower after it passes. In astronomy, this lengthening is known as redshifting.在不断膨胀的宇宙中,一个物体越久远,消失的速度就越快,这导致物体发出的光的波长变长,就像救护车呼啸经过后,警报器的音高会逐渐降低。在天文学上,这种延长被称为红移。The galaxy’s name, Dr. Sobral said, was also inspired by the great Portuguese soccer player Cristiano Ronaldo, a.k.a. CR7.索夫拉尔表示,该星系的名称——CR7还受到葡萄牙优秀的足球运动员克里斯蒂亚诺·罗纳尔多(Cristiano Ronaldo)的启发。As in much of astronomy, the nomenclature of these star generations is awkwardly rooted in history and Earth-centered. Modern stars like the sun, with healthy abundances of so-called metals (anything heavier than helium), are now called Population I, mainly because they were the first known. They mostly inhabit the spiral arms and younger parts of galaxies like the Milky Way.在天文学的主要领域,各代恒星的命名都尴尬地遵从历史,是以地球为中心的。太阳等现代恒星拥有充裕的金属元素(比氦重的物质),它们现在被称为第一星族(Population I),主要是因为它们是首批被发现的恒星。它们主要位于系(Milky Way)等星系的旋臂和年轻星团中。In the middle of the 20th century, however, the astronomer Walter Baade noticed that the stars in older parts of the galaxy, like its core or globular clusters, are older and have fewer metals. He called them Population II.但在20世纪中叶,天文学家瓦尔特·巴德(Walter Baade)注意到,该星系的古老星团——比如它的核心星团或球状星团——中的恒星年代更为久远,金属元素更少。他称之为第二星族(Population II)。The advent of the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe forced astronomers to realize that the first stars must have had no metals at all; those are known as Population III.有关宇宙起源的大爆炸理论的出现,迫使天文学家认识到,第一代恒星肯定不包含金属元素;它们被称为第三星族(Population III)。Stars of both Population II and Population III are probably present in CR7, Dr. Sobral and his team report. While the blue cloud is metal-free, according to spectral measurements, the color of the rest of the galaxy is consistent with more evolved stars making up most of its mass. This suggests, they write, that the Population III stars there are late bloomers of a sort, forming from leftover clouds of pristine material as the galaxy was sending out its light 12.9 billion years ago.索夫拉尔和他的团队报告称,CR7星系中可能存在第二星族和第三星族的恒星。虽然根据光谱测量,这个蓝色星云不包含金属元素,但该星系剩余部分的颜色与演化程度较高的、构成其大部分质量的恒星一致。他们写道,这说明该星系中的第三星族恒星形成较晚,由该星系129亿年前发出光线时的崭新物质的残余星云发展而成。The only alternative explanation, Dr. Sobral said, is something so spectacular and unlikely that astronomers do not know if it has ever happened, namely a primordial cloud bypassing the star stage and collapsing directly into a black hole. That, he noted, is impossible to rule out because nobody really knows what it should look like.索夫拉尔表示,除此之外的唯一解释是,发生了一些惊人的、意想不到的事,天文学家还不知道这种事是否发生过,那就是原始星云越过恒星阶段,直接坍缩为黑洞。他指出,不能排除这种可能性,因为没人真的知道它看上去是什么样子。Further observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb could help resolve the issue.利用哈勃太空望远镜和詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜进一步观察或许有助于这个问题的解决。 /201506/382016


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