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来源:千龙问答    发布时间:2019年10月17日 10:33:05    编辑:admin         

Business商业报道Social entrepreneurship in India印度的公益创业Cut from a different cloth开辟出另一片天地Building a business around solving a chronic female health-care problem创立产业以解决长期困扰的女性保健问题RATAN JADHAV, a shy, slight woman in her 30s, works on a farm in Osmanabad, a remote part of the western Indian state of Maharashtra.年过三十的Ratan Jadhav是一个害羞,纤弱的女性。她在印度奥斯曼阿巴德的一个农场工作,那里是印度马哈拉斯特拉邦的偏远地区。Her tiny mud-brick house boasts such modern conveniences as a computer bought with a loan from relatives, while arranged neatly on the kitchen window sill are her teenage daughters cosmetics.一台向亲戚借款而买的电脑也给住在低矮泥砖房的她带来了一丝现代生活的便利,而放在厨房窗台上女儿的化妆品则显得整齐有序。Yet when it comes to personal hygiene, both women prefer a cotton rag to a branded sanitary pad.然而当提及个人卫生问题上,这两位女士都偏爱棉布胜过品牌的卫生护垫。Why buy one, asks the mother, when a homespun substitute does the job?母亲不解:自己做的东西就可以替代卫生巾,为什么还要买这个?Ms Jadhav is one of300mmenstruating Indian women who eschew sanitary pads in favour of rags, dry leaves, straw or newspapers.印度有300万月经来潮的女性用碎布,干叶,枯草或者报纸来替代卫生棉条,Jadhav女士就是其中一位。AC Nielsen, a research firm, says that 70% of women in India cannot afford sanitary products.一家名为AC Nielsen的研究公司称,印度70%的女性买不起卫生用品。Many who can pay do not, as they hate having to ask for them in drugstores that are usually run by men.即使付得起,很多女性也拒绝购买。他们恨透了向药店人员索要卫生棉条,因为这些商店通常是由男性经营。This has serious consequences.这个情况后果严重。Adolescent girls miss up to 50 days of school a year.印度的青春期女孩每年旷课高达50天。Some 23% drop out altogether.大约23%的女生干脆完全退学。Working women lose their daily wages.上班族女性也会因月经缺勤被扣掉当日工资。The social and economic benefits to be had from resolving this problem are potentially so large that doing so is now a focus of social entrepreneurs in many developing countries.解决这个问题在经济和社会上的潜在利益是十分巨大的。They include Jaydeep Mandal and Sombodhi Ghosh of Aakar Innovations, a Delhi-based start-up.对于许多发展中国家,解决这个问题是公益企业家现在关注的一个焦点。They have developed a machine that produces low-cost sanitary napkins using as raw materials agri-waste such as banana fibre, bamboo and water-hyacinth pulp.企业家们已经研发出一种可以生产廉价卫生棉的机器。该棉条使用的原材料为工业废品,比如香蕉纤维,毛竹以及水葫芦纸浆。Each machine can churn out 1,600-2,000 pads a day, to be sold for 40% less than branded mass-market products.每台机器每天可以制造出1600-2000个棉片,出售价格比畅销的品牌产品要低出40%。To bypass the current female-unfriendly distribution system, Aakar aims to sell its machines for 250,000 rupees a time to groups of women.为了避开当前对女性不利的流通体系,Aakar公司计划以每台25万卢布的价格出售该机器给特定群体的女性。The finished item will be sold door-to-door by village saleswomen who also hawk solar lamps, stoves and saris.这种成品将由村民中的女销售员进行上门推销。她们还会兜售太阳能灯具,炉灶和印度莎丽。It will be distributed, too, in women-run grocery stores and beauty parlours.由女性经营的杂货店和美容院中也会有该机器出售。Aakar hopes to profit by selling the raw materials and the machines.公司Aakar希望能从销售原材料和该机器中获得利润。This is hardly a new idea.这不是什么新点子。Arunachalam Muruganantham, another Indian entrepreneur, is a pioneer of low-cost pad manufacturing.另一个印度企业家Arunachalam Muruganantham是廉价卫生棉条产业的先驱人物。Gandhigram, a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, has developed similar technology in partnership with engineers at the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras.位于印度泰米尔纳德邦的非营利性组织Gandhigram已同位于马德拉斯的印度技术研究院的工程师共同合作研发出类似的工艺技术。Goonj, an NGO, sews and sterilises discarded old clothes into sanitary pads.民营机构Goonj则将废弃的旧衣进行缝纫消毒制成了卫生护垫。Many start-ups process cotton fibre from old knitwear into pads.许多新兴企业通过加工棉布纤维将旧的针织品制成了护垫。Mr Muruganantham reckons that the country is awash with hundreds of local brands.先生Muruganantham认为印度已经充斥着成百上千种本土品牌的卫生护垫了。Yet, unusually, Aakars product meets the standards of the Western world and can compete with all global brands, says Ronald van het Hof of Women on Wings, a Dutch-based consultancy focused on creating jobs for women.来自挥着翅膀女人的Ronald van het Hof称,Aakar的产品却出乎意料的达到了西方国家的卫生标准并且可以与所有的国际品牌一较高低。挥着翅膀的女人是一个位于荷兰的咨询公司,其致力于为女性增创就业机会。After studying sanitary-pad markets in four states, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, the Dutch outfit decided to help Aakar grow.通过对印度的比哈尔,西孟加拉,马哈拉施特拉和泰米尔纳德这四个邦的卫生护垫市场进行研究,这个荷兰公司决定扶持Aakar发展壮大。Aakars founders see a big opportunity.Aakar公司的创立者们看到了巨大的商机。Despite the challenges, the 13.5 billion rupee sanitary-pad industry in India is growing fast.尽管竞争激烈,印度总资产达到135亿卢布的卫生护垫产业也在迅猛发展。Established firms, including global giants such as Procter amp; Gamble, hold sway in towns and cities, though still only 25% of women use their products.上市公司在印度城镇地区的地位不可动摇,其中包括诸如宝洁公司在内的国际巨头。但是,仍然只有25%的女性在使用它们的产品。In the countryside the proportion is lower still.在乡村地区这些产品所占份额则会更小。By bypassing middlemen and using existing rural retail networks the founders believe they can win6mcustomers and provide direct employment to 11,000 women in the next five years.通过避免雇佣中年男子和借用现存的乡村零售网络的方法,公司创立者们相信在接下来的五年里,他们可以赢得6百万客户并为11000位女性提供直接的就业岗位。Yet many similar ventures have failed due to problems ranging from a lack of standardisation to inadequate saleswomen.但仍有很多人遭遇了创业失败。或是因为标准化系统的缺失,或是合格女推销员的匮乏。Aakar has forged a partnership with Swayam Shikshan Prayog, an NGO in Osmanabad which will be responsible for manufacture and distribution.公司Aakar已经与Swayam Shikshan Prayog 达成合作关系。后者是一个设在奥斯马纳巴德的非政府组织,它将负责产品的生产和分销。It will also promote awareness by asking local doctors and health-care workers to push the pads at workshops and monthly village gatherings.它还会请当地医师和保健部门的工作人员在工作间及每月的村庄集会时推广卫生护垫产品,借此提高公众的卫生意识。A start will be made next month in Osmanabad, with the aim of catering to about 20,000 women.首次活动将会于下个月在奥斯马纳巴德邦举行,该活动的目的在于迎合约20000名女性的需求。This may reveal whether the pad has genuine appeal in Indias hinterland.这个活动可能会检验这些卫生护垫是否能真正引起生活在印度穷乡僻壤的女性们的注意。It surely will, says Devkanya Jagdale, leader of a group of local saleswomen.它绝对会有吸引力,当地某女性推销员组织的领导Devkanya Jagdale称。And Ratan Jadhav will be my first customer.而且Ratan Jadhav将会是我的第一个客户。 /201309/256957。

Science and technology科学技术Investigating the asteroids小行星探测Dawns early light;黎明;号初试锋芒A mission to the asteroid belt will visit leftovers from the solar systems formation小行星带探测任务将造访太阳系形成时期的衍生物Dimly seen through the mists of the deep透过深层迷雾隐约可见LAST week all eyes were on the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, as NASAs space shuttle blasted off on its final mission.上周,佛罗里达州肯尼迪航天中心成为全球目光的焦点,美国宇航局航天飞机呼啸升空,展开航天任务的收官之旅。Meanwhile, hundreds of millions of kilometres away, another NASA spacecraft was approaching its destination.与此同时,在数百万公里以外,另一艘美国宇航局的航天器正向目标进发。If all goes to plan, then on July 16th Dawn, the largest robotic probe ever launched by Americas space agency,如果一切按计划进行,美国宇航局有史以来发射的最大的机器人探测器将与7月16日进入灶神星轨道飞行。will drop into orbit around Vesta, the second-largest member of the asteroid belt.灶神星是小行星带中体积居第二位的成员。Though a mission to the asteroids may lack the glamour of sending probes to Mars and the moons of Saturn,尽管小行星探测任务不如将探测器送入火星和土星那样令人瞩目,these tiny planetlets have long fascinated astronomers, for they offer a window on the earliest years of the solar system.但这些微小星体一直令天文学家们着迷,因为它们能为我们揭开太阳系形成初期之谜。When the sun formed, some 4.5 billion years ago, it was surrounded by a disk of gas and dust.约45亿年前,太阳形成之时曾被大量的气体和尘埃盘包围。During the next few million years, lumps of that disk stuck together to form the familiar eight planets of the modern solar system.在后续的几百万年间,这些盘状物质块相互结合形成了现代为人熟知的太阳系八大行星。Some lumps, however, were left over. And a lot of them are concentrated in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter,但还是有些物质块被遗留下来。它们大部分集中于火星和木星轨道之间的小行星带内,where the combined gravities of Jupiter and Saturn seem to have gathered them from other parts of the solar system.木星和土星的组合引力似乎将它们集聚起来并与太阳系的其它部分分离。There, they have crashed repeatedly into one another to form fragments of various sizes.在那里,它们之间的反复碰撞形成了各种尺寸的碎片。Small asteroids are often little more than piles of dust and chondrules, the spherical pebbles of rock that formed from dust which melted in the heat of the young sun.体积较小的小行星只不过是一些尘埃和陨石球粒的堆积物,其中这些圆状岩石形成于太阳早期高热量下融熔的尘埃。Larger bodies such as Vesta, though, are more interesting.但是象灶神星这样的较大天体更能引起人们的兴趣。Vestas size and density make it massive enough for its gravity to keep it roughly spherical, like a proper planet.与真正行星相仿,灶神星的尺寸和密度使其具备足够的引力保持基本的球体形状。Another thing that makes Vesta planetlike is that it is split into distinct layers.灶神星与行星的另一个相似点是它也分裂成不同的层。The evidence suggests it has a nickel-iron core like the Earths, overlain by a rocky mantle.有据表明它的地核也象地球一样由镍、铁元素组成,表面由岩石地幔覆盖。Part of that evidence comes from its density and part from hundreds of chunks of rock, in the form of meteorites,该据的一部分来源于灶神星的密度,另一部分来源于数以百计以陨石形状存在的大块岩石,that have been examined by Earth-bound scientists.地球科学家们已对这些岩石进行过研究。These rocks are believed to be the result of an asteroidal prang that happened many millions of years ago and left a crater 460km across, which dominates Vestas southern hemisphere.这些岩石据说是几百万年前的小行星碰撞的结果,并在灶神星的南半球形成了一个跨度为460公里的陨石坑。The reason they are thought to come from Vesta is that the asteroid has an unusual and characteristic spectrum.它们被认为来自灶神星是因为这颗小行星有着不同寻常的特征光谱。It shares this with a number of smaller asteroids whose orbits suggest they were spalled off in the collision, and with about 5% of the meteorites which fall to Earth.一些更小的行星也具有这样的光谱,从它们运行的轨道来看,它们是灶神星在碰撞中的脱落物,拥有的陨石数量约是落到地球表面陨石数量的5%。Such meteorites look like igneous rocks from Earth—hence the belief that Vesta has a mantle.这种陨石与地球上的火成岩相似—因此可以相信灶神星上有地幔存在。The rockets blue glare火箭的蓝色眩光After spending a year in orbit around Vesta, Dawn will perform a trick rare in space travel—it will reignite its engines and head off to orbit another body.在绕行灶神星轨道一年后,黎明号将施展航天探索中少有的绝技——它将重新点燃发动机向另一个天体的轨道进发。Ceres, at about 960km in diameter, is the largest asteroid. Dawn is due to arrive there in 2015.谷神星直径大约为960公里,是小行星带里体积最大的成员。黎明号将于2015年到达谷神星。Ceres, too, is spherical and probably divided into core and mantle, though the mantle seems to be wetter than that of Vesta.谷神星也是球状天体,它可能也被划分成地核和地幔,但它的地幔似乎比灶神星的地幔更富含水质。Indeed, Ceres may have ice caps and a thin atmosphere.实际上,谷神星可能有冰层覆盖而且大气稀薄。But it has been luckier than Vesta—and almost every other asteroid—in avoiding collisions, and has thus not yielded a huge crop of meteorites for Earth-bound scientists to examine.但在避免碰撞方面,它比灶神星要幸运得多—几乎比其它任何小行星也都幸运,因此它没有产生可供地球科学家研究的大量陨石。Dawn is able to perform the trick of moving from one asteroid to another thanks to its ion-rocket engines, pioneered on an earlier NASA mission called Deep Space One.由于有了离子火箭发动机,黎明号能够施展自己的绝技从一个小行星飞行到另一个小行星。Unlike conventional rockets, which use high-energy chemical reactions to force a stream of hot gas out of the engine,这种发动机始创于美国宇航局早期的太空一号任务。与传统火箭不同,离子火箭发动机利用电场对飞船底部燃料中的带电粒子进行加速,ion rockets employ electric fields to accelerate charged particles of fuel out of the back of the spacecraft.而传统火箭是采用高能量化学反应将热气流排出发动机。Ion engines give a pretty feeble kick.离子发动机产生的振动极其微弱。Dawns produce 92 millinewtons of thrust, something like a fiftieth of the amount in a smallish firework rocket.黎明号产生的推进力仅为0.092牛顿,是小型烟花火箭推进力的五十分之一。The exhaust velocity, though, is enormous—more than ten times that of a chemical rocket—and this makes ion propulsion extremely efficient.但其排气速度却异常惊人,大约为化学燃料火箭的十倍—这使得离子推进器的效率非常高。Though an ion engine could never lift a spacecraft out of Earths gravity well,尽管离子发动机不能使航天飞机很好地摆脱地球引力,once that craft is in deep space the futuristic-looking blue glow of its exhaust can take it to parts that chemical engines find much harder to reach.但航天器一旦进入太空深处,尾部喷射出的极具超现实光的蓝色辉光可以将它带到化学燃料发动机难以到达的地方。Dawn started off with 450kg of propellant, and even at maximum throttle its engines use only a quarter of a kilo a day.黎明号初始装载了450公斤推进剂,即使在全速行进的情况下,其发动机每天消耗的燃料也仅为0.25公斤。The arrival of Dawn at Vesta also marks another significant achievement.黎明号到达灶神星也将标志着太空探索取得了另一项重大成就。If the craft does manage to go into orbit it will mean that working man-made satellites are circling and scrutinising eight bodies in the solar system:如果它能够成功进入轨道,那将意味着在轨人造卫星已经能够对太阳系的八个天体:the sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, the moon, Mars and Saturn, as well as Vesta.太阳、水星、金星、地球、月球、火星、土星和灶神星—进行绕行和探查。That gives comfort to those who fear that the end of the shuttle programme might mean a wider loss of interest in the exploration of space.对于那些担忧航天计划终结意味着对太空探索兴趣渐失的人们来说,这将会带来一些安慰。Whether it does—and the new record proves to be the high-water mark of unmanned space exploration.是否黎明号能够完成任务—若完成将表明无人飞船创造了太空探索的最高记录,or whether Dawns arrival proves merely a staging post on the road to greater things, remains to be seen.或者是否黎明号的到达仅是完成了宏伟目标中的一项阶段任务,对此我们都将拭目以待。 /201305/238478。

Americas big banks reported earnings for the second quarter. The headline figures looked buoyant, partly because of lower operational and litigation costs. Net income at JPMorgan Chase rose by 31% to .5 billion; Bank of Americas profit was up by 63% to billion; and Citigroups quarterly profit of .2 billion was its best since 2007. Goldman Sachs saw income double to .9 billion. But with the outlook for growth subdued in the banking industry, margins down and more costly regulations coming in, investors were unimpressed.美国的各大发布了第二季度的营收。数据显示营收有所上涨,部分原因是运营和诉讼费用的减少。根大通公司的净收入增长了31%,达到65亿美元;美国的利润增加了63%之多,达到了40亿美元;花旗的季度利润达到了42亿美元,是自从2007年至今的最好业绩。高盛的收入翻番,达到了19亿美元。但是随着对业未来增长前景的看衰,利润减少以及管理费用的增加,投资者并没有为之所动。Americas Federal Energy Regulatory Commission fined Barclays 3m for allegedly manipulating electricity prices in four states in the American West to benefit the banks derivatives positions. Barclays is fighting the claim and will take the matter to court. JPMorgan Chase was said to be in talks to settle with the FERC in a similar case.美国联邦能源管理委员会给巴克莱开出了4亿5300万美元的罚单,原因是后者据称为了使其衍生产品卖得更好,在美国西部的四个州操纵电价。巴克莱予以反击,并将在法庭上解决此事。根大通也卷入类似风波。;Fabulous Fab;神奇的法布The trial got under way in Manhattan of Fabrice Tourre, a former banker at Goldman Sachs, on civil charges of securities fraud. Mr Tourre allegedly did not tell investors that a hedge fund had helped him select the assets in a portfolio of mortgage bonds, which it then bet against. The investors lost billion.在曼哈顿对于前高盛家法布里·托雷尔的审讯正在进行中,其涉嫌进行券欺诈。据称,托雷尔先生未告知其产品投资者一家做空这些抵押贷款的对冲基金参与了产品的设计。导致投资者蒙受10亿美元的损失。A judge allowed a billion lawsuit, brought by the Justice Department and claiming that Standard amp; Poors intentionally misled investors, to proceed. The government alleges that Samp;P produced inflated ratings between 2004 and 2007 to please its clients in the financial industry.一位法官接受了一起涉案金额50亿的案件,原告是司法部,指控标准普尔蓄意误导投资者。该案件正在接受审理。政府控诉标准普尔在2004年到2007年期间为了取悦其金融业的客户,在评级中作假。A Chinese executive at GlaxoSmithKline appeared on state television giving details of what the government alleges to be graft at the drugmakers operations in the country. Four executives are accused of paying bribes to medical staff to entice them to sell GSKs products. GSK said its Chinese staff are expected to abide by the law and it had ;zero tolerance; for bribery.葛兰素史克公司的一位中国主管出现在中国国家电视台解释中国政府所说的运营中行贿的细节。四个主管被指控贿赂医药人员怂恿其销售葛兰素史克的产品。葛兰素史克表示其中国员工应该遵守法律,并且其对贿赂持零容忍态度。How Lou can you go?楼能走多远?Chinas economy slowed again, growing by 7.5% in the second quarter. The finance minister, Lou Jiwei, caused a stir when he reportedly said he expected GDP for the year to rise by 7%, which is below the governments 7.5% target (Mr Lous figure was rewritten by the state press to reflect the party line). With industrial production also slowing, some economists wonder whether it is time for them, too, to rewrite their forecasts.中国经济再次放缓,第二季度增幅仅为7.5%。财政部长楼继伟在其报告中表示他预期今年GDP的增长为7%,低于政府7.5%的目标,这引起了不小的震动。(为了跟党的方针相呼应,楼的数据被重新更正)。随着工业生产的放缓,一些经济学家开始思考:对他们来说,是不是也应该重新预测经济走势了?Googles effort to end an antitrust inquiry into its search business in Europe appeared to be in trouble when Joaquín Almunia, the EUs competition chief, declared that it had so far not done enough ;to overcome our concerns;. In April Google submitted several remedies to the EU to address complaints that it promotes its own services over those of its rivals in search results.谷歌试图结束欧洲对其搜索业务的反信任调查的努力再次陷入麻烦,欧盟竞争委员会主席Joaquín Almunia称谷歌到目前为止尚未做出足够措施来解除我们的担忧。四月,谷歌向欧盟递交了几项改进措施,并投诉其只是在竞争对手的搜索结果上推广其自身务。Yahoos earnings were mixed. The internet companys net income grew by half compared with the same quarter last year, to 1m, but revenue was down, as was the price it charges per ad. Investors expressed confidence, however, in Marissa Mayers strategy (she took over as chief executive a year ago), pushing the share price to a five-year high.雅虎公司的营收账目混乱不堪。与去年同一季度相比,这家互联网公司的净收入增长了50%,达到3.31亿美元,然而收益却由于每广告的收费下降而下降了。但是,投资者们都对玛丽莎·梅耶尔(于一年前接任雅虎首席执行官)的战略计划信心十足,雅虎股票已被推高至五年来的最高值。From dreams to nightmares从梦到梦魇Investigators looking at the cause of a fire on a parked Boeing Dreamliner at Heathrow airport found no initial evidence that the jets batteries were the source. Several charred components have come under scrutiny, including the planes emergency transmitter. All Dreamliners were grounded worldwide for three months earlier this year because of overheating batteries.对停在英国希斯罗机场的波音梦幻客机的起火原因,调查员表示,目前初步发现没有据表明电池是飞机起火的原因。包括飞机应急发射器在内的几个被烧焦的部件已经受到了严格的审查。今年早些时候,所有的梦幻客机由于电池组过热在全球范围内停飞三个月。In Argentina a joint venture was announced between Chevron and YPF, the state-run energy company, to develop the Vaca Muerta shale formation, one of the biggest outside North America. Vaca Muerta was discovered in 2010 when YPF was majority-owned by Spains Repsol. The venture with Chevron is YPFs first big deal since it was expropriated by the Argentine government last year.在阿根廷,由雪弗兰公司和一家阿根廷国营企业YPF组成的合资企业,宣称将开发瓦卡姆尔塔这个除北美外最大的页岩潜油层。瓦卡姆尔塔在2010年被发现,当时YPF的大部分股份由西班牙雷普索尔石油公司持有。这次与雪佛龙组成的合资公司是YPF自去年被阿根廷政府国有化以来首次大规模的交易。Bernie Ecclestone, the chief executive of the Formula One Group, was charged by a German court in a case over an alleged m bribe to a banker who was involved in the sale of the car-racing championship to CVC Capital in 2005. Mr Ecclestone has acknowledged the payment but insists he was being blackmailed and rejects the charge.一级方程式赛车的首席执行官伯尼·埃克莱斯顿因向一位家行贿4400万美元被德国一家法庭起诉。这位家曾在2005年参与私募股权基金公司对赛车锦标赛的收购案。埃克莱斯顿先生承认付了费用,然而坚持声称他遭到勒索并对控告表示抗议。Rossignol, a French ski-maker, was bought by Altor, a Swedish private-equity firm. The global ski market has gone downhill from its peak in the 1980s partly because more people are renting skis rather than buying them. The Nordic firm hopes to make Rossignol more profitable by expanding into outdoor wear, a strategy it tried with Helly Hansen, a Norwegian sports-apparel firm that had struggled before Altor bought it in 2006.法国滑雪板制造商金鸡被瑞典一家私营公司Altor收购。全球滑雪板市场在20世纪80年代经历高峰期,此后不断走下坡路。部分原因是越来越多的人选择租用滑雪板而不是自己购买。这家北欧公司试图通过拓展户外装备业务让金鸡盈利增加,其曾在挪威运动饰公司哈里汉森实施过这项战略,哈里汉森于2006年被Altor公司收购。201307/249858。

Hybrid foods混合食物Matches made in heaven—and hell美味佳肴,还是黑暗料理?What do you get if you cross a waffle with a doughnut? Its no joke如果你将华夫饼干与甜甜圈混合会得到什么?这不是开玩笑。NOT all marriages are happy, but Alex Hernandez thinks that the union of a waffle and a doughnut will be. The owner of Waffles Cafe in Chicago starting selling what he calls “wonuts” in April. They are deep-fried waffles, topped with icing and multicoloured sprinkles. Daily sales went from 24 to 600 within two days. Buzzfeed, a website, called the new snack “proof that a benevolent Food God exists”.并不是所有的婚姻都是幸福的,但是亚历克斯·赫尔南德斯认为华夫饼和甜甜圈的组合会很幸福。芝加哥的华夫咖啡馆店主于四月开始售卖他叫做“wonuts”的甜品。它们是油炸的华夫饼,表面加上糖衣和五颜六色的巧克力屑。日销售量在两天之内从24猛增至600。网站Buzzfeed把这种新型小甜品叫做“仁慈食神存在的据”。Hybrid dishes are fashionable. The wonut follows the cronut, a croissant-donut combination that was invented in New York last year and is now being fried and munched in Taiwan, South Korea, Brazil, Britain—and even France, where youd think diners would be fussier.混合菜肴很流行。Wonut是在牛角甜甜圈——纽约于去年发明的一款牛角面包与甜甜圈的搭配组合之后推出的一款新甜品,如今已风靡台湾、南韩、巴西和英国,甚至连对饮食很挑剔的法国都钟情于它。Many countries indulge in culinary mixing, but Americans, who love both novelty and food, are especially keen on it. Burger Kings CroissanWich is a croissant-sandwich mix. Taco Bells quesarito is a beef burrito wrapped in a quesadilla. Jamp;Ds Foods produces Baconnaise, bacon-flavoured mayonnaise that is, oddly, vegetarian and kosher-certified. Carls Jr is testing a bisnut, a cross between a biscuit (in the American sense of the word) and a doughnut. Not everyone is impressed. “Leave it to fast food to think of new and exciting ways to make you have to buy two seats on an airplane. A breakfast-dessert hybrid. Youre barely awake and youre aly getting all your calories for the day,” grumbles Jeff Sorensen of Uproxx, an online magazine.许多国家都喜欢混合烹饪,而美国人这种既喜欢新奇又喜欢食物的人对此尤其钟爱。汉堡王的CroissanWich是羊角面包和三明治的混合。塔可钟的quesarito是外面裹有油炸玉米粉饼的牛肉卷饼。Jamp;D的食品产业生产Baconnaise——培根风味的蛋黄酱,但有趣的是,犹太教和素食主义者都适用。卡乐星正在测试一款bisnut—小饼干和甜甜圈的组合。并不是每个人都会被打动。“在快餐上使用这个点子,想出新的有趣的方法来让你不得不在一架飞机上买两个位子。早餐混合甜点,你还在打着瞌睡,就已经摄入了一天所需的卡路里,” 一家在线杂志Uproxx的杰夫·索伦森抱怨说。Such innovation has a long history. Blacks who migrated north after the Civil War served African-spiced fried chicken with European waffles. In the 1910s, Americans drenched German frankfurters with Mexican chili to make chili dogs. More recently, New Yorkers drew on the collective genius of generations of Jewish and Italian cooks to produce: the pizza bagel.这种创新历史悠久。内战之后迁移到北方的黑人把欧洲华夫饼和非洲五香炸鸡混合在了一起。在20世纪10年代,美国人把德国法兰克福香肠浸透了墨西哥红辣椒,做成了辣椒热。最近,纽约人民利用世代传下来的犹太和意大利的烹饪智慧制造出了:披萨百吉饼。Because America is a nation of immigrants, it has many traditions to mine. But because many cooks try to please everyone, ethnic recipes have often been tweaked so as not to offend unfamiliar palates. “You take something thats different, and you make it similar,” says Roger Horowitz of the Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, Delaware. That has often involved adding sugar and fat, which everyone likes. The wonut illustrates another grand old American tradition, too: the layering of mountains of different types of food in a single dish, which goes back at least to the invention of the ice-cream sundae 120 years ago.因为美国是一个移民国家,因此它拥有许多个人习俗。但是因为大部分食物都是要取悦所有人,民族食谱经常会被改造以满足不同的人的口味。“你拿来与不同的东西,然后把它变成你熟悉的东西,”特拉华州海格利物馆和威明顿图书馆的罗格·霍洛威茨说。这通常包括加入糖和油脂,这是大部分人都喜爱的。Wonut也说明了另一种极为重要的美国古老习俗:在一道菜中包含了层层叠叠的不同食物,这至少可以追溯到120年前圣代冰淇淋的发明。Good ideas sp fast, so hybrid hits are soon copied. Crumbs Bake Shop, an ailing and pricey New York-based chain of cupcake shops, was one of several to introduce variations of the cronut. Alas its “crumbnut” failed to save the business, and Crumbs closed its doors on July 7th. As for Mr Hernandez, he is looking to open wonut shops in Chicago, Los Angeles and Phoenix. But he knows that the wonut will not be novel for long, so he is aly working on his next creation: a waffle pizza, which perhaps he should call the “piffle”.好点子传播的很快,因此混合食品的创意很快就有人山寨了。Crumbs Bake Shop是一家总部在纽约的杯形蛋糕连锁店,价格昂贵而且正面临着困难。它是引入多品种牛角甜甜圈的几家店之一,但可悲的是它的crumbnut未能挽回日渐下滑的生意,并于7月7日关门了。对于赫尔南德斯来说,他准备在芝加哥、洛杉矶和凤凰城开wonut商店。但是他知道wonut不会新奇很长时间,因此他正在致力于下一个创新:华夫饼披萨,他可能会把这种食品叫做“priffle”。 /201407/311746。