黑龙江省哈尔滨市第二人民医院网上预约挂号百姓优惠

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月21日 17:09:04
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Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼特Bringing home the bacon将培根带回家Tiny Denmark is an agricultural superpower小国丹麦是农业超级霸主EVERY weekday 20,000 pigs are delivered to the Danish Crown companys slaughterhouse in Horsens, in central Denmark.在每一个工作日里,2万只猪将被送入丹麦科王公司位于丹麦中部的霍尔森斯的屠宰场中。They trot into the stunning room, guided by workers armed with giant fly swats.他们受到持着巨型苍蝇拍的工人们驱赶,快步地跑进那令人震撼无比的房间中去。They are hung upside down, divided in two, shaved of their bristles and scalded clean.在那儿,他们被倒挂起来,一分为二,接着被刮去身上的猪鬃,再以白灼的方法清理干净。A machine cuts them into pieces, which are then cooled, boned and packed.一部机器将他们分割成块,进而冷却、去骨和包装起来。The slaughterhouse is enormous, ten football pitches long with 11km of conveyor belts.该公司的屠宰场巨大无比,约有十个足球场的长度,配有11公里长的传送带。Its managers attend to the tiniest detail.它的管理者们关注到了最微小的细节。The fly-swatting workers wear green rather than white because this puts the pigs in a better mood.由于绿色能使猪处于较好的心情,所以,驱赶猪群的工人们均着绿色装而不是白色。The cutting machine photographs a carcass before adjusting its blades to its exact contours.切割机器会事先对畜体进行摄像,再以它真实的轮廓形态去调整刀片。The company calibrates not only how to carve the flesh, but also where the various parts will fetch the highest prices: the bacon goes to Britain and the trotters to China.另外,公司调整的不仅仅是对肉的处理方法,同时也对应调整了不同的部分所能卖出的最高价格销售之地:培根运往英国,而猪蹄运往中国。Denmark is a tiny country, with 5.6m people and wallet-draining labour costs.丹麦是一个拥有560万人口,且劳动力成本极高的小国。But it is an agricultural giant, home to 30m pigs and a quiverful of global brands.但她却是一个农业大国,在拥有3000万头猪之余,世界上闻名遐迩的农业品牌也聚集于此。In 2011 farm products made up 20% of its goods exports.在2011年,其农产品出口占总出口的百分之二十。The value of food exports grew from 4 billion in 2001 to 16.1 billion in 2011.食品出口贸易由2001年的400亿欧元上升至2011年的1610亿欧元。The government expects it to rise by a further 6.7 billion by 2020.截止至2020年,丹麦政府预期将会有更进一步的670亿欧元的增长。Why, in a post-industrial economy, is the food industry still thriving?在一个后工业化的经济体里,为何食品产业仍在蓬勃发展?Much of the answer lies in a cluster in the central region of the country.大部分可从国家中央区域的产业群中找得出。Policymakers everywhere are obsessed by creating their own Silicon Valleys.不管是何处的政策制定者,都渴望于建立属于他们自己的硅谷。But Denmarks example suggests that the logic of clustering can be applied as well to ancient industries as to new ones.但丹麦的例子展现出集群效应不仅对新产业,而对传统产业来说也同样适用。In central Denmark just as in California, innovation is in the air, improving productivity is a way of life, and the whole is much greater than the sum of the parts.在丹麦中央区就像在加州一样,空气中弥漫着创新的味道,改进生产率已是一种生活方式,而整体之和远比部分之和大。Entrepreneurs see the future in meat and milk.企业家们在肉和牛奶中看到了前景。The cluster includes several big companies, which act as its leading investors: Danish Crown, Arla, Rose Poultry and DuPont Danisco.这片产业群中,包含了几个作为主要投资者的大公司:丹麦科王、爱氏晨曦、Rose Poultry、杜邦丹尼斯克。Plenty of smaller firms are also sprouting, which act as indicators of nascent trends and incubators of new ideas.与此同时,大量的小型企业也在发展起步阶段。他们不仅是行业新趋势的引路明灯,还是创新理念的萌生之处。Though the food industry, capital-intensive and tightly regulated, is rarely rich soil for entrepreneurs, in Denmark it is fertile.因为资本密集和受到严格规管的特点,食品产业往往并不是企业家们的乐土,但是,在丹麦,这一行发展的条件却截然不同。Several young companies are making information-technology tools for different bits of the business:一些新近成立的公司,正在为不同的业务发展相对应的信息科技工具。LetFarm for fields, Bovisoft for stables, AgroSoft for pigs, Webstech for grain.LetFarm对应着土地资源管理, Bovisoft对应着牛棚管理, AgroSoft对应着猪的管理, Webstech对应着谷物的处理。ISI Food Protection focuses on dealing with organisms that spoil food or sp poisoning.ISI食品保护系统专注于处理会导致食品腐坏传播毒素的微生物。InOMEGA3 specialises in food ingredients containing Omega-3 fatty acids, which are credited with various health-giving powers.InOMEGA3则专注于食品原料中包含了Omega-3脂肪酸,而这被认为与多种不同的有益健康的因素相关。Soy4you,develops alternatives to meat products.Soy4you,则发展成为了肉类产品的替代品。The cluster also has a collection of productivity-spurring institutions such as the Danish Cattle Research Centre and the Knowledge Centre for Agriculture.产业群中也有一批致力于促进生产力的机构,比如丹麦牛类研究中心和农业知识中心等等。Danish universities remain at the forefront of the agro-industry: at Danish Technical University 1,500 people work on food-related subjects.丹麦的大学仍保持了在农用工业的方面的前沿:在丹麦技术大学,有1500人研究与食品相关的学科。A tradition of public-private partnerships, which began with farmers forming co-operatives to improve production and marketing in the late 19th century, continues to flourish.在十九世纪末,从旨在通过农民组织合作来优化生产与市场销售的公私合作开始,这样的传统如今仍在持续地蓬勃发展中。An Agro Food Park near Aarhus, backed by the industry and the regional government, is nearing completion.靠近奥胡斯的一个农业食品产业园区,在行业与地方政府的持下,已接近完工。It employs 800 people aly and is expected to have 3,000 staff by 2020.目前园区内已经雇佣了800名员工,同时预计到2020年为止将拥有3000名员工。The Cattle Research Centre, for example, demonstrates that there are dozens of ways to boost bovine productivity.例如,牛类研究中心表明他们有许多方法来提高牛的生产力。Robots can do everything from milking cows to keeping them washed and brushed to mucking out their living quarters.机器人可以做到从挤牛奶、让奶牛们保持清洁到将粪便清理出他们的生活区。The milking robot can also act as a lab in the farm by analysing the milk for signs of health problems.挤奶机器人也可以作为一个位于农场的实验室,即通过分析牛奶的成分,进而作为健康问题的反映。Microchips can keep an eye on cows behaviour. Carefully screened Viking semen can improve the quality of the stock.微芯片能够保持着对牛只行为的监控。仔细筛选过的维京可以提高牛类血统的质量。The word on everyones lips is innovation.挂在每个人嘴边的词都是创新。Big companies are building centres to develop new products.大公司正在建立新的中心以开发新的产品。Arla is spending 36m on one in the Agro Food Park.爱氏晨曦花费了3600万欧元在它位于农业食品产业园区的中心。DuPonts centre in Aarhus is part of a global network with branches in America, Australia and China.杜邦公司在奥胡斯的中心则是它囊括着美国、澳洲、中国分的全球网络的一部分。They are also abandoning their insular ways, collaborating with startups and sponsoring food festivals and star chefs.他们也放弃了原本狭隘的方式,开始与初创的新公司合作,以及赞助美食节和明星厨师。Universities are adding departments: Aarhus now has a centre devoted to consumer behaviour in regard to food and DTU is focusing on bio-silicon—applying IT to food.大学们正在增加各项部门:奥胡斯的一个研发中心致力于研究关于食品方面的消费者行为;而DTU专注于生物硅---一项将IT技术应用于食物产业的尝试。Land of milk and honey-roast ham牛奶与火腿之地If all this spending on innovation is to pay off and Denmarks food industry is to continue to thrive, the countrys farmers will have to overcome formidable challenges at home and abroad.为了确保投入到创新研发中的一切花费都有所回报,同样地,为了确保丹麦的食品产业能够持续繁荣,当地的农民们必须克来自国内来的巨大挑战。Among the Danish public, distaste for factory farming is increasing. Borgen, a popular television political drama, devoted an entire episode to criticising pig farming.在国内,一股对工厂化农耕的厌恶正在持续升温。Demand is shifting from the European Union, which consumes more than 60% of Denmarks food exports, to emerging countries, some of which are becoming agricultural powers in their own right.一档十分受欢迎的政治类电视剧《权利的堡垒》,曾用了整整一集来批判养猪业。而国外的需求正从占食品出口交易量达60%的欧盟向新兴国家转移。在这些新兴国家中,有一部正凭借自身的实力发展成农业强国。Growing pressure on natural resources such as water and feedstock could render some of the industry unsustainable.像水源和种子库存短缺等等的资源问题,令行业压力持续增加,并可能致使产业中部分环节难以为继。Against that, food is a growing industry: demand is set to rise by 60% by 2030, and Denmarks food cluster is as well placed as any to benefit.虽然如此,食品产业仍拥有良好的发展前景:到2030年为止,需求将增长60%;丹麦的食品产业群会处于优势地位,进而盈利。Its companies have lots of expertise in food safety, for example: China has identified Denmark as a model.食品公司们有很多食品安全方面的专业技术,比如,中国目前已确定了将丹麦作为其模板来发展。Danish firms are thriving at the high as well as the low end of the business:丹麦的公司们正在积极发展着从高到低的各项业务:Noma, a celebrated restaurant in Copenhagen, has helped to create a cult of Nordic food, including pigs tails, supplied by Danish Crown.一家位于哥本哈根的著名餐馆Noma,帮助创作完成了一批北欧风味的食物,包括由丹麦科王公司提供的猪尾巴。Above all, perhaps, Danes are remarkably hard-headed about making money out of blood and soil: the Danish Crown slaughterhouse organises regular tours for visitors, including schoolchildren, with views of the killing line.总而言之,或许,丹麦人对于从鲜血与土壤中赚钱表现得异常冷静:丹麦科王公司的屠宰场会定期组织游客团对他们的屠宰生产线进行参观,而游客中还包括学生。 201401/272298Even without the guidance of organized religion, some animals instinctively know that its a good thing to help others.即使没有类似人类宗教的指引,有些动物仍能本能地救助处于危难中的其它动物。For example, when a bird spots a predator, instead of just flying away, it calls out in alarm and warns everyone in the vicinity.比如,一只小鸟发现了捕食者,它就会发出叫声以警示和提醒附近其它的小动物们。When a dolphin is injured, other dolphins help it swim up to the surface and get some air.如果一只海豚受伤了,那么其他海豚也会帮助它一直游到岸边以呼吸新鲜空气。And in a lab experiment that was set up so that one rat had to sit on a platform or else his rat friends would get an electrical shock when they tried to feed, the rats quickly learned to cooperate and take turns sitting on the platform.在类似试验中,一只老鼠必须要坐在一个平台上以防止它的朋友们试图进食时被电击,很快老鼠们就学会了如何协作,它们轮流坐在平台上以防止同伴被电击。You might think that evolution would work against this kind of altruism since, instead of concentrating on their own survival, animals spend time and energy helping others.因为这些动物们不仅仅只关心自己的生命,也会花费时间与精力去帮助其他动物。所以,你可能会认为进化过程会有悖于这种利他主义。But evolutionists suggest that when animals help animals who are their genetic relatives, or who are likely to return the favor later on, they are actually helping their species to survive the process of natural selection.但进化论者认为,当动物们在帮助那些遗传亲属,或可能会在稍后回报其所提供的这种帮助时,它们实际上是在帮助它们的种群能够在自然选择的过程中存活下来。Some animals will even sacrifice their own lives to insure the survival of the larger group. The worker honeybee, for example, will die defending her hive if necessary.某些动物甚至会牺牲自己的生命以保全更大种群的存活。比如说工蜂,在保护蜂巢的过程中就会不惜牺牲生命。Even acts that seem selfish may end up helping the group in the long run. For instance, when there isnt enough food to go around, wasps and termites will cannibalize their nest-mates. Gruesome as this may seem, it insures the colonys survival through tough times.甚至,某些看上去貌似自私的行为实际长远看来也有助于种群存活。比如说,当附近没有足够的食物时,黄蜂和白蚁就会对它们同族的伙伴进行蚕食。也许听上去很可怕,但实际上这保了艰难时期种群的存活。Although here at A Moment of Science, we dont condone human cannibalism, we still hope that these examples of altruism in animals will give you some food for thought.我们《科学一刻》栏目虽然不能宽恕人类自相残杀的行为,但我们希望,这些存在于动物之间的利他主义将会带给大家一些发人深省的思想。 /201308/253096

Even if youre not an astronomy buff, chances are you caneasily recognize certain constellations and stars such as the Big Dipper, Orions Belt and the North Star.即使你不是一名天文学发烧友,你也能轻易地辨认出某些星座,比如,北斗七星,猎户座的腰带,还有北极星。The North Star is the brightest star in the constellation known as the Little Dipper.北极星是小熊座中最明亮的一颗星。It is so-called because of the special position it occupies relative to Earths axis.它的名字源于它所处的特殊位置,这个位置与地轴有关。If you were to stay up all night gazing at the stars, youd slowly see them revolve around a point in the sky known as the North Celestial Pole.如果你熬夜盯着满天繁星看,会慢慢发现它们都绕着天上的一个点旋转,这个点就是北天极。You would notice, however, that one star remains stationary.这时,你会注意到有一颗星星一动不动,它就是北极星。This is the North Star, so named forits location almost directly in line with the North Celestial Pole.北极星因自身位置几乎与北天极重合而得名。Due to its consistent position in the sky, at one time sailors used the North Star as a navigational tool.由于北极星在天上的位置永远不变,所以曾经一度,水手们将北极星作为导航工具。By measuring the angle between the northern horizon and the North Star, a navigator could accurately determine the ships latitude.通过测量北方地平线与北极星之间的角度,导航员能确定船只所处的纬度。But latitude, or the imaginary lines stretching across the globe parallel to the equator, was notenough to pinpoint a ships location.但纬度,或者,想象中与赤道平行环绕地球的那条线,不足以确定船只的位置。Knowing latitude only allowed navigators to locate themselveson a particular latitude line at a particular distance from the equator.知道纬度,导航员也只能确定自己在哪条纬线上,距赤道有多远。It was only with the inventionof a way to accurately measure longitude that precise navigation became possible.只有发明出测量经度的方法,进行准确的导航才会成为可能。Although the North Star is no longer used by navigators, it remains a heavenly icon of humancuriosity and exploration.尽管如今导航员已不靠北极星来导航。但它代表着人类永恒的探索与开创精神,将永远在天空中绽放光芒。201407/316289

  Maybe when people get older, sense of a humor is the first thing to go.也许,人年纪越大,越是幽默感至上。Actually, research suggests that old folks, if theyre healthy, canstill appreciate humor as much as a younger person can.事实上,研究 表明,和年轻人一样,健康的老人们仍然欣赏幽默。They still smile and laugh when they get the joke.有人开玩笑依旧会面带微笑或大笑。However, there isevidence to suggest that with age we may lose our ability to comprehend more complex forms of humor.但是,研究也实随着年龄的增长,我们无法理解比较复杂形势的幽默。Scientists believe that the tools we need to get a complex joke are primarily located in the brains frontal lobes.科学家相信,理解复杂玩笑主要靠的是脑前叶的功能。People with damage to their right frontal lobe experience difficulty getting punchlines and prefer slapstick humor instead.脑前叶右部受损会造成笑话中妙语的困扰,而这类人也更倾向于浅显幽默。Theres also evidence that the functions located in the brains frontal lobes may be the first to diminish with aging.有明显示,脑前叶功能会随着年老而最先退化。This may explain why in a recent experiment older folks performed significantly worse than younger folks in comprehending more complex forms of humor.这也解释了最近的实验中,年长者们在理解更复杂幽默上明显不如年轻人。Of course, its also important to take into account such factors as social differences in the kind of humor people prefer, social setting, and health.当然,综合考虑其他因素也很重要:比如社会差异影响个体的幽默倾向、社会背景、健康状况。Maybe an elderly person would laugh at a joke if she were socializing with a group of her friends,也许,和朋友相处的一个老人会因为玩笑而大笑;but not laugh with her neighbor whom she doesnt know well or finds annoying.但是,和不熟悉或恼人的邻里就不会大笑。 201406/305809

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  GE and Alstom通用电气和阿尔斯通Soft power软实力How to open doors and influence people in France如何打开法国的大门并进一步影响法国人Indispensable for Immelt对伊梅尔特不可或缺THERE is a lull before the renewed storm in the battle for Alstom, a French group whose turbines power generators around the world and whose high-speed trains sprint across the countryside. Too small to compete in a tough global market, Alstom had all but agreed to sell its energy operations to General Electric, an American conglomerate with complementary interests. Fearing a loss of jobs, Frances government encouraged Siemens, a German firm, to take a different tack, offering to swap its transport activities for Alstoms energy operations and turning the rivals into a pair of European champions. Siemens says it may see its way to making a firm offer by June 16th. Meanwhile GE is in and out of the Elysee palace, chatting with President Franois Hollande and his aides, improving its offer in the light of their concerns and, it seems, winning supporters.这是阿尔斯通争夺战的风暴卷土重来前的宁静。阿尔斯通作为一家法国集团,它的涡轮机组为全球的发电机提供电力,而它生产的高铁也疾驰在乡间。在残酷的全球市场下太过于微不足道,阿尔斯通除了把它的能源运营部分出售给美国综合性集团通用电气之外别无选择。担心失业,法国政府鼓励德国企业西门子采取一项不同的措施—提出用西门子的交通活动来交换阿尔斯通的能源经营部分以此将对手分成一对欧洲的盟友。西门子称其会在6月16号根据具体情况发出实盘。同时通用电气也在积极与爱丽舍宫方面联系,通过与法国总统奥朗德以及其助手沟通,根据他们关心的方面进行发盘的改进,这好像是在赢取持者。All this says something about how France operates and how foreign firms must adapt to it. Political support for the acquisition is important, for Alstom is seen as one of Frances industrial crown jewels. Even if the government hesitates to invoke the powers it conferred on itself in May to block such a deal in defence of its strategic interests, the public sector is still Alstoms main customer in France. So communication and building trust are vital.这些都反映了法国是如何运作的并且国外企业必须适应这样的情况。收购的政治持是非常重要的,因为阿尔斯通被视作法国工业桂冠上的明珠之一。即使政府犹豫五月份调用它的自己授予的能量阻止交易以保护它的战略性利益,在法国国营部门经济仍然是阿尔斯通的主要客户。因此沟通和信任的构建是至关重要的。GE understands the importance of soft power. It should: it has been in France for more than 40 years, and its joint venture with Frances Safran making jet engines has worked smoothly for almost as long.通用电气理解软实力的重要性。它应该了解:它已经在法国经营了超过40年,它和法国的赛峰集团的联合风投使得飞机引擎产业平稳运行了很多年。Accompanying Jeffrey Immelt, GEs boss, on his rounds in Paris is Clara Gaymard, an author and mother of nine with a quick wit, several languages and the fattest address book in town. The president of GE in France since 2006, she does not make big operational decisions. But as ambassador for the firm she is important, for she brings to the job her membership of three networks.在其巴黎行程中陪伴着通用电气老总杰弗瑞·伊梅尔特的是克拉拉·盖马尔,她是一名作者同时也是九岁孩子的母亲,有急智、掌握多门语言、并且十分了解当地情况。自06年起担任法国通用总裁,她并没有做大的运营决定。但是作为这家公司的大使,她是很重要的,因为她为这项工作带来她的三个关系网络。The first is that bedrock of the French meritocratic establishment, the Ecole Nationale dAdministration. It churns out presidents and prime ministers along with company bosses and senior public administrators, and they are only a telephone call away from each other. Mrs Gaymard married a fellow enarque, who was briefly economy minister under Jacques Chirac until a housing scandal felled him. Mrs Gaymards career has included a prestigious job at the Cour des Comptes, the national auditors office, followed by a series of senior administrative posts.第一个是法国精英建立的基石—国家行政学院。该校培养出了总统、总理还有公司老总以及高级公共行政人员。他们之间经常能互相联系。盖马尔女士曾经嫁给一位国家行政学院的成员,他曾经短暂担任雅克·希拉克时期的财政部长直到因为房地产丑闻下台。盖马尔女士曾在法国审计署、国家审计办公室担任要职,有一系列高级行政职位。Mrs Gaymards three years at the head of the Invest in France agency produced her second network, consisting of many of the worlds top businessmen. From 2003 to 2006 she travelled the globe, often in the company of the heads of big French companies, trying to sell the likes of Warren Buffett and Apples Steve Jobs on France as an investment destination.盖马尔女士在法国政府投资部担任领导3年的经历带来了她的第二个关系网络,连接着世界上许多的顶尖商人。从2003年到2006年,她全球旅行,经常有法国大公司的领导同行,她试图劝说沃伦·巴菲特和苹果的乔布斯这类人将法国作为投资地Her third network includes some of the relatively few women who are powerful in French business. Mrs Gaymard is a leading light in the Womens Forum at Deauville, an annual gathering often called “Davos for women”. So are Christine Lagarde, currently head of the International Monetary Fund, Laurence Parisot, recently retired as head of Medef, the employers lobby, and others. The old girls network is not as strong as the bond amongenarques but there is, as an observer puts it, “respect, and a certain solidarity”.她的第三个网络包括一些法国商界相对较少的女强人。盖马尔女士是多维尔女性论坛的领袖性人物,该年度聚会也被称为“女性达沃斯”。 现任国际货币基金组织总裁克里斯蒂娜·拉加德、最近退休的雇主游说团体法国雇主协会会长劳伦斯·派瑞索女士以及其他的都是这个组织的成员。这些老女孩的网络并不像国家行政学院那样的坚实,就像一个观察员所说的,“尊重,以及一定的稳固性”。What does all this add up to in practice? GE does not always get what it wants: in , for example, it lost an attempt to take over state-owned Arevas power-transmission and distribution business to home-grown Schneider Electric and Alstom. And Mrs Gaymard is not GEs only emissary in its bid to win approval to buy Alstom.这些全部运用到实践中怎么样呢?通用并不是总能得到它想要的:例如年,它输给了本土的施耐德电气以及阿尔斯通,失去了接管国有的阿海珐输电和配电业务的机会。并且盖马尔女士并不是通用投标购买阿尔斯通许可行动中的唯一特使。Yet she may, with her insiders knowledge of how to play the game, have earned GE a slightly more sympathetic hearing in the corridors of power. While Alstom stayed mum about the talks until the news broke in April, incurring ministerial ire, Mrs Gaymard tipped off the government in February that GE was interested, a gesture that was later appreciated. Although GEs chances look good, its bid may still fail. If it does, it will not be because the firm lacked the opportunity to make its case.但是她可能已经用她对于如何进行操作内情的熟悉,帮助通用在高层赢得了一些的同情的声音。但是阿尔斯通知道媒体四月份曝光之前始终保持沉默,招致了内阁的愤怒,盖马尔女士安抚政府称通用对于这个项目有兴趣,这是一个在后来被赞扬的信号。尽管通用电气看起来机会不错,它的投标仍然可能失败。如果失败了,这不会是因为企业缺少机会导致的。 /201406/305807

  NO NO No,we cant manufacture enough ozone to replenish the ozone hole.没门。没门?没错,我们无法生产臭氧来取代臭氧层空洞。No, why not?为什么不行?Several reasons prevent us from doing this.我们无能为力,原因诸多。For one thing, ozone in large quantities is extremely hazardous and volatile, which makes it hard to work with, to say the least.要知道,大量的臭氧是有害且易挥发的。因此,至少不便于我们运作。Also, the ozone layer is immense-theres roughly twenty billion tons of it-and wed have no way of handling such large quantities.此外,臭氧层是密集的,大约有200亿吨,我们无法操作如此庞大的臭氧。Plus, the ozone layer requires a huge amount of energy to maintain itself, which right now it gets from the sun.再者,维护稳定的臭氧层需要不少能量,而这些目前来自太阳能。Taking over natural ozone production would require more than double the energy the ed States produces annually.要接手生产天然臭氧层需要的能源是美国每年生产的两倍以上。Thats a lot of rolling blackouts.这有可能会引发灯火管制。And that’s why the only way we know to fight ozone depletion is by cleaning up our act and giving nature the chance to take its course.这就是我们保护臭氧层消失的唯一可行办法是从我们自己做起,爱护环境,顺其自然。201311/266623

  

  Sit on a swing, let someone push you, and away you go.坐上秋千,身后一人使劲一推,你便飞了出去,翱翔半空。But what happens if the person who pushed you walks away, and you want to swing faster and higher.但要是再身后推你的人走开了,而你仍想秋千荡得更高更快,那该如何?If youve ever been in the second grade, you know the solution to that.这个问题,只要你上了二年级,就知道该怎么做。Just startpumping your legs-stretching them forward then drawing them up underneath you-and youcan make yourself swing higher.首先用以摇晃双腿,再向前伸展开来,最后将腿滑向身体之下,秋千就能荡得更高。Have you ever wondered why this is?但你是否想过这是什么原理?Swings work by converting potential energy into kinetic energy, then kinetic energy back intopotential energy, over and over again.秋千的工作原理是将势能转化为动能,然后又将动能再转化为势能,一遍遍的重复这个过程。The kinetic energy is the fast part of swinging; its the speed you have as you rush back and forth.动能是秋千快的一部分能量,表现为来回运动时的速度。Potential energy is the high part of swinging.势能存在于秋千荡的的高度之中。The higher you go on the swing, the more potential energy you have.秋千荡得越高,所获得的势能也就越大。Even though youre not moving at the very top of each swing, you can think of your height asyour potential for speed.即使在秋千的顶点你并没有运动,但你仍然可以将你的高度认为是潜在的速度。A physicist would say that your kinetic energy-that is, your speed-is“stored” as potential energy at the top of each swing.物理学家会告诉你,动能,也就是速度,储存在每次摆动顶端的势能里。More height is more speed, just waiting to happen.这就意味着,荡得越高,速度也就越快。You can increase the energy of your swing in two separate ways.以下两种方式都可以增加摇摆的能量。If someone pushes you, that increases your kinetic energy.要是有人在身后推你,那将增加动能。By pumping your legs, you can increase your potential energy.摇晃双腿的方式,增加的是势能。By raising your legs at the top ofeach swing, you can raise the overall center of mass of your body, effectively raising the height ofyour swing.当双腿达到每次摇摆的顶部,身体重心也提高,这就有效的提升了秋千高度。Pump after pump, the energy you burn in your legs increases your swings potential energy.不断的摇晃,双腿产生的能量将增加势能。That extra height will add up, giving you a wilder swing ride.由此,秋千会荡得更高,更精。 201407/311127。

  

  Finance and economics财经商业Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac房利美与房地美Deconstruction delays关闭计划或搁浅A flawed reform of Americas housing-finance market存在缺陷的美国房屋金融市场改革A RARE area of agreement about the financial crisis of 2008 is that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were at the core of the meltdown and are in urgent need of reform.关于2008年金融危机,几个少有的一致观点中就包括:房利美和房地美是这次灾难的主要原因,亟需整改。On March 16th the leading Republican and Democratic members of thekey Senate Banking Committee belatedly released a plan,在3月16日,参议院委员会中几位主要的共和党和民主党议员发布了一份迟来的计划,for restructuring the two publicly traded mortgage giants.内容是整改这两家公开交易的抵押贷款巨头。The plan has received widesp attention in part because it appears to address the most evident problems of Fannie and Freddie,这份计划受到广泛关注的原因部分在于它或将解决两房最为显著的问题,and because it is deemed likely to be approved by Congress.部分则是普遍认为这份计划会在国会通过。Yet neither of these assumptions, on deeper examination, seems to be true.然而仔细一想,这两个假设似乎都很难实现。To satisfy those who want low-priced mortgages on terms that private markets would never endorse,那些需要私有资本市场不会批准的低成本抵押贷款的民众应感到满足,the plan makes explicit the government guarantee on debt which had been implicit for Fannie and Freddie.因为这份计划明确表示政府将会对这些债务做出担保,而这曾是两房的潜在规则。This would lower the interest rate on high-risk loans, while obscuring the cost of the subsidy.这一规定将降低高风险贷款的利率,同时使补贴成本难以计算。To placate those who worry that this in turn would leave the government stuck with mountains of dud loans,那些担心政府会因此接受大量不良贷款的人也不必紧张,a 10% capital cushion must be provided by investors to absorb initial losses.因为计划规定投资者们需要提供10%的资本缓冲来承担首次损失。A fee of 0.1% would be charged on all mortgage-backed bonds, with the proceeds going to three funds, two pre-existing, that will provide subsidies for housing.所有抵押保债券将会收取0.1%的费用,这笔收费将交由三家提供房屋补贴的基金,其中两家已经存在。An as-yet undetermined insurance charge will be levied on top.另外还要征收一项保险费,其数额尚未确定。The result, said Mike Crapo, the ranking Republican senator on the committee, would be a strong step forward to fixing our flawed housing system.委员会中的资深资深共和党参议员Mike Crapo认为,这个结果将是改善我们充满缺点的住房体系的重要进步。If only, say critics, who include investors and both friends and foes of Fannie and Freddie.批评者,包括投资者以及两房的敌友机构认为,哪怕计划得以通过,也会带来很多问题。The first objection is that the law would create an unwieldy bureaucracy,第一个障碍就是该法规将催生一个运作迟缓的官僚体系,with a regulator atop other entities devoted to overseeing functions such assyndicating loans or bundling the loans of small banks.用一个监管机构来监督实体机构行使某些职能,比如银团贷款和捆绑小型的贷款。When the plan was announced, the price of shares in Fannie and Freddie, which account for about two-thirds of the mortgage market, did not budge at first.当这个计划被宣布时,拥有抵押贷款市场三分之二份额的房利美和房地美的股价并没有立刻发生变化。Then they tanked—presumably because investors reached page 387 of the 442-page text,之后却狂跌不止,或许是因为投资者终于把442页的文本翻到了387页,and found enshrined in legislation an earlier 2012 order by the Treasury that expropriated from private investors all profits made by Fannie and Freddie.发现了法律中深藏的一项财政部于2012年下达的命令:没收私人投资者从两房获得的利润。The move is unlikely to help attract the private money needed to supply the 10% in equity underpinning bonds issued under the new plan.这个命令可不会帮助吸引私人资本为新计划将发行的用以持股票的债券提供10%的资金。Opponents of Fannie and Freddie contend that the two played a key role in the crisis,两房的竞争对手们认为,这两家利用好听的经济适用房的授权,by encouraging the issuance of loans with tiny downpayments through a benign-sounding affordable housing mandate.鼓励发行首付极低的住房贷款,从而对金融危机负有很大责任。Nothing much has changed. Under the new plan, downpayments of as little as 3.5% of the loan value would be permitted.但在这方面却没有太大改变。新计划中,首付款可低至贷款的3.5%。Strewn through the proposed law are words such as affordable, equal access and underserved communities,该项被提议的法规中充斥着经济适用,同样途径和弱势群体这类词语,which suggest that lending decisions will be based on political rather than credit criteria.表明关于贷款的决定将取决于政治因素而不是信用标准。The result, says Edward Pinto of the American Enterprise Institute, a think-tank, will be risky lending for those least able to cope.智囊团美国企业协会的Edward Pinto表示,贷款给无法偿还者非常危险。The underlying problem with the new plan is that, like Fannie and Freddie before it, it tries to reconcile two conflicting goals:新计划的潜在问题和这份计划之前两房的行为一样,想要同时完成两个相冲突的目标:protecting the financial system and providing low-cost housing loans to favoured groups. A better approach would be to handle these goals separately and explicitly.即保护金融体系,又想为特殊群体提供低花费的房屋贷款。将两个目前独立而明确地处理会是一个更好的方式。 /201403/282299

  

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