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真鳄乌龟喂养养殖指南百科中文

2019年09月23日 11:32:09 | 作者:网上优惠 | 来源:新华社
For 20 years, Christina Steinorth was happy to help one of her close friends with whatever she needed -- last-minute baby sitting, a drive to work when her car was in the shop, countless hours of free marriage advice (Ms. Steinorth is a licensed marriage and family therapist). She didn#39;t expect anything in return.去20年来,无论密友有什么事情需要帮助,克里斯蒂娜·斯泰诺特(Christina Steinorth)一直都乐意帮忙,比如临时受托替她照看孩子、在她车子送去维修时送她上班,以及提供无数个小时的免费婚姻咨询(斯泰诺特是一名持照婚姻家庭治疗师)。斯泰诺特并未期望获得任何回报。When Ms. Steinorth and her husband decided to adopt a baby a few years ago, she asked her pal to write a letter of recommendation. The friend agreed enthusiastically, Ms. Steinorth says, but months went by and no letter arrived. She asked again and the friend apologized profusely, but still no letter. After several more months, Ms. Steinorth asked one more time. Her friend ignored her.几年前,斯泰诺特与丈夫决定收养一个孩子,便请这位好友给她写一封推荐信。斯泰诺特说,朋友热情地答应了,但是几个月过去,她没收到任何信件。她又问了一次,朋友再三道歉,但是依然没有寄信过来。几个月后,斯泰诺特又问了一次,这位朋友干脆置之不理。#39;I learned a very painful lesson -- that she wanted more from me than she was willing to give back, #39; Ms. Steinorth said.斯泰诺特说:“我得到了一个非常惨痛的教训——她更想从我这儿得到帮助,而没那么愿意做出回报。”Have you ever tried to make a withdrawal from the friendship bank, only to find your balance was much lower than you thought it was?你是否也有过想从“友谊”取款,却发现余额远远比你想象的要少的经历呢?Friendship should be more than a series of tit-for-tat transactions: If I do a favor for you, then you will do one for me. Social psychologists call this view of relationships #39;exchange orientation#39; and say it is more suited to business associates or other non-intimate relationships than to loved ones. In our close relationships, we#39;d like to think we give without expecting anything in return.友情不应当仅仅是一系列有来有往的交易:如果我帮了你的忙,你也要帮我一次。社会心理学家将这种友情观称为“交换取向”(exchange orientation)。他们认为,这更适合商业伙伴或其他不太亲近的关系,并不适于与亲友的关系。在一段亲密关系中,我们总是愿意认为自己不求任何回报地付出。But that#39;s just not reality. We do want something from friends -- emotional support, attention, a hand when we need one. Although we may not #39;keep count, #39; we do want to be able to count on them.然而,这并非事实。我们的确会对朋友有所求——情感持、关注以及在我们需要之时伸出援手。虽然我们也许不会“锱铢必较”,但我们确实希望能指望上他们。Researchers have long known we feel bad about a relationship if we believe we#39;re giving but getting nothing back. #39;You need to perceive a balance between the costs and the rewards in a friendship or other close relationship, or there will be relational distress, #39; says David Henningsen, professor of communication at Northern Illinois University.研究人员很早就知道,如果我们认为自己在一段关系中一直付出却得不到任何回报,我们就会对它心生嫌隙。北伊利诺伊大学(Northern Illinois University)沟通心理学教授戴维·亨宁森(David Henningsen)指出:“在友情或其他亲密的关系中,你需要感知到你的付出与收获是平衡的,否则这段关系会出现危机。”People who usually make an effort to help others, without regard to whether they will get something in return, are considered to have high #39;communal orientation.#39; New research from the University of Toronto, published this month in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, suggests they are happier than people with low communal orientation.常常尽力帮助他人,不计较他们是否获得回报的人被认为具有很强的“公共取向”(communal orientation)。多伦多大学(University of Toronto)于9月份发表在《社会与人际关系杂志》(Social and Personal Relationships)的新研究指出,这些人比公共取向度低的人更快乐。To study this, the researchers had 232 people rate themselves on a scale of 1 to 7 on 14 statements such as, #39;I often come to the help of others in need, #39; #39;I believe people should go out of their way to be helpful#39; and #39;It bothers me when other people neglect my needs.#39; The research subjects then completed surveys three times a week for one month, recording their levels of self-esteem, positive emotions, relationship satisfaction and love for humanity overall.为了展开这项研究,研究人员让232名受试者就14项描述按一至七分的等级为自己评分,包括“我常常帮助需要帮助的人”、“我认为人们应当竭尽全力帮助他人”以及“别人忽视我的需求时,我心里会不舒”等等。这些受试者接着还要连续一个月每周完成三次调查,记录他们的自尊感、积极情绪、对关系的满足感以及对整个人类的爱的程度。The results: #39;Being a helpful person feels good and contributes to better relationships and greater satisfaction and self-worth, #39; says Bonnie Le, a Ph.D candidate at the University of Toronto and lead researcher on the study.多伦多大学士、该项研究的领头人邦尼·勒(Bonnie Le)称,结果表明“做个有帮助的人会让人感觉良好,有助于增进关系,且带来更大的满足感和自我价值感。”Even so, people with strong communal orientation aren#39;t completely selfless. They do expect their friends will be there if they need them. The risk they run is they won#39;t receive support, or they will even be exploited, by friends or loved ones with low communal orientation.即便如此,公共取向度高的人并非就是完全无私的,他们也期望朋友能在他们需要之时出现。他们面临的风险是得不到持,甚至被公共取向度低的朋友或亲人利用。So what can you do if you tend to give a lot in a friendship and don#39;t always get what you need in return? Start by rechanneling some of your giving. Volunteer for charity or help someone less fortunate. You#39;ll enjoy the benefits of providing help and will be free of the expectation that you will receive something in return.假如你在友情中总是付出很多,可并不是总能获得你需要的回报,你能做些什么呢?从改变你付出的途径开始吧。参与义务慈善工作或帮助更不幸的人。你会享受到帮助他人的乐趣,并且从获得他人回报的期望中摆脱出来。When making a new friend, pay attention early on to the other person#39;s communal orientation. Does he ask about you and actually pay attention to your answer? Is she willing to do something you suggest doing, or work around your schedule? Not everyone is capable of giving at the same level. But if you are aware of who you are dealing with, you will be less likely to have expectations that won#39;t be met.此外,结交新朋友时,早些注意对方的公共取向度。他会问起你并真的会注意你的回答吗?她乐意去做你提议的事情或根据你的时间安排做些变通吗?每个人能付出的程度都不同。但是,如果你了解了你打交道的对象是什么样的人,你对其期望过高的可能性就会降低。Finally, realize that not all relationships can be fixed -- and that#39;s OK. Ultimately, you need to decide who is worthy of your friendship. Learning to have more balanced interactions will help your future relationships.最后,你要知道不是所有关系都能修补的,这真的没关系。归根究底,你需要明确谁值得你付出友情。学会建立更平衡的交际关系有助于你将来的人际交往。Ms. Steinorth, who is 48 and lives in Santa Barbara, Calif., no longer speaks to her former friend. #39;I thought, #39;After all the little things I#39;ve done, all the times I#39;ve been there for you, I ask for just one thing and you can#39;t do it?#39;#39; she recalls thinking. Her former friend did eventually write a nice letter of recommendation, she says, after Ms. Steinorth had her husband make the request. But by then the couple#39;s application was no longer valid.今年48岁、住在加州 巴巴拉的斯泰诺特不再和她以前的那位朋友说话了。她回忆起当时的想法时说:“我想,‘在我做了那么多事情,一直在你身边给你持之后,我只是请你帮忙做一件事,你都做不了吗?’”她说,在她让丈夫提出请求后,那位朋友最终写了一封出色的推荐信,但是那时他们的申请已经失效了。As a result of this experience, Ms. Steinorth says, she #39;holds back#39; a little in her relationships, giving more to people who really need her assistance and can#39;t reciprocate or even say thank you. Instead of cooking three dishes for family get-togethers, she cooks one and makes several casseroles for the homeless. And she volunteers at a Basset Hound rescue organization. She also pays close attention to a new friend#39;s style of communal orientation.斯泰诺特说,由于这段经历,现在她在和人交往时会稍稍有些“保留”,而对真正需要她帮助但不能报答、甚至无法说声谢谢的人给予更多的帮助。她以前会为家庭聚会做三道菜,现在只做一道,然后再为无家可归的人做几道炖菜。她还担任巴吉度犬营救组织的志愿者。现在,她也会密切注意新朋友的公共取向度。#39;It#39;s not my nature, but I don#39;t get hurt anymore, #39; says Ms. Steinorth, who has written a book about communication in friendships and other relationships. #39;I let go of the expectation that everyone wants the same thing from a relationship, because they don#39;t.#39;她说:“这并非我的天性,但这样做我再也不会被伤害了。我摒弃了认为每个人都对友情有着同样期待的想法,因为他们确实不是如此。”她撰写了一本书,论述在友情和其他关系中该如何沟通。 /201310/260529For me, Chinese New Year used to be fun.对于我来说,过去感觉过年很有意思呢。When I was a kid, I was excited during Chinese New Year when I got lai see and I could stay up late. I even had access to candy, a once-a-year treat while living under the roof of my Tiger Mom.孩提时的我,一到过年就兴奋不已,我虽平日生活在我家虎妈的“淫威”下,但过年我就可以收到红包了,可以熬夜了,甚至还有机会收到一年才能吃到一次的糖果了。Riding strong on the sugar highs, I always thought to myself, this is what it must feel like to be an adult. I was flush, free and giddy.糖果的甜味久久回味,小时候我一直以为,这就是长大成人的感觉,长大了就可以有了一片无拘无束任自己自由驰骋的天地。Then at some point in my twenties, Chinese New Year became a chore. Not any garden variety chore, but a cold-sweat-inducing family obligation that I try hard to avoid.后来,到了我二十多岁的时候,农历新年却变得很苦逼。各种苦逼问题劈头盖脸般扑向你,而我在设法逃避着这种令人冒冷汗的所谓的家庭责任。As an adult, Chinese New Year is an annual nightmare, for the following reasons:我长大成人了,农历新年与我而言就是一年一度的噩梦一场,有如下原因:1. I find it sucks when you are single你要是单身的话,那就糟透了Relatives feel that they have a right to judge you because you do share bits of DNA, so, really, it#39;s almost like they#39;re judging themselves.亲戚们觉得自己有权干涉你的个人感情生活问题,因为你们毕竟部分血脉相连,所以他们说起你的感情问题来真的几乎就像是在说自己一样。Typically, the extended family gathers for Chinese New Year and spends an inordinate amount of time together, during which people get bored and focus their restlessness on judging the younger generation, particularly those who are single.通常情况下,中国新年全家聚在一起的时间比较长,全家聚在一起时一旦觉得无聊,他们就会转而把精力都集中在年轻一代人、特别是单身年轻人的身上。Singledom means a lack of responsibilities and responsibility-free people need to be reined in by the wisdom of elders, or they will be reckless with their directionless lives.单身则代表缺乏责任感,没有责任感的自由人就需要受长辈们的智慧牵制,否则他们的生活就会失去方向。Here are some unavoidable conversations at Chinese New Year. By ;conversations; I really mean monologues by one Wise Elder or another, fired away at a particular Single Younger in a trance-like manner:下面的话题就是春节时一些无法避免的对话。这里的“对话” 指的是智者长辈单方面的冗长唠叨,他们陷入一种恍惚状态“指点着”单身的年轻人们:;Why don#39;t you have a boyfriend? If you have a boyfriend, why don#39;t you get married?;“你为什么还没有男朋友?要是你有男朋友,为什么还不结婚?”;Why are you not dieting at least a little bit? Second Cousin Yong Yong will have to start bringing clothes from America for you.;“你为什么不少吃一点儿呢?二表哥永永(音译)得要从美国给你带衣回来啦。”;What happened to your hair? Blue is not such a good color for us Chinese people.;“你的头发怎么弄成这副样子了?把头发染成蓝色,这个颜色对于我们中国人来说,可不是什么好颜色。”;Are you saving up for an apartment? Why not? The most important thing in life is to have a roof over your head. You don#39;t want to be homeless, do you? What if the economy collapses again? At least you will have an apartment.;“你在攒钱准备买房吗?为什么还不攒钱准备买房呢?人这一辈子有地方住才是大事,你不想无家可归吧?是不是?如果经济再次不行了可怎么办呢?怎么说至少你也得有一套自己的房子住才行啊。”;Why don#39;t you get a better paid job? You are wasting your talent. You will regret your life.;“你为什么不找一份薪水再高一些的工作呢?你白读了这么多年的书了。你会后悔你现在过的日子的。”2. I am employed我工作了I loved the great Chinese tradition of gifting lai see. Getting HK for no reason other than tradition really rocked my seven-year-old world.我喜欢送红包这个优良传统。收到20元港币的红包着实震撼了七岁的我的小小世界。I have an income now, so twenty bucks here and there doesn#39;t make a huge difference, but I still retain that childhood anticipation for the red packets. It#39;s just a bit disappointing when I open up an envelope and it isn#39;t concealing a massive check.目前我有了一份自己的收入,因此,这二十块钱无法让我再生感动之情,但我还是对童年收红包的传统习惯有了期待。只是当我打开红包时,看一下红包里面装的钱太少了时,那令人失望的表情丝毫不加掩饰。And it#39;s the guilt from feeling disappointed that makes me really hate Chinese New Year for making me hate myself.而且自己感觉又内疚又失望,这让我真的很讨厌过年,我恨我自己。It#39;s just like being unable to conceal your letdown expression when unwrapping that pair of socks at Secret Santa parties.这就像是当你打开一双秘密圣诞老人的袜子时,你表露出的那种无法掩饰的失望表情。Gifting is a heartwarming tradition. It#39;s the thought that counts. I am not supposed to care. I am a bad person.送礼物是一种让人感觉温馨的优良传统,重在心意。我本不该在乎礼物轻重的,我真是个地道的大坏蛋。There#39;s even worse.还有更糟糕的。Chinese New Year gambling is just out of hand.春节可谓是到了一发不可收拾的地步。Now that I have a job, I#39;m expected to bet real money at The Mahjong Table, a no man#39;s land filled with hidden agendas, treacherous scheming and Janus-faced traitors.现在,我有了一份工作,我盼着在麻将桌上动真格的赢点钱,如同无人区满藏各种制敌取胜的奸诈心计一样算计着赢钱。If you beat your elder relatives at mahjong one too many times, beware their wrath. It really hurts when you get hit by a mahjong tile.如果你打麻将总赢你的长辈亲戚们,当心惹恼他们是会向你飞来一个麻将牌的,麻将牌打到身上真是很疼的。 /201402/275155Joe Ariel is a New York City transplant who opened up shop in San Francisco with his startup Goldbely. The idea is simple: a food delivery service.乔·埃里尔属于纽约市外来人口,他的初创型公司Goldbely在旧金山设有门店。业务思路很简单:递送食品。That#39;s not new, of course. But the company distinguishes itself by finding locally sourced gourmet foods from around the country and delivering them to a person#39;s doorstep. And not just so-called gourmet food, either: Think cannolis from Carlo#39;s Bake Shop -- of ;Cake Boss; fame -- in New Jersey, sourdough b from Boudin in the Bay Area, Blue Bell ice cream from Texas, or a pastrami and corned beef sandwich from Katz#39;s Delicatessen in New York City.这当然不是什么新事物。但Goldbely的与众不同之处在于,它在美国各地寻找当地生产的精美食品,然后把它们送到人们的家门口。而且并不仅仅是一般所谓的精美食品,想想看:新泽西州Carlo#39;s Bake Shop制作、因为电视真人秀节目蛋糕大王(Cake Boss)而名声大噪的奶油甜馅煎饼卷;旧金山湾区的Boudin酵母面包;来自得克萨斯州的Blue Bell冰激凌;还有纽约市Katz#39;s Delicatessen的五香熏牛肉和腌咸牛肉三明治。Ariel, 37, wants to help local purveyors gain a national audience. He calls it ;democratizing the food industry.; And lest you think he is just one more in a long line of trendy food entrepreneurs, Ariel insists that he dislikes the pretension of the word ;foodie; (preferring to call himself a ;food explorer;) and simply wants to share the best that America has to offer.37岁的埃里尔希望帮助当地食品供应商获得全美国消费者的关注。他把这称为“食品行业民主化”。为了避免人们只是把它看成流行食品创业者大军中的普通一员,埃里尔坚持说他不喜欢“美食家”这个词带来的自负感(他更愿意把自己称为“食品探索者”),而且他只是希望和别人分享美国最好的东西。Ariel is a serial entrepreneur -- he was once the CEO of Delivery.com and Eats.com -- and holds a bachelor#39;s degree in economics from Vanderbilt University. He spoke with us.埃里尔已经连续多次创业,他曾是食品快递网站Delivery.com和美食网站Eats.com的首席执行官。他在范德堡大学(Vanderbilt University)获得了经济学学士学位。他和我们的谈话如下:1. Who in technology do you admire most? Why?1. 你在技术领域最欣赏的人谁?为什么?Steve Jobs, Richard Branson, Jeff Bezos. They#39;re all entrepreneurs who play by their own rules. For Jobs, it#39;s his vision and true emphasis on design. For Branson, creativity and wildness. For Bezos, it#39;s building for the long term and being unapologetic about it; that idea is very freeing for entrepreneurs who are trying to build their own business. As a marketer, I also admire Hugh Hefner. He#39;s created his own reality. He saw something that he wanted to build and marketed it like no one else could. I feel the same way about Goldbely.史蒂夫?乔布斯、理查德?布兰森和杰夫?贝佐斯。他们都是按自己的规则行事的企业家。对于乔布斯,我欣赏的是他的眼光和对设计的真正重视。至于布兰森则是因为他的创造性和无拘无束。对于贝佐斯,则是他的长期投入和无怨无悔。对于正在设法构建自身事业的创业者来说,这个想法非常自由。作为推广者,我还欣赏休?海夫纳。他创造了自己的现实。他发现了自己想要的东西,而且用唯我独尊的方式进行推广。我对Goldbely有同样的感觉。2. Which companies do you admire? Why?2. 你欣赏哪些公司?为什么?One company that I admire is Y Combinator for realizing that there#39;s a new economy coming. It#39;s one thing for investors to make investments for financial gain, but it#39;s another to actively help thousands of entrepreneurs build out their dreams and give them a better chance to succeed. We#39;re fortunate to have been a part of the program, and I admire a lot of what they do. In the e-commerce space, I admire Amazon and Zappos for pretty obvious reasons. With Zappos, the ;customer service first; focus is something we instill deeply in our team, and Amazon#39;s ambitiousness is inspiring.我欣赏的公司是Y Combinator,原因是它意识到了一种新经济的到来。投资者为了金融收益而投资是一件事,但去积极地帮助数千名创业者实现自己的梦想、帮助他们提高获得成功的几率则是另外一件事。我们很幸运能参与这项活动,对他们所做的许多工作我都很赞赏。在电子商务领域,我欣赏的是亚马逊(Amazon)和鞋类网站Zappos,原因很明显。Zappos以“客户务至上”为重点,这一点深植在我们的梦想里。亚马逊的远大抱负让人很受启发。3. What advice would you give to someone who wants to do what you do?3. 你对那些希望从事你这样工作的人有什么建议?Travel, eat, repeat! When I was planning this venture, I knew it had to be something that I was super-passionate about. But at the same time, you can have ideas that you#39;re really passionate about that at the end of the day don#39;t align with your skill set. So, find the intersection of what you love and what you#39;re good at and identify any and every potential opportunities in the market. Once you find the sweet spot, dig in like you never have before.旅行、品尝,反复这样做!筹划这家公司时,我知道它必须能引起我极大的热情。但同时,你可以有这样的想法,那就是你真正热衷的东西最终并不和你的技能相匹配。所以,要在你所热爱的东西和你所擅长的东西之间找到交叉点,同时发现市场中所有的潜在机遇。只要找到了最佳结合点,就用前所未有的力量进行发掘。4. What is the best advice you ever received?4. 别人给你的最佳建议是什么?As an entrepreneur, Paul Buchheit -- who is one of the partners at Y Combinator and the creator of Gmail -- always said build something that a few people absolutely love rather than build something that a lot of people just kind of like. For any startup entrepreneur those are some of the wisest words because it#39;s easy to push out something that#39;s kind of good, but it#39;s really, really hard to push out something that#39;s amazing. That#39;s what you should strive for.身为创业者,Y Combinator合伙人之一、Gmail之父保罗?布赫海特总是说,要做出有些人绝对热爱的东西,而不是许多人仅仅有些喜欢的东西。这对任何一位创业者来说都是最高明的建议,因为拿出较好的东西很容易,但要拿出令人叫绝的东西真的、真的很难。那就是我应该为之奋斗的目标。5. What#39;s the next big project you want to tackle?5. 你打算着手的下一个大项目是什么?I think we#39;ve really hit on something with the convergence of content and commerce in food, specifically in the way we tell the stories of the products and artisans we showcase. We view ourselves equally as an e-commerce company as we do storytellers. Video has always been a fascinating medium for me, and we#39;ve just started delving further into -based content. Photography has always been core to our user experience, but I think there#39;s an exciting opportunity for us to use to take our content far deeper.我想,我们真的已经在食品领域找到了把内容和商业结合在一起的东西,特别是通过我们讲述产品的故事以及对那些制作者的介绍。我们觉得自己既是电子商务公司,又是讲故事的人。我一直觉得视频是一种奇妙的媒介。摄影一直是我们用户体验的核心,但我想我们可以借助视频把我们的内容深入到远远超过现在的深度,这是一个令人兴奋的机遇。6. What challenges are facing your business right now?6. 你的公司目前面临着哪些挑战?We#39;re fortunate in that we#39;re growing pretty quickly. The challenge with that is continuing to grow at a fast pace, and at the same time maintain focus on culture and quality of hiring, while at the same time building for speed. If there#39;s one thing that keeps me up at night, it#39;s that. Making sure we find the right spot.很幸运,我们增长得相当迅速。由此带来的挑战是继续高速增长,同时保持对文化和招聘质量的关注,而且还要为增长速度搞好积累。如果说有什么让我夜不能寐,那就是这件事——确保我们找到了正确的位置。7. What is one goal -- either personal or professional -- that you would like to accomplish during your lifetime?7. 无论是个人方面,还是职业方面,你希望自己能够实现的终身目标是什么?Building an industry-changing business. To create something that not only serves millions of consumers, but also empowers an entire industry of producers would be something really special. I think Etsy has done this for the crafts industry, and that is something I admire. There#39;s a lot of symmetry with what we#39;re doing for gourmet and specialty food. It#39;s exciting to create a platform that uplifts an entire industry.打造一家能改变整个行业的公司。一个人创造的东西不仅能务于数百万消费者,还能赋予整个行业的生产者一些能力,确实是件很特别的事。我认为手工艺品交易网站Etsy已经为手工产品制造者做到了这一点,对此我很欣赏。我们正在为精美食品和招牌食品所做的工作和Etsy极为相似。创建一个能提升整个行业的平台让人很振奋。8. What do you do to live a balanced life?8. 你怎样平衡自己的生活?Since I was a kid, if I don#39;t run around or play a sport and work up a sweat, I get antsy. If I go a few days without exercise, I have a hard time focusing. It can be anything from playing tennis or basketball to going for a run or a hike. The gym is super-important for me.从小时候起,如果不到处跑,如果不参加体育活动,出一身汗,我就会坐立不安。如果有几天不运动,我就难以集中精力。可以是任何运动,网球、篮球、跑步或者骑自行车都行。体育馆对我来说超级重要。9. What was the last book you ?9. 你最近读了哪本书?David and Goliath by Malcolm Gladwell. I love his books in general with the intersection of psychology and business and history. This one in particular talks about the advantages of being an underdog. In my world, that means a startup, and it#39;s very inspiring to hear historical takes about little upstarts that can do amazing things.马尔科姆?格拉德韦尔的《大卫与歌利亚》(David and Goliath)。他的书把心理、商业和历史交织在一起,我都很喜欢。这本书特别谈到了处于下风时的优势。在我的世界里,处于下风就意味着建立一家初创型企业,听听历史上初出茅庐的小人物所成就的了不起的大事非常让人受启发。10. What is one unique or quirky habit that you have?10. 你有什么独特或者奇怪的习惯吗?I feed people constantly and love to see their reaction to trying something new. I think I get it from my father, who has always loved cooking and feeding people. Especially when there#39;s a new product that I#39;ve sampled that I know is just amazing -- I just need to share it. So much of what we do is sp happiness through food. A dish can be so nostalgic and bring back such great memories. Getting to facilitate these moments and share these experiences with people is really special.我经常请人吃饭,而且喜欢看他们在尝试新食品时的反应。我觉得这个习惯来自我父亲,他总喜欢做饭,请人吃饭。特别是在我尝试了新产品,发现它让人赞不绝口的时候——我就是需要和别人分享。我们很大一部分工作就是通过食品来传播幸福。一道菜也能很怀旧,让人重温美好的回忆。帮助人们更容易地找到这样的时刻,同时和别人分享这样的经历,这确实是件很特别的事情。 /201403/282527

An Iranian mathematician is the first woman ever to receive a Fields Medal, often considered to be mathematics#39; equivalent of the Nobel Prize.一名伊朗数学家成了首位荣获菲尔茨奖(Fields Medal)的女性;该奖项被认为是数学界的诺贝尔奖(Nobel Prize)。The recipient, Maryam Mirzakhani, a professor at Stanford, was one of four scheduled to be honored on Wednesday at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Seoul, South Korea.这位获奖者是斯坦福大学(Stanford)教授玛丽亚姆·米尔札哈尼(Maryam Mirzakhani),本周三在韩国首尔举行的国际数学家大会(International Congress of Mathematicians)会为她和另外三位数学家颁奖。The Fields Medal is given every four years, and several can be awarded at once. The other recipients this year are Artur Avila of the National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics in Brazil and the National Center for Scientific Research in France; Manjul Bhargava of Princeton University; and Martin Hairer of the University of Warwick in England.菲尔兹奖每四年颁发一次,每次可以同时授予数人。今年的另外三位获奖者是巴西国立纯数学和应用数学研究所(National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics)和法国国家科学院(National Center for Scientific Research)的阿图尔·阿维拉(Artur Avila)、普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的曼朱·巴尔加瓦(Manjul Bhargava),以及英国华威大学(University of Warwick)的马丁·海瑞尔(Martin Hairer)。The 52 medalists from previous years were all men.以前的52名菲尔兹奖得主都是男性。;This is a great honor. I will be happy if it encourages young female scientists and mathematicians,; Dr. Mirzakhani was ed as saying in a Stanford news release on Tuesday. ;I am sure there will be many more women winning this kind of award in coming years.;“这是极大的殊荣。如果这对年轻的女性科学家和数学家有所鼓励,我会感到荣幸,”米尔札哈尼士在本周二斯坦福大学的一份新闻稿里说。“我相信未来会有更多女性获得这类奖项。”Ingrid Daubechies, a professor of mathematics at Duke and president of the International Mathematical Union, called the news ;a great joy; in an email.杜克大学(Duke)数学教授英格丽·多贝西(Ingrid Daubechies)是国际数学联盟(International Mathematical Union)主席,她在电子邮件中称这个消息是“一大喜讯”。;All researchers in mathematics will tell you that there is no difference between the math done by a woman or a man, and of course the decision of the Fields Medal committee is based only on the results of each candidate,; she wrote. ;That said, I bet the vast majority of the mathematicians in the world will be happy that it will no longer be possible to say that ‘the Fields Medal has always been awarded only to men.#39; ;“数学界的所有研究人员都会告诉你,女性和男性所做的数学研究没有差别,而且菲尔兹奖委员会当然只会根据每个候选人的成就来甄选获奖者,”她写道。“话虽如此,我敢打赌,世界上的绝大多数数学家都会感到高兴,因为以后不可能再有人说‘菲尔兹奖一向只授予男性#39;了。”Much of the research by Dr. Mirzakhani, who was born in Tehran in 1977, has involved the behavior of dynamical systems. There are no exact mathematical solutions for many dynamical systems, even simple ones.米尔札哈尼士1977年出生于德黑兰,她的许多研究都涉及到动力系统的行为。很多动力系统都没有精确的数学解决方案,就连一些很简单的系统也是如此。;What Maryam discovered is that in another regime, the dynamical orbits are tightly constrained to follow algebraic laws,; said Curtis T. McMullen, a professor at Harvard who was Dr. Mirzakhani#39;s doctoral adviser. ;These dynamical systems describe surfaces with many handles, like pretzels, whose shape is evolving over time by twisting and stretching in a precise way. They are related to billiards on tables that are not rectangular but still polygonal, like the regular octagon.;“玛丽亚姆的发现是:在另一个层面,动力学轨道严格遵循代数法则,”哈佛大学(Harvard)教授柯蒂斯·T·麦克马伦(Curtis T. McMullen),他是米尔札哈尼读时的导师。“这些动力系统通过很多元素来描述表面,就像麻花一样,其形状通过扭曲和拉伸,以一种精确的方式随着时间推移而不断变化。它们有些像桌子上的撞球,桌子不是长方形的,但仍然是多边形,比如说正八边形。“Dr. Avila, 35, investigated a different area of dynamical systems, including an understanding of fractals. Dr. Bhargava, 40, was recognized for new methods in the geometry of numbers, especially prime numbers, and Dr. Hairer, 38, made advances in the study of the effect of random noise on partial differential equations, capturing the effect of turbulence on ocean currents or the flow of air around airplane wings.35岁的阿维拉士研究的是动力系统的另一个领域,包括对分形的一种理解。40岁的巴尔加瓦士在几何数论、尤其是质数上找到了一些新方法,而38岁的海瑞尔士在研究随机噪声对偏微分方程的影响时取得了进展,捕捉到了湍流对洋流或飞机机翼周围空气流动的影响。While women have reached parity in many academic fields, mathematics is still dominated by men, who earn about 70 percent of the doctoral degrees. The disparity is even more striking at the highest echelons. Since 2003, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has awarded the Abel Prize, recognizing outstanding mathematicians with a monetary award of about million; all 14 recipients so far are men. No woman has won the Wolf Prize in Mathematics, another prestigious award.虽然女性已经在很多学科领域赶上了男性,但数学界仍然以男性为主,70%的数学士都是男性。在最顶尖的层次,这种差距更是惊人。挪威科学与文学院自2003年开始颁发阿贝尔奖(Abel Prize),用100万美元(约合人民币600万元)表彰优秀的数学家,到目前为止,该奖项的14个得主全都是男性。另一个著名的奖项沃尔夫数学奖(Wolf Prize in Mathematics),至今也没有女性得主。The Fields Medal was conceived by John Charles Fields, a Canadian mathematician, ;in recognition of work aly done; and as ;an encouragement for further achievement.; Judges have interpreted the terms of the Fields trust to mean that the award should usually be limited to mathematicians age 40 or younger.菲尔兹奖是由加拿大数学家约翰·查尔斯·菲尔兹(John Charles Fields)设立的,“用以表彰已经完成的工作”,并“鼓励得主获取进一步的成就”。根据评委对菲尔兹信托条款的解释,该奖项通常只应该颁发给年龄在40岁或以下的数学家。Dr. McMullen, himself a Fields medalist, did not speculate on why it had taken so long for a woman to be recognized. ;I would prefer to look forward and celebrate this occasion,; he said, ;and see it as a sign of positive trends in society and in science.;麦克马伦士自己也是菲尔兹奖得主,对于为什么迟至今日才有女性获奖这个问题,他没有加以揣测,而是说:“我更愿意向前看,更愿意庆贺这件事,把它看成是社会以及科学界中的一个积极趋势。” /201409/330087

Like many fashion-loving young women on a budget, I went crazy over Beijing#39;s clothing markets. ;You can bargain a pair of cargo pants down to ? Get a skirt for and a scarf for just .50?; I had never before seen such an enormous amount of inexpensive clothing.像许多爱好时尚的年轻女性节省费用那样,我非常喜欢北京的装市场。“你可以将一条工装裤讨价还价低至5美元吗?花3美元买一条裙子,1.50美元买一条围巾吗?”我从未见过如此大量的便宜装。Friends and I became regulars at the Silk Market, the original Wudaokou Clothing Market and the Zoo Whole-sale Clothing Market. After my first year in China, I had picked up enough new clothes and fashion accessories to fill two huge suitcases.我和朋友们成为秀水街、原来的五道口装市场和动物园装批发市场的常客。在中国住了一年以后,我添置的新衣和时尚饰品可以装满两个大号行李箱。Now, eight years later, only three pieces of clothing from the time are still around - a winter coat, a sweater and a summer skirt. The rest have either faded, torn, shrunk, stretched, fallen out of fashion or just became too uncomfortable to wear.八年后的现在,当时的衣只剩三件常穿——一件冬天的外套,一件毛衣和一条夏天的裙子。其余的或褪色,或扯破,或缩水,或撑大,或过时,或只是穿的不太舒。In hindsight, I realized that I had bought impulsively, even taking clothes that didn#39;t zip properly because I liked their designs. I was swayed by low prices and cared more about buying quantity than quality.事后看来,我意识到当时的冲动购物,甚至买的一些衣裁剪并不合适,但仅仅因为喜欢它们的设计而把它们买下来。我是很易受低价左右的人,更关注的是购买的数量而不是质量。In 2012, according to data from the China National Garment Association, the country produced 43.6 billion pieces of clothing. The world#39;s biggest garment exporter, with a third of the slice of the pie, China also sees mountains of low-cost clothing enter the domestic market.中国装协会的数据显示,2012年中国生产了436亿件衣。作为世界上最大的装出口国,其出口量占世界总出口量的三分之一,与此同时中国也有大量的低成本装进入国内市场。The flow of new, affordable designs can be irresistible to fashionistas, but a big wardrobe isn#39;t always better. I#39;m reminded of the primacy of quality whenever I think about the oldest piece in my closet. It#39;s a white eyelet blouse from a designer#39;s y-to-wear line, which my mother picked out at a Manila department store during my college freshman year. I balked at the price tag of about , but 18 years and three countries later, I still wear it.新颖且价格实惠的装设计对于时尚达人来说是不可抗拒的,但一个大的衣橱并不总是好事。每当我想起橱柜里那件最旧的衣,我都会提醒自己质量是第一。这是从一位设计师的成品系列中购买的一件白色网眼女式衬衫,那时我上大学一年级,是我母亲在一家马尼拉百货商店挑选的。标价约35美元,我当时犹豫不决,但历经18年、游历三个国家之后,我仍然穿着它。When I began reporting on sustainable lifestyles a couple of years ago, I started to ask myself a few questions before buying new clothes. ;Can you see yourself in this outfit five to 10 years from now? Is it something that will last? Will it go well with the things you aly own?;当几年前我开始报道可持续生活方式时,我开始在购买新衣之前问自己几个问题。“你在未来5到10年都能穿这件衣吗?它耐穿吗?它和你已有的衣能搭配得起来吗?”These are the same ideas behind having a ;capsule wardrobe; - a collection of a few essential pieces that can be mixed and matched, worn from day to night and updated with key items. The concept became popular in the West in the mid-1980s, following the release of American designer Donna Karan#39;s ;7 Easy Pieces;, which consisted of a bodysuit, skirt, blouse, coat, leggings, jacket and dress.这些都是掩藏在“胶囊衣橱”之后的想法——这里面是少量必备衣、可以混合搭配,一天到晚都可以穿,款式也不会太过时。二十世纪八十年代中期,随着美国设计师唐纳?卡兰(Donna Karan)发布她的“简洁7件”理念,上述观念在西方变得流行,这一理念倡导的“7件”为:一件紧身衣、一条裙子、一件女装衬衫、一件外套、一件夹克衫、一条裤子及一件晚礼。The capsule wardrobe#39;s emphasis is on having a small yet versatile clothing collection, which will survive fashion trends and washing cycles.“胶囊衣橱”的重点是收藏的衣少但具有多功能性,能够在时尚潮流的变迁和多次洗涤后留存下来。Chinese consumers, who only rediscovered modern fashion following the country#39;s economic reforms three decades ago, want to buy more - not less. People such as Wang Mingming, who have adopted capsule wardrobes in the face of so much bargain clothing, are a rarity. In 2009, the resident of Ningbo, Zhejiang province, simplified her wardrobe to seven sets of clothing per season. She makes sure not to wear an outfit twice in the same week and uses shoes and bags to freshen her look, but the 32-year-old has basically been wearing a handful of items again and again for years. The oldest piece she owns dates back to 2001.30年前,随着中国的经济改革,中国消费者才重新发现现代时尚,他们想购买的更多而不是更少。不过也有王明明(音)这样的人实践了“胶囊衣橱”理念,然而这种人是很罕见的。2009年,浙江宁波的王明明简化了她的衣橱至每季七套装。她确保不在一个星期内将同一套衣穿两次,并利用鞋子和手袋搭配出新鲜感。但32岁的她,几年来基本上就是把这几件衣一穿再穿。她穿的衣中,最旧的一件是2001年买的。Wang#39;s decision has not only helped her put together a quality wardrobe, but it has also improved her quality of life. She wanted to devote more energy to exercising, ing and relaxing, and not having to keep up with fashion trends has freed up her time and money.王明明采用“胶囊衣橱”的决定不仅帮助她组建了一个有质量的衣橱,而且也提高了她的生活质量。她想把更多的精力用来锻炼、阅读和放松,没有跟上时尚潮流使她得以空出时间、节省金钱。Inspired by such stories, I#39;ve toyed with the idea of also living on a capsule wardrobe. If I were to have only ;7 Easy Pieces;, then I#39;d have to get rid of 150 garments. Since I#39;ve now gone for seven months without buying any new clothes, I#39;m confident this goal will be within reach in this lifetime.受到这样故事的鼓舞,我曾半开玩笑地设想以“胶囊衣橱”为生。如果我只有这“简单7件”,那我就必须得处理掉150套衣。我已经七个月没有买任何新衣了,我相信这一目标将在我一生中实现。 /201407/310198

When I was 17, I a e that went something like: #39;If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you#39;ll most certainly be right.#39; It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: #39;If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?#39; And whenever the answer has been #39;no#39; for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.1、我十七岁时,读到了一句格言,如果你把每天都当作生命中最后一天,总有一天你会发现你是正确的。从那时起,我每天早晨对着镜子问自己,如果今天是你生命中最后一,你愿意做什么,为什么这是今天要做的。It#39;s really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don#39;t know what they want until you show it to them.2、很多时候,人们并不知道他们想要什么,直到你展示给他们,告诉他们想要的的东西。I want to put a ding in the universe.3、我要在宇宙中留下脚印。Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven#39;t found it yet, keep looking. Don#39;t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you#39;ll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don#39;t settle.4、不要半途而废,你的工作会占据你生命中相当大一部分,能够让你真正满意的唯一方法就是做你相信是伟大的工作,而唯一伟大的工作就是爱你所做的事。如果你还没有找到它,那么继续找,不要停。用心去找,你会知道何时能够找到它。如同任何伟大的关系一样,它只会在时间的明之下越来越好,所以继续找,不要停,直到你找到它。I#39;m convinced that about half of what separates successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance.5、我相信一半成功的企业家和另一半不成功的企业家的区别在于纯粹的毅力。Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn#39;t really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while.6、创造力就是找到事物之间的联系。当你询问有创意的人他们是如何做事时,他们觉得有点内疚,因为他们并没有真的这么做,他们只是看到了其中一些关系。这种感觉在他们过后看来会很明显。Getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.7、被苹果解雇可能是发生在我身上的最好事情。追求成功之重被重新上路之轻取代。它让我这辈子自由进入最有创意的年代。Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are aly naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.8、提醒生命有限,避免掉入陷阱的最好办法,就是你光身,没有理由跟随自己的内心。Quality is more important than quantity. One home run is much better than two doubles.9、质量比数量更重要。Be a yardstick of quality. Some people aren#39;t used to an environment where excellence is expected.10、成为卓越的代名词。#39;I think if you do something and it turns out pretty good, then you should go do something else wonderful, not dwell on it for too long. Just figure out what#39;s next.#39;11、我想如果你做了某些事,结果顺利圆满,那么你应该选择转去做别的事情,别专注在美好的事情上太久,只要保持寻找下一个目标。You can#39;t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.12、真正对我有意义的事,就是在晚上睡觉前说上一句:“我已经做了一些非常棒的事”,这才是我最在乎的。Being the richest man in the cemetery doesn#39;t matter to me ... Going to bed at night saying we#39;ve done something wonderful ... that#39;s what matters to me.13、你无法在展望未来时串联点滴,你只能在回顾过去时将其升华。所以你要相信,这些点滴片段会在未来以某种方式串联起来。你要相信某种东西——直觉也好,命运也好,生命也好,或者因缘甚至是其他一切。这种方法从来没有让我失望,在我的生活中,这种意念造就了我的与众不同。I#39;m as proud of many of the things we haven#39;t done as the things we have done. Innovation is saying no to a thousand things.14、我引以为豪是,许多我们所做的事情变成我们还没有完成的事,创新就是对一千件事情说“不”。 /201410/335720

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