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2020年01月28日 00:36:33 | 作者:知道互动 | 来源:新华社
A:Ok, breathe!...Hold...Push! Push!A:好,屏住呼吸,推~~~A:Waaaaahh...A:啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊~~A: Sand have mommies?A:有砂砾妈妈?A:Yea! It’s a grain!A:太好了,是晶砾。teacher:Jonny has a Mother’s Day poem for us.老师:c有准备母亲节的诗吗?C:Mary had a little lamb,its fleece was white as snow.C:玛丽有只小羊羔,它的羊毛白的像雪。C:With silver bells and cockle shells.C:银铃铛和海扇壳。C:And maidens in a row.C:那里站着一排少女teacher: Johnny.老师:c!C:Yes,teacher?C:老师?teacher: I think you’ve got two poems mixed up there.老师:我认为你把两首诗弄混了C:I’m sorry,I was thinking of Mary as the mother of Jesus-the lamb of god-and...C:对不起,我想到了玛丽作为神的羔羊的母亲…teacher:You may sit down,Johnny.老师:你坐下吧。C:...And the maidens as Ruth and Esther and Rahab and Elizabeth and...C:和鲁思和埃丝特和少女,喇合和伊丽莎白…teacher:That will do...Please sit down!老师:好了,请坐。teacher:Nice going,kid,you’ve managed to tick off the ACLU.老师:很好,孩子,你可以去管理美国公民自由协会。 /201505/375858An expert group recommended on Tuesday that the Food and Drug Administration approve a powerful new drug to protect against heart attacks. If approved, it would be the first in a major new class of medicines in a generation that significantly lower levels of cholesterol, the leading cause of heart disease.周二,一批专家建议美国食品与药品(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)批准一种预防心肌梗死的强效新药。如果获得批准,该药物将成为一个新的重要药物类别中,最近二三十年获批的首例药物。此类药物能大幅降低胆固醇水平,而胆固醇是心脏病的主要诱因。Dr. Joshua W. Knowles, a Stanford cardiologist, called the medicines “a triumph of the modern genetic revolution.”斯坦福大学(Stanford)的心脏病学专家约书亚·W·诺尔斯(Joshua W. Knowles)士称,这些药物是“现代基因革命的一次胜利”。The idea for such drugs arose from genetic studies about a decade ago and has tantalized cardiologists ever since. Early results of clinical trials raised hopes that the therapies would be critical new additions to the treatment arsenal for those at risk of heart disease, the biggest killer of Americans.研制这类药物的想法来自于约10年前的基因研究成果,此后一直令心脏病学专家可望而不可即。初步的临床试验结果带来了希望,这些疗法可能为心脏病高危人群的治疗方法提供新的重要补充。心脏病是美国人的头号杀手。People who have taken them have seen their LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad cholesterol, plunge to remarkably low levels. But definitive evidence of the drugs’ effectiveness in reducing heart attacks and deaths will only come after large clinical trials are completed in 2017.用这些药物的人已经发现体内的低密度脂蛋白(LDL)胆固醇显著下降,LDL胆固醇也就是所谓的“坏胆固醇”。不过,这种药物降低心梗和死亡风险的确凿据,要到2017年大规模临床试验完成后才可能出现。The panel, in a 13 to 3 vote, recommended the approval of Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals’ drug, alirocumab. On Wednesday, the committee will turn to Amgen’s drug, evolocumab. The F.D.A. usually follows the recommendations of its advisory panels, but not always. The agency says that if it approves the drugs based on their effects on cholesterol, the approval will not be rescinded even if trials now underway fail to show the drugs reduce the risk of heart attacks and deaths.这个专家委员会以13比3的投票结果,建议批准赛诺菲(Sanofi)和瑞泽恩制药公司(Regeneron Pharmaceuticals)的药物alirocumab。周三,这个委员会将开始评估美国安进公司(Amgen)的药物evolocumab。FDA通常会听取咨询委员会的建议,但也并非总是如此。该机构表示,如果根据它们降低胆固醇的效果而批准了这些药物,那么即使目前进行的试验无法明它们能降低心脏病和死亡风险,批准的决定也不会被撤销。Once a drug is approved doctors can prescribe it to patients other than those for whom it was intended, although insurers generally will not pay.一旦某种药物获得批准,医生就可以向该药物目标人群之外的其他患者开出该药物的处方,不过保险公司一般不会买单。The drugs are injected every two weeks or once a month, depending on the formulation. The companies are asking that they be approved for use in three groups: patients with high levels of LDL cholesterol who cannot lower it enough with statins, the mainstay drug for cholesterol lowering first introduced in the late 1980s; people at very high risk because they have aly had a heart attack or have diabetes and cannot get their levels low enough with statins; and people with high levels of LDL who cannot tolerate statins. Doctors often aim for LDL levels of 70 for people at high risk.这种药物需要每两周或每个月注射一次,取决于具体的处方。这些企业正在要求批准三种人使用该药物:LDL胆固醇水平较高、且用他汀类药物(主流的降胆固醇药物,上世纪80年代末推出)无法充分降低其水平的患者;已经患有心梗或糖尿病、且无法用他汀类药物充分降低胆固醇水平的高危人群;LDL胆固醇水平较高且无法耐受他汀类药物的的人群。医生通常认为,LDL胆固醇水平达到70即为高危人群。The problem for the expert group was to decide if there was enough evidence to approve the Sanofi drug without waiting for results from the large clinical trials. Those who voted no said drugs should not be approved until clinical trials establish their efficacy, and voiced the worry that people participating in the trials would drop out once the drugs were approved so they could be sure to get the medicine, not a placebo.专家组面临的问题是,在不等待大型临床试验的结果的情况下,判断目前是否有足够的据持批准赛诺菲(Sanofi)。投反对票的人认为,除非临床试验实了其功效,否则任何药物都不应该被批准。他们还表达了这样的担忧,即一旦药物被批准,参加临床试验的人们就会退出试验,因为这样他们就能够确保自己用的是药物本身,而不是安慰剂。“We need clinical outcomes,” said Dr. Peter Wilson of Emory University.“我们需要临床结果,”埃默里大学(Emory University)的皮特·威尔森(Peter Wilson)士说。Some on the panel felt comfortable recommending approval only for a narrow group of people with a genetic condition, heterozygousfamilial hypercholesterolemia, who cannot control their cholesterol with statins alone. Others favored allowing use of the drug by the much larger group of people at high risk of heart disease for whom statins are insufficient.委员会的一些成员认为,只可以批准存在基因缺陷的一小批患者用这些药物,即杂合子型家族性高胆固醇血症患者。这类人无法单独依靠他汀类药物控制胆固醇。还有一些成员持把药物的适用范围扩大到一个大得多的群体,即他汀类药物已经无法满足其需求的心脏病高危人群。The group’s chairman, Dr. Robert J. Smith of Brown University, argued for broader availability of the drugs. He said he sees patients in his own practice with out of control cholesterol who are at very high risk because, for example, they have aly had a heart attack. Two years is a long time for them to wait for clinical trial findings. “I am unwilling to subject patients to that wait,” Dr. Smith said.委员会主席、布朗大学(Brown University)的罗伯特·J·史密斯(Robert J. Smith)士呼吁在更大范围内提供这种药物。他说,自己在行医过程中看到,一些胆固醇水平失控的患者处境十分危险,原因是他们可能已经患过心梗。为了临床试验结果再等待两年对他们来说太漫长了。“我不愿意让病人就这么等着,”史密斯士说。The companies and many independent cardiologists say they have reason to believe the drugs will perform as expected. Lowering LDL cholesterol has generally been found to protect against heart disease. And, they say, the drugs were designed to mimic mutations in a gene, PCSK9, that protects people from getting heart disease, even if they smoke or have high blood pressure.这些企业和许多独立心脏病学专家称,他们有理由相信这些药物会产生预期的效果。降低LDL胆固醇被普遍认为能预防心脏病。此外,他们还说,这些药物模仿了PCSK9基因突变,这种基因能防止人们罹患心脏病,哪怕他们吸烟或有高血压。But the drugs have caused trepidation among insurers and others who would have to pay the bills because the drugs are certain to be expensive — perhaps ,000 a year — and millions of people are likely to qualify to take them if they are approved for the broader group. Sanofi estimates that 11 million Americans might qualify. Amgen puts the number at eight million.不过,这些药物已经引发了一些恐慌,比如必须为它们买单的保险公司和其他人,以及该药物获准适用于更大群体的话,上百万名可能有资格用这些药物的患者。因为这些药物注定昂贵,也许每年要花1万美元。赛诺菲估计,可能有1100万美国人有资格接受该药物。安进公司认为这个数字是800万。So far, it looks like just about everyone who takes the new drugs responds. LDL cholesterol levels plunge by 40 to 65 percent, even if the starting level was achieved with a statin.迄今为止,似乎每一名使用了新药的患者都见到了疗效。LDL胆固醇水平下降了40%到65%,即使他们之前一直在用他汀类药物来控制胆固醇。Safety studies so far have found the drugs seem to have no more side effects than a placebo but the large clinical trials are needed to get more substantial information.目前的安全性研究表明,这些药物的副作用似乎和安慰剂差不多,不过,在大型的临床实验之后才能获得更多实质性的信息。Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies see the tantalizing prospect of multibillion dollar blockbuster drugs, and are racing to get them to market as rapidly as possible. Sanofi bought an F.D.A.-backed voucher for .5 million that gave them an expedited review. The company says the F.D.A. agreed to decide whether to approve their drug by July 24. Amgen, which did not pay, expects an answer by Aug. 27, the company says. Pfizer also has a drug in this new class but it is further behind in development.与此同时,制药公司已经看到了价值数十亿美元的重磅药物的诱人前景,它们正在竞相以最快的速度将其投放市场。赛诺菲以6750万美元的价格购买了FDA的批文,可以获得快速审核。该公司表示,FDA同意在7月24日之前做出是否批准该药物的决定。安进公司没有花这笔钱,该公司表示,预计将在8月27日之前得到。辉瑞公司(Pfizer)也有一款这种类型的药物,但研发进度要更慢。Then there is the question of cost. The new drugs, like many new cancer drugs, are monoclonal antibodies, produced from living cells at great expense. The companies will not say what they plan to charge. But Dr. William Shrank, chief scientific officer at CVS Health, estimates they will cost ,000 to ,000 a year.还有成本的问题。这些新药就像许多新型抗癌药物一样,是单克隆抗体,它们是以高昂的成本用活体细胞制造的。这些公司不愿透露药品未来的定价。但CVS健康公司(CVS Health)的首席科学官威廉·史兰克(William Shrank)估计,用这种药物一年将需要7000至1.2万美元。If drugs were restricted to those with dangerously high cholesterol levels who cannot get their LDL low enough with statins, the cost would be billion, he estimated. If people who are intolerant to statins are included, that would add another billion. If people with a history of heart disease are included, the bill for the drugs rises another 0 billion.他估计,如果药物仅限于那些胆固醇水平过高且无法利用他汀类药物降低胆固醇水平的人,总成本将达到160亿美元。如果包括无法耐受他汀类药物的人,成本将增加200亿美元。算上有心脏病史的人,成本将再升高1500亿美元。“Managed pharmacy care, indeed the health care system, has never seen a challenge like this to our resilience in absorbing costs,” Dr. Shrank wrote in Health Affairs.史兰克在健康事务(Health Affairs)网站上写道:“保健药学管理体系吸收成本的能力,实际上整个卫生体系吸收成本的能力,都没有遇到过这样的严峻挑战。” /201506/380294A:What do you have there?A:你在那做什么呢?B: A hissy!B:吵死了。A: Can you remember what you did on every hole you played?A:你能记住你每一次打的位置?B:Absolutely.B:当然。A:That’s truly amazing.What did you do...say,on number five?A:O太疯狂了,那第五颗球的位置?B: Number five?B:第五个?B: I hooked it into the pond.B:池塘边。B:On number six, I shanked my third shot into the galleryand cold-cooked some little old lady. On number seven, I overshot the dogleg and wound up in the beer tent.B:第六杆,打晕了一个小老太太。第七杆我用尽全力超过了啤酒棚。A: Let’s skip to number 15. What did you do there?A:中间跳过,第十五杆在哪?B: 15...15....Aahh...B:15啊~额·~B: Is that hole where I caught the old geese in the sternum...or the one with the mayor’s cat?B:打到了大雁的肋骨或者是市长的猫。 /201505/375867

She was a genius before she was a refrigerator magnet, an ace manipulator of society and media nearly a century before social media came into existence. Born in 1907, dead at 47, Frida Kahlo achieved celebrity even in her brief lifetime that extended far beyond Mexico’s borders, although nothing like the cult status that would eventually make her the mother of the selfie, her indelible image recognizable everywhere.早在社交媒体出现之前,她就已经是操纵社会与媒体的高手,有她肖像的冰箱磁贴走进千家万户,但她首先是一位艺术天才。弗里达·卡罗(Frida Kahlo)生于1907年,去世时年仅47岁,在短短一生中,她的名气越过了墨西哥边境,虽然真实的她和那个受到小众崇拜、最后令她成为自拍之母的身份并无相似之处,但她那不可磨灭的肖像却无处不在。Yet, despite the many biographies, documentaries and biopics, there remains much to learn about this often misunderstood artist, a sexual pragmatist who conducted affairs with both men and women, a proto-feminist who invested her art with an autobiography filled with struggle and pain. She was also an ardent Communist who sometimes fudged her date of birth to align with the start of the Mexican Revolution, and an irresistibly magnetic seducer, especially whenever a camera was around.尽管有许多传记、纪录片和传记体电影讲述她的故事,这位经常遭人误解的艺术家身上仍然有许多东西值得去了解,她在性上是一个实用主义者,同男人和女人都有风流韵事;她是女性主义者的先驱,她的艺术和自传中充满挣扎和痛苦。她还是坚定的共产主义者,有时会就自己的出生日期撒谎,好同墨西哥革命的起源攀上关系。此外她还是极具魅力的诱惑者,特别是有镜头对准她的时候。In a welcome though unexpected convergence, an array of new books and exhibitions about Kahlo have suddenly appeared this spring, adding insight and depth to our understanding of a woman who would seem among the most overexposed artistic figures of all time.今年春天,一大堆关于卡罗的新书和展览突然冒了出来,令人欣喜而又颇为意外,这些书籍和展览有助于我们更深入地了解这个女人,这个艺术史上遭到曝光最多的艺术人物之一。While it seems clear that artists like Tracey Emin have fallen under the influence of her audacious self-disclosures; that designers — like Riccardo Tisci of Givenchy and Jean Paul Gaultier — have drawn inspiration from her style; and that entertainers like Lady Gaga and Beyoncé shrewdly adapted the lessons pioneered by a publicity-friendly solipsist who anticipated the Instagram era by many decades, Kahlo remains in some ways an enigma.翠西·艾敏(Tracey Emin)这类艺术家都深受她的影响,尤其是大胆自我暴露的这一面;让·保罗·高缇耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)和纪梵希的里卡多·堤西(Riccardo Tisci)等设计师从她的风格中汲取灵感;Lady Gaga和碧昂斯(Beyoncé)之类的艺人聪明地沿着她在Instagram出现几十年前便已开创的道路,塑造出对公众友好的唯我主义者形象……然而,卡罗在某些方面仍然是一个谜。In “Mirror, Mirror,” a portrait-survey that opens this month at Throckmorton Fine Art in Manhattan, Kahlo is revealed to have been an image wizard as canny as her spiritual descendant, Madonna.《镜子,镜子》(Mirror Mirror)肖像展将于本月在曼哈顿的斯洛克莫顿美术馆开幕,将卡罗呈现为一个塑造形象的魔法师,同她的精神后裔麦当娜(Madonna)一样狡黠多变。“Frida did not miss an opportunity to be photographed by anyone and everyone,” said Norberto Rivera, the photography director at the gallery. “She created this image to hide the pain,” he added, referring to the lifelong aftereffects of severe injuries Kahlo suffered in a streetcar accident when she was 18. Through self-portraits that unsparingly depict her physical travails and that make frank allusion to a tumultuous emotional life, Kahlo inadvertently vaulted herself into that strange constellation of bright-burning, ill-fated stars, alongside James Dean and Marilyn Monroe.“弗里达不放过任何让人给她拍照的机会,”美术馆的摄影部主任诺波托·里维拉(Norberto Rivera)说,“她籍着塑造这样的形象来掩藏痛苦。”18岁那年,卡罗因街车事故导致重伤,此后终生受其后遗症影响。她在自画像中毫无保留地描绘身体上的痛苦,坦率地暗示充满动荡的情感生活,漫不经心地令自己上升到那个由炽烈燃烧、命运多舛的星辰组成的奇异星座,其中包括詹姆斯·迪恩(James Dean)和玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)等人。So extensive is Frida Kahlo’s fame it’s difficult now to credit the fact that, at an auction of Latin American art held by Sotheby’s in May 1985, a painting depicting the artist as a hunted deer pierced by arrows, which was offered as the star lot, failed to sell. A decade later, another Kahlo painting was featured on a cover of a Sotheby’s catalog. This portrait, of the artist with a parrot and a monkey, was hammered down quickly for more than million, at the time a worldwide record for a Latin American artist. Five years later, a 1929 Kahlo self-portrait sold to an Argentine collector for .1 million.弗里达·卡罗的名气太广,1985年5月,在苏富比的一场拉丁美洲艺术拍卖会上,她的一幅自画像被作为明星拍品,图中她把自己描绘为全身中箭的鹿,但这幅画最终没有拍出去,现在想来实在不可思议。十年后,另一幅卡罗的自画像出现在苏富比的拍卖目录封面上。画中她身边有鹦鹉和猴子,这幅画很快以300多万美元的价格拍出,在当时创下了拉丁美洲艺术家的世界纪录。五年后,卡罗1929年的一幅自画像被一位阿根廷收藏家以510万美元买下。In under two decades, aided by a well-regarded biography and a soapy biopic, Kahlo had undergone transformation from a compelling cult figure to a universally recognized symbol of artistic triumph and feminist struggle. Somehow along the way she also became a centerpiece of a kitsch marketing bonanza. The “Fridamania” that elevated Kahlo to near-mythic dimensions also transformed her — brooding gaze, elaborate Tehuana coiffures, signature mono-brow — into an image emblazoned on sneakers, T-shirts, tote bags, coasters, cosmetics, even tequila and beer.20年来,由于一本备受好评的传记,以及一部肥皂剧式的传记电影,卡罗从一个迷人的小众形象变成了受到普遍认可的符号,象征着艺术的胜利与女性主义的斗争。在这个过程中,她也为刻奇的大众市场提供了丰盛的资源。这股“弗里达狂热”(Fridamania)将卡罗提升到一个接近神话的地步,她的形象——沉思般的目光、精心梳起的特旺纳发型、标志性的一字眉——出现在帆布鞋、T恤衫、手提包、杯垫、装饰品上,甚至是龙舌兰酒和啤酒商标上。“I remember buying as a gift Frida Kahlo Converse sneakers at 10 Corso Como,” said Robert Burke, a luxury consultant, referring to the high-end Milanese retailer. “Though that was fun and good, there’s only a certain amount of times an image can be used before it starts to fatigue and degrade.”“我记得在10 Corso Como买过一双弗里达·卡罗的匡威帆布鞋送人,”奢侈品顾问罗伯特·伯克(Robert Burke)说,10 Corso Como是米兰一家高端精品店。“尽管它很有趣,很漂亮,但是使用任何一种形象都是有特定时限的,之后它就会渐渐疲软、掉价。”Yet counter to Mr. Burke’s assertion, Frida Kahlo suddenly seems anything but exhausted as a subject.然而和伯克的看法正相反,弗里达·卡罗突然再度走红,根本没有出现令人产生审美疲劳的迹象。“Fridamania shows no signs of relenting,” said Graham W. J. Beal, the director of the Detroit Institute of Arts and curator of “Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Detroit,” which shrewdly examines Rivera and Kahlo’s pivotal though largely forgotten sojourn in the Motor City, where Rivera had been commissioned to paint the labor mural “Detroit Industry.” At the NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale in Florida, “Kahlo, Rivera and Mexican Modern Art” revisits the relationship between these protean artists, locating them equally and squarely at the center of Mexican modernism.“弗里达狂热完全没有平息下去的迹象,”格雷厄姆·W·J·比尔(Graham W. J. Beal)说,他是底特律艺术学院的院长,策展了“迭戈·里维拉与弗里达·卡罗在底特律”(Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Detroit)。当年里维拉曾接受任务,在这座汽车城创作关于劳工的壁画《底特律工业》(Detroit Industry),他与卡罗在底特律居留的这段时间非常重要,但却往往被人们忽略,此次的展览极具眼光地回顾了那个时期。此外,在佛罗里达的劳德代尔堡NSU艺术馆,“卡罗、里维拉与墨西哥现代艺术”展览回顾了这些变化多端的艺术家们之间的关系,公正平等地将他们置于墨西哥现代主义的中心。Fine catalogs accompanying each exhibition add to an ever-expanding Kahlo library, and yet in certain ways it is the newly published “Frida Kahlo: The Gisèle Freund Photographs,” that offers the most intimate insights into her life and working process. Its 100 rare images document a friendship that the Magnum photographer conducted with the couple in the last years before Kahlo’s death; both Kahlo and Rivera shine forth from these domestic images.两个展览都有精美的展品目录,为持续扩大的与卡罗相关书籍增添了新的成员。另外,新出版的《弗里达·卡罗:吉塞勒·弗洛因德摄影作品》(Frida Kahlo: The Gisèle Freund Photographs)是对她的生活与工作极为亲密的观察,内含100幅罕见的照片,记录了弗洛因德这位玛格南摄影师在卡罗去世前几年与这对夫妻结下的友情,卡罗与里维拉在这些家庭照上显得熠熠生辉。Complementing the revelations of the Freund book is “Frida Kahlo: Art, Garden, Life,” opening May 16 at the New York Botanical Garden. For this surprising exhibition, the Tony Award-winning stage designer Scott Pask traveled to Mexico City to immerse himself in the world of Kahlo and Rivera, returning to recreate in the leafy Bronx the grounds of their home, La Casa Azul.“弗里达·卡罗:艺术、花园、生活”展览为弗洛因德的书提供了极好的补充,它将于5月16日在纽约植物园开幕。 托尼奖得主,舞台设计师斯科特·帕斯克为布展特意去了墨西哥城,将自己浸淫在卡罗与里维拉的世界之中,回来便在林木茂密的纽约布朗克斯复现了他们的居所“蓝房子”(La Casa Azul),令展览更加引人入胜。A singular dwelling built by Kahlo’s father in what were then the outskirts of Mexico City, Casa Azul became the anchor of Kahlo’s and Rivera’s married lives. They filled it with their astounding collections of ex votos, folk art and important Mesoamerican sculpture, and also with fellow Communist Party members, varied lovers, artist friends and a menagerie including parrots, monkeys and a pack of hairless dogs called xoloitzcuintli.蓝房子是卡罗的父亲建造的一座独栋房屋,位于墨西哥城郊外,卡罗与里维拉婚后主要住在那里。房子里布满两人惊人的藏品,包括许愿物、民间艺术和重要的中美洲雕塑。他们的共产党同志、换来换去的情人、艺术家朋友们也常常住在那里,两人还养了一大堆动物,诸如鹦鹉、猴子以及一大群墨西哥无毛犬。“There are a lot of people that have Frida refrigerator magnets that have never seen a Frida painting,” Mr. Pask said. “When you see the house and the beautiful emotive space of the garden, you understand that the art, the love and the life are so intertwined.”“很多人都有弗里达的冰箱贴,但他们从没看过弗里达的画,”帕斯克说。“当你看到那栋房子,以及它那充满美妙情感的花园,你会理解她的艺术、生活与爱交织在一起,密不可分。”His rendition of a volcanic stone pyramid Rivera constructed in the garden to display his collection of pre-Columbian artifacts is Mr. Pask’s most theatrical gesture. But his more subtle accomplishment may be the evocation of “this atmosphere Frida surrounded herself with, incorporating the botanical influence of the markets of Mexico, her gardens, the fruits and plants and animals she lived with into the prism of her work.”里维拉在那座花园里用一块金字塔状的火山岩展示哥伦布发现美洲之前的美洲艺术品,帕斯克对之进行了复现,堪称最为戏剧化的手法。但帕斯克最为美妙的成就还要算是重新营造出了“弗里达在自己身边创造出的氛围,结合了墨西哥市场上的植物,她身边的花园、果实、植物与动物都被反映在她的作品之中”。The results are so singular it is little wonder Kahlo remains a figure of fascination.她的作品如此奇异,没有人会怀疑,她仍然是个极度迷人的人物。“Clearly, she has become this major icon,” said Bonnie Clearwater, the director of the NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale.“显然,她后来成了大众偶像,” 劳德代尔堡NSU艺术馆馆长邦尼·克莱尔沃特(Bonnie Clearwater)说。Her point is underscored by the strangely compelling 2013 book by the Japanese photographer Miyako Ishiuchi documenting Kahlo’s wardrobe and belongings, images of which later found their way into the hip Berlin glossy O32c. (A fetishistic regard for objects that touched Kahlo’s body is not unique to Ms. Ishiuchi; on loan to the Throckmorton Fine Art show will be one of the orthopedic corsets illness required Kahlo to wear, “authenticated” in the manner of saintly relics and decorated with a hammer and sickle by her.)2013年,日本摄影师石内都的影集进一步明了她的说法,这部影集拍摄的都是卡罗的衣物和其他物品,其中的照片后来还曾在柏林时尚的铜版纸杂志《O32c》上刊出。不是只有石内都一人对卡罗的贴身物品怀有恋物癖式的喜爱,斯洛克莫顿美术馆的展览中也有一件卡罗因病才穿在身上的整形胸衣,像圣人遗物一样“被鉴定为真品”,她还用锤子和镰刀装饰它。Unlike Che Guevara, who when he became a T-shirt and a poster was scarcely identifiable as “the leader of the Cuban revolution,” wrote Gérard de Cortanze, Kahlo’s French biographer, in an email, “Frida Kahlo remains Frida Kahlo.” If his gnomic remark is not supportable in any real biographical sense, there is little doubt Kahlo continues to exist as a potent figure of myth.卡罗的法语传记作者雷哈尔·德·科尔坦兹(Gérard de Cortanze)在接受电子邮件采访时写道,切·格瓦拉(Che Guevara)的头像刚一开始出现在T恤衫和海报上,马上就被人们等同为“古巴革命的领袖”,但是和他不同,“弗里达·卡罗就是弗里达·卡罗”。这句箴言般的或许无法在真实的传记中得到体现,但毫无疑问,卡罗仍然是一个极具说力的神秘人物。“I’m constantly fascinated by the numbers of teenagers who buy my books about Frida,” Mr. de Cortanze wrote, referring to “The Lovers of Coyoacán,” a novel fictionalizing Kahlo’s brief though torrid affair with Leon Trotsky. “It’s not the creator of the Red Army that interests young ers. It’s what Frida thinks and lives, how she drinks, makes love, cooks for friends, swears like a trooper.”“有很多十几岁的孩子会买我那些关于弗里达的书籍,这常常令我感到惊讶,”德·科尔坦兹写道,他指的是自己的小说《科约阿坎恋人》(The Lovers of Coyoacán),这本书用小说的方式叙述了卡罗与列夫·托洛茨基(Leon Trotsky)短暂而激烈的恋情。“吸引年轻读者的不是苏联红军的创始人,而是弗里达的思考与生活、她怎样喝酒、做爱、给朋友们做饭,像士兵一样咒骂。”For those ers, he said, Kahlo is “a sister, a friend, a woman ceaselessly in search of her autonomy.”他说,对于这些年轻读者们来说,卡罗就像“一个姊姊、一个朋友、以及一个不懈追求自由的女人”。In the telling of Ms. Clearwater, the artist Julian Schnabel not long ago traveled to Fort Lauderdale to dedicate a painting, a gift he made to the institution.克莱尔沃特说,艺术家朱利安·施纳贝尔(Julian Schnabel)不久前曾经来到劳德代尔堡艺术馆捐献了一幅油画,这是他特意为该馆创作的礼物。“All Julian kept saying was he couldn’t wait to see the Kahlo,” Ms. Clearwater said. “Who in the world would have thought very macho Julian Schnabel had been influenced by her?”“朱利安一直说,他简直等不及要看卡罗的展览,”克莱尔沃特说。“谁能想到那么大男子气的朱利安·施纳贝尔也受她的影响呢?”Yet, as it happens, the Brooklyn-born Mr. Schnabel also spent part of his youth in Brownsville, Tex.; from there in the ’60s he made a pilgrimage to Mexico City to visit the Museo Frida Kahlo, located inside her birthplace at La Casa Azul.是的,出生在布鲁克林的施纳贝尔年轻时曾在得克萨斯州的布朗斯维尔住过;60年代的时候,他曾经从那里出发到墨西哥朝圣,参观设立在蓝房子里的弗里达·卡罗物馆,卡罗就是在那栋房子里出生的。“He told me he was blown away by the emotional side” of Kahlo’s work, by her ability to transmit emotion through her work, Ms. Clearwater said.克莱尔沃特说,“他告诉我,(卡罗的作品中)情感的一面”,乃至她通过作品表达情感的方式都令他感到震撼。“If Julian had not said this to me, I would never have thought of him in those terms,” she added. “And yet, when you look at paintings like ‘Untitled (Goodbye Mike Kelley),’ you understand them as prayers to those you love and those who died.”“如果朱利安不说,我从来不会站在这些角度上去想他,”克莱尔沃特补充道。“不过,看到《无名lt;告别迈克·凯利gt;》(Untitled [Goodbye Mike Kelley])这样的作品,你就会明白,它们是为所爱之人乃至去世的人们献上的祈祷。”Like many of Kahlo’s spiritual descendants — who record the minutiae of their lives on social media in existential gestures that are, as much as anything, about the fact of their own occurrence — the artist was intent on leaving marks that testified to her existence.卡罗的众多精神后裔们常常在社交媒体上以存在主义的姿态记载生活中的细枝末节,写下自己生活中的种种事件,卡罗本人也热衷于为自己的存在留下种种痕迹。“This continues to hit a nerve with people,” Ms. Clearwater explained. “The paintings are Kahlo’s way of saying: ‘This is how I thought. This is what I lived. Remember me.’ ”“这些痕迹一直都能触动人们的心弦,”克莱尔沃特说。“那些油画就像是卡罗在说:‘这就是我的想法,这就是我的生活,记住我吧。’” /201505/374902

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