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2019年09月15日 15:51:42    日报  参与评论()人

赣州长安早泄要花多少赣州有哪些男科医院If the human genome is the book of life, then Crispr technology is its Microsoft Word. The cut-and-paste technique, invented only three years ago, can be used on fledgling genomes to snip out bits of DNA and, if required, insert new stretches.如果说人类基因组是生命之书,那么Crispr技术就是用来编写这本书的Microsoft Word。这种基因“剪切和粘贴”技术3年前才问世,可用于从初露端倪的基因组中剪除DNA片段,如有需要,还可向基因组中插入新的片段。The amendments are permanent and can be passed down the generations. The technology works on mice and men; a team in China recently revealed they had partially succeeded in excising the gene for beta thalassaemia, an inherited blood disorder, from a human embryo. It is a wonder society is not yet spooked by what could be a defining technology for the future of humanity.这种修改是永久性的,可以代代相传。这种技术可以用于小鼠和人类;中国的一个科研小组最近透露,他们从一个人类胚胎上切除β-地中海贫血症(一种遗传性血液疾病)基因的操作取得了部分成功。奇怪的是,这种可能界定人类未来的技术还未震惊社会。Crispr — short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats — is the simplest of a suite of new gene-editing technologies, and is a trick borrowed from the bacterial immune system. Bacteria, when invaded by a virus, deploy “molecular scissors” — a DNA-cutting enzyme that chops up the invader. Pair the scissors with a guiding molecule capable of directing the blades to a specific point, and you are y to edit a genome. After the DNA is severed, cellular repair machinery kicks in to close the gap and the embryo continues to develop. This is how the Chinese scientists banished the mutant gene from their human embryo.Crispr是“规律成簇的间隔短回文重复”(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)的简称,是一套新的基因编辑技术中最简单的一种,借鉴了细菌的免疫系统。当细菌遭到病毒的入侵时,会使用“分子剪刀”——一种DNA内切酶来切掉入侵者。将分子剪刀与一个能将“刀锋”引导到特定点的分子进行配对,你就能够对基因组进行编辑了。DNA被切除后,细胞修复机制开始发挥作用,接合断裂的部分,胚胎继续发育。这就是中国科学家从人类胚胎中去除突变基因的方法。The deletion was not perfect. It was carried out in a non-viable embryo so we will never know if it would have developed into a thalassaemia-free baby. Nonetheless, the research was so controversial that both Nature and Science declined to publish it. But publication elsewhere in April ignited a debate that still burns. A group of mostly US biologists has called for a moratorium, noting that modifications to the human germ line (changes that would be passed down generations) constituted a Rubicon not to be crossed lightly. UK scientists, working in a tight regulatory regime, are loath to back this call given the risk to basic science.这一切除还不完美。由于实验是在一个不能存活的胚胎上进行的,我们永远无从得知这个胚胎能否发育成一个不会患地中海贫血症的婴儿。尽管如此,这项研究极富争议性,以至于《自然》(Nature)和《科学》(Science)都拒绝发表这项研究。但该研究今年4月发表在别处,引发了一场仍在激烈展开的辩论。以美国生物学家为主的一组科学家呼吁中止研究,指出对人类生殖细胞系的修改(这种修改会代代相传)是一条不可轻率跨过的界线。在严格的监管制度下工作的英国科学家考虑到对基础科学构成的风险,不愿呼应前者的呼吁。This reluctance to impede fundamental research is shared by Jennifer Doudna of University of California, Berkeley, who co-invented Crispr and won a m Breakthrough prize last year (she is also tipped for a Nobel). US politicians, however, are twitchy; a proposal being considered in Congress would ban the Food and Drug Administration from approving clinical applications in human embryos.美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的珍妮弗#8226;杜德纳(Jennifer Doudna)也不太情愿阻碍基础研究,她是Crispr技术的发明者之一,去年赢得了300万美元的“突破奖”(Breakthrough Prize)(很多人认为她还将获得诺贝尔奖)。然而,美国政界人士焦虑不安;国会正在考虑一项禁止美国食品药品监督(FDA)批准人类胚胎相关临床应用的法案。The cancellation of human disease at genome level, which affects an individual and all their descendants, requires contemplation beyond the laboratory — by philosophers, lawyers, clerics and the public. This has been absent. In the UK there has been febrile discussion over the prospect of creating “three-parent babies”using donated mitochondrial DNA; but genome editing could be capable of far greater things, and affects nuclear DNA — from which we derive our genetic identity.在基因组层面消除人类疾病,将影响个人及其所有后代,这需要实验室以外的社会各界进行考量——哲学家、律师、宗教人士和公众。而这些人现在缺席。在英国,人们正在热烈讨论使用捐献的线粒体DNA生育“三亲婴儿”的前景;但基因组编辑能够做到更加伟大的事情,它会影响我们获得遗传特征的来源——核DNA。Inserting new genes, which has yet to be carried out in human embryos, raises further questions. If, in one embryo, I paste in a royal flush of genes conferring resistance to Ebola, cancer and Alzheimer’s, have I created a superhuman? Will perfect health become the preserve of the super-rich? Start-ups such as Editas Medicine of the US are aly gambling on this. We may one day have unaltered people living alongside a younger, gene-edited generation.目前新基因插入还未在人类胚胎上进行过,这种技术提出了更多问题。如果我向一个胚胎插入一套基因,使其获得对埃拉、癌症和阿尔茨海默病的抗性,我是否创造了一个超人?完美的健康会不会成为超级富豪的专属?美国的Editas Medicine等初创公司已经启动这场豪赌。有一天,未曾进行基因修改的人或许会和更年轻、进行过基因编辑的一代人共同生活在一个世界上。That the discussion has not gone fully public might be because genome- editing technology is complex — and because, un#173;like with mitochondrial disease, there are no heart-wrenching personal tales on which to hang the debate. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, a UK-based charity, is considering genome-editing; its views cannot come too soon.这场讨论还未完全公开,或许是因为基因编辑技术比较复杂,也可能是因为不像线粒体疾病的相关技术,这场辩论无法用催人泪下的个人故事大做文章。英国慈善机构纳菲尔德生命伦理委员会(Nuffield Council on Bioethics)正在考虑基因组编辑;该委员会的意见让人期待。Imagining ourselves as glorified books, penned in the language of genes, is a fitting analogy as we muddle on. At some point, society must decide whether any person deserves to be a perfect piece of prose, or whether we should each remain an unedited thriller with an unpredictable ending.在我们继续摸索之际,一个合适的类比是把我们自己想象成一本用基因语言书写的精的书。在某个时间点,社会必须决定,是不是有任何人应该成为一篇完美的散文,还是该保持现状,继续做一篇未经编辑的、结尾不可预测的惊险小说? /201507/383905瑞金男科医生 A Chinese documentary critical of the country#39;s dense smog has made waves online, but could augur positive economic benefits.批评中国浓重雾霾的纪录片《穹顶之下》在网络上引发了多轮讨论热潮。不过,该片还可能预示着积极的经济影响。The absence of negative ramifications for Under the Dome#39;s producer, Chai Jing, has been widely interpreted as a sign of greater official tolerance for discussion of China#39;s devastating pollution problems. Government censors have permitted the 104-minute film to stream on major internet portals while Chen Jining, environmental protection minister, said on Sunday he had texted Ms Chai to thank her for a film ;worthy of admiration;. Indeed, it is being compared to Rachel Carson#39;s seminal work #39;Silent Spring,#39; widely regarded as educating a generation of Americans in the 1960s about the importance of protecting the natural environment.《穹顶之下》制作者柴静并未因此受到处理,这一现象已被广泛解读为中国官方对污染问题相关讨论将持更宽容态度。目前,中国政府的审查机关允许这部时长104分钟的影片在主要互联网门户网站上在线播放。此外,中国环保部长陈吉宁周日曾表示,他已给柴静发过短信,感谢她制作了一部“值得敬佩”的影片。事实上,这部纪录片正在被与雷切尔#8226;卡森(Rachel Carson)的开创性著作《寂静的春天》(Silent Spring)相提并论。后者曾被广泛视为在1960年代教育了一代美国人,让他们认识到了保护自然环境的重要性。But Zhiwei Zhang, chief China economist at Deutsche Bank, argues that the could also have macro implications, both in terms of environmental regulation and protection as well as the media sector: “It was reported by Xinhua that the Minister of Environment Protection personally texted Chai Jing to thank her for the effort. This suggests to us that the government will likely take environmental protection more seriously, rebalancing the economy from merely concentrating on an investment-intensive model.德意志(Deutsche Bank)首席中国问题经济学家张智威称,该视频还可能在宏观层面产生影响,这种影响不仅涉及环境监管和保护方面,还包括媒体部门。他说:“据新华社报道,环保部长曾以个人名义给柴静发短信,赞扬她的努力。这一点暗示我们,中国政府可能会更严肃地对待环保问题,令经济摆脱投资密集型增长模式。“Another important implication is the potential benefits of reforms in China. The media sector has been heavily regulated with little space for independent producers like Chai Jing. The popularity of her shows that there is significant room for productivity growth if the government allows more private investment to enter sectors currently monopolized by the SOEs. As monopolized sectors are typically service oriented, such reform would channel more investment into environmental-friendly business, and help to contain pollution.“另一个重要影响是,它可能为中国改革带来潜在好处。在中国,媒体部门始终受到严格监管,柴静这样的独立制作人没有什么发挥的空间。她的视频的热播,表明政府只要允许更多私人投资进入目前被国企垄断的部门,就能为提高生产率创造巨大空间。由于垄断部门通常是务业的,这种改革将把更多投资导向对环境有益的企业,从而有助于遏制污染。”Before getting ahead of ourselves, the steps - particular in the latter scenario - are likely to be small. Ms Jing financed the film herself and it aly seems like the authorities are clamping down discussion of the film. As the FT reported earlier, the official Xinhua News Agency has deleted at least two original articles on the documentary from its website, including one about the environment minister#39;s praise for the film.不过,对此也不要高兴得太早了,上述影响的显现可能会十分缓慢——尤其是在后一个方面。事实上,柴静这部影片是她自筹资金制作的。此外,似乎当局正在打压对该片的讨论。正如英国《金融时报》此前报道的,中国官方的新华社(Xinhua)已从其网站上删除了至少两篇有关该纪录片的原创报道,其中一篇还曾提到环保部长对该片的赞扬。Whatever is going on behind the scenes, however, nobody can deny the severity of the pollution issue in China - not least the officials in Beijing this week for the NPC meeting.不过,不论幕后发生了什么,没人能够否认中国污染问题的严重性——本周参加人大会议的北京官员也同样不能否认这一点。 /201503/362667赣州皮肤科在线解答

江西省全南县大吉山矿医院男科医生赣县医院治疗早泄哪家医院最好 There is no single sensible answer to this question. It#39;s impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it#39;s so hard to decide what actually counts as a word. Is dog one word, or two (a noun meaning #39;a kind of animal#39;, and a verb meaning #39;to follow persistently#39;)? If we count it as two, then do we count inflections separately too (e.g. dogs plural noun, dogs present tense of the verb). Is dog-tired a word, or just two other words joined together? Is hot dog really two words, since it might also be written as hot-dog or even hotdog?这个问题并没有一个简单而合理的。想要计算一种语言里有多少单词是不可能做到的,因为很难定义究竟什么才是一个单词。Dog究竟算一个单词还是两个(名词指一种动物,动词指长期跟随)?如果算作两个,那么我们是否也要把它的变型也单独计算(例如:复数名词dogs,第三人称单数现在时dogs)?Dog-tired(筋疲力尽)算一个单词还是两个连在一起的单词?既然Hot dog(热)可以被写成hot-dog甚至hotdog,它真的算两个单词吗?It#39;s also difficult to decide what counts as #39;English#39;. What about medical and scientific terms? Latin words used in law, French words used in cooking, German words used in academic writing, Japanese words used in martial arts? Do you count Scots dialect? Teenage slang? Abbreviations?同样,很难定义什么才算英语。医学和科学名词怎么办?法律中使用的拉丁词汇、烹饪中使用的法语词汇、学术写作中使用的德语词汇和武术中使用的日语词汇怎么办?苏格兰方言算不算?青少年的俚语呢?缩写呢?The Second Edition of the 20-volume Oxford English Dictionary contains full entries for 171,476 words in current use, and 47,156 obsolete words. To this may be added around 9,500 derivative words included as subentries. Over half of these words are nouns, about a quarter adjectives, and about a seventh verbs; the rest is made up of exclamations, conjunctions, prepositions, suffixes, etc. And these figures don#39;t take account of entries with senses for different word classes (such as noun and adjective)。长达20卷的《牛津英语词典》第二版中有171476个仍在使用的单词词条,还有47156个废弃单词词条。此外还要加上约9500个派生词作为词条下面的分项。这些单词中,超过半数是名词,约四分之一的单词是形容词,七分之一左右的词是动词,剩下的是感叹词、连词、介词和词缀等。这一数字并未把单词的不同词性(例如名词和形容词)分别计算。This suggests that there are, at the very least, a quarter of a million distinct English words, excluding inflections, and words from technical and regional vocabulary not covered by the OED, or words not yet added to the published dictionary, of which perhaps 20 per cent are no longer in current use. If distinct senses were counted, the total would probably approach three quarters of a million。这表明,英语中有至少25万单词,其中的20%可能已经不再使用。这25万单词中不包括变型、《牛津英语词典》中不收录的专业术语和地方方言、以及尚未被已出版词典收录的单词。如果要把同一单词的不同含义分别计算,英语单词的总数可能会接近75万。 /201506/382582宁都县妇幼保健院电话预约

全南医院网上预约ORLANDO, Fla. — One morning recently, a dozen college students stepped out of the bright sunshine into a dimly lit room at the counseling center here at the University of Central Florida. They appeared to have little in common: undergraduates in flip-flops and nose rings, graduate students in interview-y attire.佛罗里达州奥兰多——近日的一个早晨,十几名大学生从明媚的阳光中走入中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida, U.C.F.)心理咨询中心所在的昏暗房间。乍一看,这些学生身上完全没有共同点:本科生踢拉着人字拖,穿着鼻环;研究生则衣着正式如同正准备参加面试。But all were drawn to this drop-in workshop: “Anxiety 101.”但他们都是被该中心开办的随到随加入的研讨会——“焦虑症101(Anxiety 101)”吸引而来。As they sat in a circle, a therapist, Nicole Archer, asked: “When you’re anxious, how does it feel?”大家围成一圈坐了下来,治疗师妮科尔·阿谢尔(Nicole Archer)问道:“当你焦虑的时候,具体有什么感觉?”“I have a faster heart rate,” whispered one young woman. “I feel panicky,” said another. Sweating. Ragged breathing. Insomnia.“我会心跳加速,”一个年轻女子小声说。“我感到恐慌,”另一个说。还会冒汗,呼吸急促,失眠。Causes? Schoolwork, they all replied. Money. Relationships. The more they thought about what they had to do, the students said, the more paralyzed they became.那么,焦虑的原因有哪些呢?课业,所有的学生都给出了这一;此外还有金钱和人际关系等。越是想着他们必须要做的那些事,他们就越是什么都干不成。Anxiety has now surpassed depression as the most common mental health diagnosis among college students, though depression, too, is on the rise. More than half of students visiting campus clinics cite anxiety as a health concern, according to a recent study of more than 100,000 students nationwide by the Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State.目前,焦虑症已经超越抑郁症成为大学生中最常见的心理健康问题(不过抑郁症也在增加之中)。宾夕法尼亚州立大学的大学生心理健康中心(Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State)近期的一项研究调查了全美的10万多名大学生,发现一半以上的学生到校园诊所就诊时提到了焦虑问题,并视其为健康隐患。Nearly one in six college students has been diagnosed with or treated for anxiety within the last 12 months, according to the annual national survey by the American College Health Association.美国大学健康学会(American College Health Association)的年度全国调查显示,近六分之一的大学生在过去的12个月内曾被诊断为焦虑症或因焦虑症接受过治疗。The causes range widely, experts say, from mounting academic pressure at earlier ages to overprotective parents to compulsive engagement with social media. Anxiety has always played a role in the developmental drama of a student’s life, but now more students experience anxiety so intense and overwhelming that they are seeking professional counseling.专家称焦虑症的原因多种多样,从早年积累下来的学业压力、家长的过度保护到对社交媒体的强迫性依赖等等不一而足。一直以来,焦虑情绪都在从不同程度上影响着学生的成长历程,但现在,越来越多的学生感到这种情绪已经让他们不堪重负,以至于需要寻求专业心理辅导的帮助。As students finish a college year during which these cases continued to spike, the consensus among therapists is that treating anxiety has become an enormous challenge for campus mental health centers.由于学年结束此类病例的数量持续飙升,所以治疗师们达成共识,认为治疗焦虑症已成为校园心理健康中心面临的一项巨大挑战。Like many college clinics, the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services at the University of Central Florida — one of the country’s largest and fastest-growing universities, with roughly 60,000 students — has seen sharp increases in the number of clients: 15.2 percent over last year alone. The center has grown so rapidly that some supply closets have been converted to therapists’ offices.中佛罗里达大学拥有约6万名学生,是全美最大、也是发展最快的大学之一。与许多校园门诊一样,该校的心理咨询和务中心(Center for Counseling and Psychological Services)的客户数量也在急剧增加:仅去年一年就增加了15.2%。由于发展太过迅速,该中心的一部分储物间都被改造成了治疗师的办公室。More students are seeking help partly because the stigma around mental health issues is lessening, noted Stephanie Preston, a counselor at U.C.F.U.C.F.的咨询师斯蒂芬妮·普雷斯顿(Stephanie Preston)指出,前来求助的学生有所增加,一部分原因是人们已经渐渐不再以心理健康问题为耻了。Ms. Preston has seen the uptick in anxiety among her student clients. One gets panic attacks merely at the thought of being called upon in class. And anxiety was among a constellation of diagnoses that became life-threatening for another client, Nicholas Graves.普雷斯顿发现,在她的学生客户中,焦虑症正在增加。有一个学生仅仅因为想到会在课堂上被点名就恐慌发作。对于她的另一个客户尼古拉斯·格雷夫斯(Nicholas Graves),焦虑症是危及他生命安全的一系列疾病之一。Two years ago, Mr. Graves, a stocky cinema studies major in jeans, a T-shirt and Converse sneakers, could scarcely get to class. That involved walking past groups of people and riding a bus — and Mr. Graves felt that everyone was staring at him.格雷夫斯是电影研究专业的学生,他身材矮胖,喜欢穿牛仔裤、T恤和匡威运动鞋。两年前,他几乎无法正常去上课——因为路上要走过人群并乘坐公共汽车,而他总觉得每个人都在盯着他看。He started cutting himself. He was hospitalized twice for psychiatric observation.他开始割伤自己,也曾两次住院接受精神科观察。After some sessions with Ms. Preston, group therapy and medication, Mr. Graves, 21, who sat in an office at the center recently describing his harrowing journey, said he has made great progress.格雷夫斯现年21岁。最近某次他坐在该中心办公室里描述他在路途上的悲惨经历时,他表示经过与普雷斯顿谈话数次,又接受了小组治疗和药物治疗之后,自己已经取得了重大的进步。“I’m more focused in school, and I’ve made more friends in my film courses — I found my tribe,” he said, smiling. “I’ve been open about my anxiety and depression. I’m not ashamed anymore.”“现在我在学校更能集中注意力了,还在电影课上交到了更多的朋友——我找到了我的圈子,”他微笑着说。“我没有避讳我的焦虑症和抑郁症,我也不再因它们而感到羞愧了。”Anxiety has become emblematic of the current generation of college students, said Dan Jones, the director of counseling and psychological services at Appalachian State University in Boone, N.C.阿帕拉契州立大学(Appalachian State University,位于北卡罗来纳州布恩市)心理咨询与务中心的主任丹·琼斯(Dan Jones)说,焦虑已成为当代大学生的典型标志。Because of escalating pressures during high school, he and other experts say, students arrive at college preloaded with stress. Accustomed to extreme parental oversight, many seem unable to steer themselves. And with parents so accessible, students have had less incentive to develop life skills.包括他在内的专家表示,由于高中期间的压力不断增大,学生本身就是带着压力进的大学。很多学生都习惯于父母无微不至的监督,几乎没有自制能力。而且,由于家长总在身边,学生们普遍缺乏学习独立生活技能的动力。“A lot are coming to school who don’t have the resilience of previous generations,” Dr. Jones said. “They can’t tolerate discomfort or having to struggle. A primary symptom is worrying, and they don’t have the ability to soothe themselves.”“很多学生都不具备前几代人身上的那种坚韧品格,”琼斯士说。“他们无法忍受任何不适,也不愿意去努力奋斗。一个主要的症状就是焦虑,而且他们也缺乏安抚自己情绪的能力。”Social media is a gnawing, roiling constant. As students see posts about everyone else’s fabulous experiences, the inevitable comparisons erode their self-esteem. The popular term is “FOMO” — fear of missing out.社交媒体是一个折磨人的、令人不安的存在。当学生看到其他人发布的讲述自己精经历的帖子时,不可避免的攀比心理会削弱他们的自尊。对此,流行的说法叫做“社交控(FOMO, fear of missing out)”。And so personal setbacks that might once have become “teachable moments” turn into triggers for a mental health diagnosis.于是,原本应成为“受到启迪的契机”的个人挫折变成了心理健康问题的诱发因素。“Students are seeking treatment, saying, ‘I just got the first C in my life, my whole life just got shattered, I wanted to go to medical school and I can’t cope,’” said Micky M. Sharma, president of the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors and head of Ohio State University’s counseling center.美国大学校院心理辅导中心主任协会(Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors)主席,俄亥俄州立大学(Ohio State University)心理咨询中心的负责人米基·M·夏尔马(Micky M. Sharma)说:“学生们来寻求治疗时说着:‘我刚得了这辈子的第一个C,整个人都不好了,我想进医学院啊怎么办,我受不了了。”Anxiety is an umbrella term for several disorders, including social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia. It can accompany many other diagnoses, such as depression, and it can be persistent and incapacitating.焦虑症是几种疾病的总称,包括社交焦虑障碍(social anxiety disorder)和广场恐怖症(agoraphobia)等。它可伴有抑郁症等许多其它疾病,并可能持续存在并使患者丧失正常的行动能力。Students who suffer from this acute manifestation can feel their very real struggles are shrugged off, because anxiety has become so ubiquitous, almost a cliché, on campus.急性焦虑症发作的学生常感到别人对自己的痛苦和困扰不屑一顾,因为在大学校园中,焦虑症已变得如此普遍,人们已经见怪不怪了。Alexa, 18, has been treated for an anxiety disorder since middle school, when she was still feeling terrorized by monsters under the bed. She has just finished her freshman year at Queens College in New York.亚历克莎(Alexa)在初中时仍会被“床底下的怪物”吓坏,从那时起她就开始接受焦虑症治疗。如今18岁的她刚刚在纽约的皇后学院(Queens College)念完大学一年级。If she had a severe episode during a test, afterward she would try to explain to her professors what had happened but they would dismiss her. “They’d say, ‘Your mind isn’t focused,’ or ‘That’s just an excuse,’ ” said Alexa, who wrote her college application essay about grappling with the disorder. She asked not to be fully identified for privacy reasons.要是她在考试期间出现严重的焦虑症发作,之后她就需要试着向教授们解释缘由,但他们很可能并不买账。“他们会说:‘你只是思想不集中,’或者‘你不过是在找借口,’”亚历克莎说,她把自己与焦虑症斗争的经历写在了大学入学申请书里。为保护个人隐私,应她的要求隐去了她的部分身份信息。More often, anxiety is mild, intermittent or temporary, the manifestation of a student in the grip of a normal developmental issue — learning time management, for example, or how to handle rejection from a sorority.不过,在更多的情况下焦虑症状都比较轻微,呈间歇性或临时性,常表现为学生因正常的个人发展问题而苦恼,例如,学习管理时间,或被女生联谊会拒绝后应如何进行心理调适。Mild anxiety is often treatable with early, modest interventions. But to care for rising numbers of severely troubled students, many counseling centers have moved to triage protocols. That means that students with less urgent needs may wait several weeks for first appointments.轻度的焦虑症常可以通过早期、适度的干预来进行治疗。但是,鉴于受到严重困扰的学生人数不断上升,许多咨询中心都采取了分诊措施。这就意味着,情况不太严重的学生们可能需要等待数周才能第一次约见咨询师。“A month into the semester, a student is having panic attacks about coming to class, but the wait list at the counseling center is two to five weeks out. So something the student could recover from quickly might only get worse,” said Ben Locke, associate director of clinical services at Penn State University and the lead author of the Penn State report.“开学一个月后,一个学生准备去上课的时候恐慌发作,但心理咨询中心的候诊名单已经排到二到五周之后了。结果该学生本来很快就可以摆脱的一些阴影可能就进一步恶化了,”宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State University)临床务部的副主任,宾州州立大学报告的主要作者本·洛克(Ben Locke)说。By necessity, most centers can only offer individual therapy on a short-term basis. Ms. Preston estimates that about 80 percent of clients at U.C.F. need only limited therapy.从必要性来看,大多数心理咨询中心只提供短期的个性化治疗就可以了。普雷斯顿估计,在U.C.F.,大约80%的客户只需要接受有限的治疗。“Students are busting their butts academically, they’re financially strapped, working three jobs,” she said. “There’s nothing diagnosable, but sometimes they just need a place to express their distress.”“学生们已经被学业忙得焦头烂额,他们经济拮据,说不定要打三份工,”她说。“他们并不需要什么诊断,有时候,他们只是需要有个地方来发泄一下忧虑的情绪。”Even with 30 therapists, the center at U.C.F. must find other ways to reach more students — especially the ones who suffer, smoldering, but don’t seek help.尽管U.C.F.的心理咨询中心配有30名治疗师,但他们仍需找到其他方式来帮助更多的学生,尤其是那些正遭受着痛苦却闷在心里,不愿意寻求帮助的学生。Like many college counseling centers, U.C.F. has designed a variety of daily workshops and therapy groups that implicitly and explicitly address anxiety, depression and their triggers. Next fall the center will test a new app for treating anxiety with a seven-module cognitive behavioral program, accessible through a student’s phone and augmented with brief conferences with a therapist.像许多大学的心理咨询中心一样,U.C.F.也设置了多种日常研讨会和治疗小组,以直接或间接的方式解决焦虑、抑郁问题及其触发源。明年秋天,该中心将对一种新的拥有七个模块的认知行为疗法应用程序进行测试,学生可以通过手机获取该应用,并可与治疗师进行简短的视频谈话。It also offers semester-long, 90-minute weekly therapy groups, such as “Keeping Calm and in Control,” “Mindfulness for Depression” and “Building Social Confidence” — for students struggling with social anxiety.它还将提供持续整个学期,每周90分钟的小组治疗,例如为疲于应付社交焦虑症的学生开设的“保持冷静和自控”、“抑郁症的正念冥想治疗”和“构建社会信任”疗程等。The therapists have to be prepared to manage students who present a wide array of challenges. “You never know who is going to walk in,” said Karen Hofmann, the center’s director. “Someone going through a divorce. Mourning the death of a parent. Managing a bipolar disorder. Or they’re transgender and need a letter for hormone therapy.”治疗师必须做好准备以应对学生五花八门的问题。“你永远不知道走进咨询室将会是怎样一个人,”该中心的主任卡伦·霍夫曼(Karen Hofmann)说。“有人正在办离婚,有人沉浸在丧父/丧母的悲痛中,有人正接受躁郁症(bipolar disorder)治疗,又或者,来者是个变性人,需要你开个明以进行激素治疗。”Indeed, Dr. Locke and his colleagues at Penn State, who have tracked campus counseling centers nationwide for six years, have documented a trend that other studies have noted: Students are arriving with ever more severe mental-health issues.事实上,洛克士和他在宾夕法尼亚州立大学的同事们追踪全美的校园心理咨询中心已有六年之久,他们实了其他研究早已发现的一个趋势:前来就诊的学生的心理健康问题日益严重。Half of clients at mental health centers in their most recent report had aly had some form of counseling before college. One-third have taken psychiatric medication. One quarter have self-injured.心理健康中心的客户有一半在其最近的报告中称他们在上大学之前就已经接受过某种形式的心理辅导。有三分之一曾接受过精神科药物治疗。四分之一存在自伤行为。The fundamental goal of campus counseling centers is to help students complete their education. According to federal statistics, just 59 percent of students who matriculated at four year colleges in 2006 graduated within six years.校园心理咨询中心的根本目的在于帮助学生完成学业。根据联邦政府的统计,在2006年被四年制大学录取的学生中,在六年内毕业的只占59%。Studies have repeatedly emphasized the nexus between mental health and academic success. In a survey this year at Ohio State’s center, just over half of the student clients said that counseling was instrumental in helping them remain in school.众多研究一再强调心理健康和学业成功之间存在关联。今年在俄亥俄州立大学心理咨询中心进行的一项调查中,只有刚刚过半的学生客户认为心理辅导有助于他们避免辍学。Anxiety-ridden students list schoolwork as their chief stressor. U.C.F.’s center and after-hours hotline are busiest when midterm and final exams loom. That’s when the center runs what has become its most popular event: “Paws-a-tively Stress Free.”深受焦虑症之苦的学生们将课业列为首要的压力源。U.C.F.的心理咨询中心及其非工作时间热线都是在期中和期末考试迫近时最为繁忙。在这种时候,该中心就会开展他们最受欢迎的活动:“治疗犬减压法(Paws-a-tively Stress Free)”。The other afternoon, just before finals week, students, tired and apprehensive, trickled into the center. The majority were not clients.期末考试周前的一个下午,疲惫而惶惑的学生们陆续走进了心理咨询中心。其中大多数都不是该中心的客户。At a tent outside, their greeter was the center’s mascot and irresistible magnet: a 14-pound Havanese, a certified therapy dog whom many clients ask to hold during individual sessions, stroking his silky white coat to alleviate anxiety.等在室外帐篷处,带着不可抗拒的吸引力欢迎他们的是该中心的吉祥物——一条14磅重的哈瓦那犬。这是一条经过认的治疗犬,该中心的很多客户都要求在他们的个人疗程中跟它待在一起,抚摸着它柔滑的白色皮毛以缓解焦虑。“Bodhi!” they called, as he trotted over, welcoming them to his turf with a friendly sniff.“菩提!”学生们叫道。它一路小跑过来,友好地嗅嗅他们,欢迎他们来到它的草坪。For the next two hours, some 75 students visited the center, sitting on floors for a heavy petting session with therapy dogs.在接下来的两个小时中,约75名学生参观了中心,并坐在地板上与治疗犬们共同完成了“亲密爱抚疗程”(heavy petting session)。They laughed at the dogs’ antics and rubbed their bellies. They remarked on how nice it was to get a study break.学生们被的滑稽动作逗得捧腹大笑。他们都说能从学业中得到片刻喘息实在太美好了。On the way out, the students were handed a smoothie and a “stress kit,” which included a mandala, crayons, markers, stress balls and “Smarties” candy.在离开的路上,工作人员向学生们递上了水果冰沙和“压力工具盒”,里面放着曼荼罗绘(mandala)、色蜡笔、记号笔、压力球和“Smarties”糖什么的。Also tucked into the kit was a card with information about how to contact the center, should they ever need something more.工具盒里还塞了一张信息卡,告诉学生们如果他们需要更多的帮助,应如何与该中心取得联系。 /201506/379322 于都县医院割痔疮多少钱赣州妇女儿童医院不孕不育医院预约挂号

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