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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月18日 17:46:34
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The power struggle at Volkswagen escalated over the weekend, as a rift emerged between the Porsche and Pi#235;ch families that control the carmaker and its chief executive signalled he does not intend to surrender his position.大众(Volkswagen)权力斗争上周末升级,控制大众的保时捷(Porsche)与皮耶希(Porsche-Pi#235;ch)两家族之间出现分歧,同时大众首席执行官暗示他不打算辞职。A full-blown leadership crisis was triggered on Friday, when VW’s chairman and patriarch Ferdinand Pi#235;ch revealed that his working relationship with long-serving chief executive Martin Winterkorn, was strained.上周五,大众出现全面领导层危机,当时大众董事长费迪南多#8226;皮耶希(Ferdinand Pi#235;ch)透露,他与长期任职的首席执行官马丁#8226;温特科恩(Martin Winterkorn)工作关系紧张。Mr Pi#235;ch’s goal in speaking out remains unclear. But in one sentence in an interview — “I am at a distance to Winterkorn” — he appeared to undermine Mr Winterkorn, casting doubt on his top lieutenant’s future and obliging key shareholders and employee representatives to pick sides.目前尚不清楚皮耶希这番坦率直言的目的。他在一次采访中谈到,“我与温特科恩有距离”,言外之意似乎是要削弱温特科恩的力量,这让人们对他这位最高副手的未来产生疑问,同时迫使主要股东以及员工代表选择站边。Wolfgang Porsche, chairman of the Porsche SE holding company that controls a 50.7 per cent voting stake in VW, said on Sunday that Mr Pi#235;ch’s statements “represent his personal opinion, whose content and substance was not agreed with the family”.控制着大众50.7%投票权的保时捷控股公司(Porsche SE)董事长沃尔夫冈#8226;保时捷(Wolfgang Porsche)上周日表示,皮耶希的言论“代表他个人的观点,其言论的内容和主旨并没有得到家族的同意”。Mr Porsche, and Mr Pi#235;ch are cousins and grandsons of Porsche’s founder. They are also the two most powerful members of the VW supervisory board. Mr Porsche’s statement left the VW chairman looking unusually isolated and without sufficient votes to force out Mr Winterkorn, if he so desired.保时捷和皮耶希是表兄弟,是保时捷创始人的孙子和外孙。他们也是大众监事会最有影响力的两名成员。沃尔夫冈#8226;保时捷的言论令大众董事长看似处于不同寻常的被孤立状态,而且,假如他希望迫使温特科恩下台的话,是得不到足够的持的。VW’s CEO has also received expressions of support from Bernd Osterloh, VW’s chief labour representative, and the state of Lower Saxony. Employee representatives control half the seats on the 20-member supervisory board which decides executive appointments. Lower Saxony has two seats, the Pi#235;chs hold three seats and the Porsches have two.首席执行官温特科恩还得到了大众主要员工代表伯纳德#8226;奥斯特洛(Bernd Osterloh)和德国下萨克森州(Lower Saxony)的持。员工代表控制着由20人组成的监事会的半数席位,监事会决定行政任命。下萨克森州拥有两个席位,皮耶希家族拥有3个席位,保时捷家族拥有两个席位。Olaf Liess, Lower Saxony economy minister, told the tabloid Bild am Sonntag that he was “very calm about Mr Pi#235;ch’s announcement because of the majority situation on the supervisory board.”下萨克森州经济部长奥拉夫#8226;利斯(Olaf Liess)告诉德国小报《Bild am Sonntag》,“鉴于监事会大多数成员的立场”,他“对皮耶希的言论感到非常平静”。A VW spokesman and an official at Mr Pi#235;ch’s office in Austria both declined to comment.大众发言人以及位于奥地利的皮耶希办公室高管均拒绝置评。 /201504/369978

The thesis of Robert Gordon’s magisterial book The Rise and Fall of American Growth, stands in sharp contrast to the technological optimism that bubbles out of Silicon Valley. The argument is that the years from 1870 to 1970 were the “special century”. Someone born when Benjamin Disraeli was prime minister and who lived to see Edward Heath in Downing Street would have witnessed horse-drawn transport give way to cars and aircraft. Born when medical services were largely useless, she would have seen cures found for most infectious diseases and experienced the introduction of electric light, indoor plumbing and colour television. 罗伯特#8226;戈登(Robert Gordon)权威著作《美国增长的起落》(The Rise and Fall of American Growth)的论点与硅谷迸发出的科技乐观主义形成鲜明对照。本书认为,1870年至1970年是一个“特别世纪”。在本杰明#8226;迪斯雷利(Benjamin Disraeli)担任英国首相时出生、并在有生之年看到爱德华#8226;希斯(Edward Heath)入主唐宁街的人,见了马拉交通被汽车和飞机取代。出生于医疗务基本无用时的她,见了多数传染病治疗方法的发现,并经历了电灯、室内下水管道以及电的诞生。 The past 50 years, according to Professor Gordon, have been “dazzling but disappointing”. We are dazzled because our attention is focused on advances in entertainment, communications and information technology. The disappointment is partly statistical — productivity growth has slowed. And looking beyond the field of IT, he argues, there have been no advances in materials, fuel technologies or food production and distribution comparable to those of the special century. 戈登教授认为,过去50年让人“眼花缭乱,但令人失望”。我们之所以感到眼花缭乱是因为我们的注意力集中在、通信和信息技术(IT)的发展。失望在一定程度上是统计上的:生产率增速放缓。他认为,除了IT,原材料、燃料技术或食品生产以及分销都没有出现与“特别世纪”可比的进步。 Boeing’s first 747 flew in 1969, and today’s jumbo jets are recognisably similar. The great blockbuster drugs have, it seems, aly been discovered. While US productivity enjoyed a spurt in the 1990s, as digital innovations transformed our lives, the special century is unlikely to be repeated. Given an ageing population and an inadequate educational system, a significant increase in American living standards should not be expected. 波音(Boeing)首架747飞机于1969年升空,今天的大型喷气式客机仍然与它类似。伟大的轰动性药物似乎已被发现完了。尽管随着数字创新改变我们的生活,美国生产率曾经在上世纪90年代出现井喷,但“特别世纪”不太可能重现。鉴于人口老龄化和教育体制不完善,预计美国的生活水平不会显著上升。 Progress in introducing robotics into service activities is “glacially slow”, observes Prof Gordon. Amazon employs product pickers; delivery drivers still mostly load and unload their trucks manually. Sceptical of driverless cars, he asks what commuters will actually do with the time they do not have to spend behind the wheel. His scepticism will no doubt have been compounded by a recent accident involving one of Google’s driverless cars. 戈登教授认为,将机器人引入务业方面的进展“极度缓慢”。亚马逊(Amazon)仍聘用产品挑选师;送货司机多数仍手动装货和卸货。他对无人驾驶汽车持怀疑态度,他问道,如果通勤者不需要自己驾驶,那这段时间里他们究竟会做什么。最近谷歌(Google)一辆无人驾驶汽车卷入的事故肯定会加深他的疑虑。 Yet, if not much seems to have happened, it is perhaps because we see that much is yet to come. No great effort of imagination is required to visualise machines that unload casks of beer or stack supermarket shelves. And if we trust robots to undertake surgery, why should they not offer pedicures or cut hair as people become more expensive and machines cheaper? Perhaps the future of progress lies in the application of IT to things that do not at first sight have much to do with it. 然而,如果情况似乎没有发生很大的变化,那或许是因为我们认为未来将发生很大变化。我们不需要努力想象就能设想出机器卸下啤酒桶或把货物放到超市货架上的场景。如果我们信任机器人做手术,在人工更为昂贵而机器更为廉价之际,为什么不让机器人来提供足疗或理发务?或许未来的进步在于将IT应用于那些乍一看与IT没有多大关系的事物。 Such opportunities are of two kinds. Computers can now replace human operatives in well-defined repetitive tasks. Examples include the computerised conveyancer, the robo-adviser as portfolio manager and the digital doctor. Many traditional middle-class occupations will be eliminated in this way. 这些机会有两种。电脑现在可以在定义明确的重复性工作中取代人类。例如,电脑化的产权转让律师、机器人顾问(如资产组合经理)和数字医生。很多传统的中产阶级职业将因此被淘汰。 The more subtle, and perhaps more profound, development is the capacity of digital processing to aid the discovery of things that will form the basis of new technologies. Gene sequencing and big data are likely to shape the future of medicine. Progress in battery technology is advancing by leaps and bounds thanks to the analytic capabilities in the hands of today’s researchers. If the world became wired in the “special century”, perhaps it will become wireless in the next. 更微妙而且或许更深远的发展是,数字处理能力将协助构成未来新技术基础的事物的发现。基因测序和大数据可能会改变药物的未来。得益于当今研究人员掌握的分析能力,电池技术的发展突飞猛进。如果说世界在“特别世纪”实现了有线连接,那么在下一个“特别世纪”世界或许将实现无线连接。 And do not underestimate the increasing speed at which innovations are adopted. Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity in 1752 and Richard Trevithick’s car, the Puffing Devil, took to the roads of Cornwall in 1801. But it was only towards the end of the special century that electricity and cars were available to most households. The first smartphone was sold in 2007 and today 1.5bn are in use. 不要低估创新得到采用的日益加快的速度。本杰明#8226;富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin)在1752年发现了电,理查德#8226;特里维西克(Richard Trevithick)制造的蒸汽机车Puffing Devil于1801年在康沃尔郡上路。但直到“特别世纪”快结束时,电和汽车才进入千家万户。而第一部智能手机于2007年上市,如今已有15亿用户。 The limits to productivity growth are set only by the limits to human inventiveness. 生产率增长的极限只取决于人类创造力的极限。 /201603/430551

Microsoft will stop supporting Internet Explorer 8, 9 and 10 on certain Windows computers on January 12.当地时间1月12日起,针对采用特定Windows操作系统的电脑,微软公司将停止持它们所装载的IE 8/9/10浏览器。Up to 20% of Internet browsers could be impacted, according to NetMarketShare.NetMarketShare网站的数据显示,近两成的上网用户或受影响。After next week, Microsoft (MSFT, Tech30) will push security updates and bug fixes to Internet Explorer 11 only, on machines running Windows 7, 8.1 and 10.下周之后,Windows 7/ 8.1 /10用户只能收到微软公司(MSFT,科技股30指数板块)针对IE11推送的安全更新程序及配套补丁。Anyone who continues to use an out-of-date browser could put themselves at risk for malware and cyber attacks.继续使用旧浏览器的用户可能会面临恶意软件威胁和网络攻击的风险。Microsoft ;encourages customers to upgrade; to Internet Explorer 11 ;for a faster, more secure browsing experience.;微软公司“鼓励用户升级”至IE11“以获得更快捷更安全的上网体验。”If you#39;re running Windows Vista, Microsoft says it will continue to support Internet Explorer 9. Microsoft will also keep supporting older versions of IE on several enterprise server operating systems.微软称,Windows Vista可继续持IE9。公司也仍会维护某些企业务器操作系统装载的旧版IE。The company first announced plans to end support for its older web browsers in 2014.微软于2014年首度透露暂停持旧版浏览器的计划。In 2015, with the launch of Windows 10, Microsoft gave customers a new default browser, Edge, which is a definite improvement over Internet Explorer.2015年时,随着Windows 10的面世,微软为用户提供了全新的默认浏览器——Edge,同IE浏览器相比,Edge有了明显的改进。Confusingly, though, the logo for Edge looks almost exactly like the logo for Internet Explorer.可Edge的图标竟与IE的图标别无二致,这样做有些令人难以理解。 /201601/421943

  Google is rolling out its ;Hands Free; payments feature in select restaurants in California#39;s Bay Area which will let people who have the app strut into an eatery, order, and check out simply by saying ;I#39;ll pay with Google.;近日,谷歌公司正在加州湾区选定的几家餐馆推出了其Hands Free付功能,该功能可以让安装了此付应用的消费者昂首阔步地走进一家餐馆,点餐,只需说一句;我要用谷歌来付;即可结账。Cashiers then ask for your initials and double-check that the picture uploaded to the Hands Free app actually looks like you. In some stores, the company is also testing just letting you use your face for verification, through an in-store camera that would snap a quick photo.接下来收银员会询问消费者的姓名首字母,并进行复查核对,确认上传至Hands Free应用中的图片的确是消费者本人。在一些商店,谷歌公司还进行了一些测试,只需消费者通过店内的摄像头刷脸即可进行认,这些摄像头可以进行快速拍照。Hands Free uses Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and location data, and this isn#39;t the first time we#39;ve heard about it: Google previewed the concept way back in May 2015, though this is the first time it#39;s loose in the wild on a larger scale.Hands Free应用主要使用蓝牙、Wi-Fi和位置数据。不过,这并不是业界首次听说Hands Free。事实上,早在2015年5月,谷歌就预演了这个功能,但这次是谷歌首次大规模的推出此功能。Google isn#39;t the first one to try going down this path, either. Square tried hands free payments way back in 2011, but ended up shutting down the app that offered it. PayPal has a hands-free option too.另外,谷歌也并非第一家尝试这种付功能的公司。事实上,Square早在2011年就开始尝试这样的无勿手动的付方式,但最终又停止了类似功能的应用。此外,PayPal也曾尝试过类似的付功能。Google#39;s had a long, complicated history with payments. It launched a near-field communications payments product called Google Wallet back in 2011, but ended up replacing that system with Android Pay late last year, and pivoting Wallet to a peer-to-peer money sending app (like Venmo).在开发付功能方面,谷歌有着较长的复杂历史。2011年,谷歌曾推出名为“谷歌钱包”的近场通讯付产品,但最终又在去年底,谷歌用Android Pay取代了谷歌钱包系统,并将谷歌钱包转化为一个类似于Venmo的端对端的转账应用。Even though technically Google was early on payments, its missteps, clunky roll-out, and late relaunch position it, at least recognition-wise, a few steps behind Apple, which has a tap-n-go payments system called Apple Pay.尽管从技术上来讲,谷歌在付领域仍进展较慢。谷歌最初是急促地推出这项产品,之后又重新推出这一产品,这种进展至少要比苹果慢一些。相比较而言,苹果则及时地推出了自己付系统,名为“Apple Pay”。Although Hands Free doesn#39;t require that users have Android Pay — the app works for iOS, too — Google#39;s likely hoping that this seamless experience will help the service take off and sp to more retailers.Hands Free不需要消费者拥有Android Pay,其功能独立于Android Pay之外,但是,谷歌可能希望这种无缝体验将帮助此务出师大捷,并能够推广到更到多的零售商。 /201603/430021

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  Zhaozhou Bridge赵州桥Zhaozhou Bridge is also called Anji Bridge. It is on the Jiaohe River to the south of Zhaoxian County town, 45 kilometers southeast of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province. Because lhe whole bridge was made of stone materials, it was called Big Stone Bridge by the local people. It was first built between 595 ~605 and the construction was supervised by Li Chun, a famous craftsman in the Sui Dynasty. The structure of Zhaozhou Bridge is original, and the appearance is beautiful. The ancient people said that ;The architecture is so novel that nobody knows how it was constructed. ; The bridge is 64.4 meters long, 9.6 meters wide and the span is 37. 2 meters. It is a single-hole arc bridge made up of 28 comparatively separate arches. The greatest scientific contribution of Zhaozhou Bridge is its pioneering work of ;open spandrel;. At each shoulder of the main arch, there are 2 small parallel arches. This not only increases passages for the running water, decreases the weight of the bridge, and saves stone materials, but also enhances the stability of the bridge. Therefore, though l ,400 years has passed, having undergone many floods, eight earthquakes, and heavy traffic, it is still standing firm over the Jiaohe River. There are many beautiful legends about the construction of Zhaozhou Bridge. In the past, the Jiaohe River overflowed, and the local people could only ferry across by boat. Lu Ban, the carpenters#39; ancestor, turned the sheep into stones overnight to make the bridge. Zhang Guolao and Chai Wangye, two immortals, came to test the solidity of the bridge. Zhang Guolao rode on the don-key-back, facing backward. In the long bag on the donkey-back, there were the sun and the moon. Chai Wangye pushed a one-wheeled cart, on which there were the five famous mountains in China. When they came to the middle of the bridge, it began to shake and was likely to fall down. Seeing the situation was unfavorable, Lu Ban jumped into the water, and held up the bridge with his hands. Luckily, the bridge was safe and sound. So there left on the surface of the bridge clear hoof prints of the donkey and a rut. Lu Ban#39;s fingerprints were also left on the arch of the bridge. Just like what was sung in the folk song ;Child Cowherd;, ;Zhaozhou Bridge was built by Lu Ban, and the boulder railings were left by sages. Zhang Guolao passed the bridge on the donkey-back, and Chai Wangye made a rut by pushing the cart on the bridge. ;赵州桥,又名安济桥,坐落在石家庄东南45千米赵县城南汶河之上,因桥体全部用石料建成,当地俗称大石桥。建于隋代开皇至大业年间(595-605),由匠师李春监造。赵州桥结构新奇,造型美观,古人说它“制造奇特,人不知其所以为”。桥全长64.4米,宽9.6米,跨度37. 02米,是一座由28道相对独立的拱券组成的单孔弧形大桥。赵州桥最大的科学贡献就是它“敞肩拱”的创举。在大拱两肩,砌了四个并列小孔,既增大流水通道,减轻桥身重量,节省石料,又增强了桥身稳定性。这就有力地保了赵州桥在1400年的历史中,经受住了多次洪水冲击,8次大地震摇撼,以及车辆重压,仍挺立在汶河之上。关于赵州桥的建造,有很多美丽的传说。昔日汶河水泛滥,百姓只靠木船摆渡。木匠祖师鲁班一夜之间把羊群化成石头建起大桥。张果老和柴王爷一同来试桥。张果老倒骑毛驴,驴背褡裢里装着日、月;柴王爷推小车,运载着五岳名山,他们行于桥中心,将桥压得摇摇欲坠。鲁班见势不妙,纵身跳入水中,用手将桥托住,石桥安然无恙。至今桥上面还留下了清晰的驴蹄印、车道沟和膝盖印;桥底保留着鲁班的手印。正如民歌《小放牛》所唱的:“赵州石桥鲁班爷修,玉石栏杆圣人留;张果老骑驴桥上走,柴王爷推车轧了一道沟。” /201601/419356MILL VALLEY, Calif. — Seven-year-old Jordan Lisle, a second grader, joined his family at a packed after-hours school event last month aimed at inspiring a new interest: computer programming.加州米尔谷——上个月,7岁的小学二年级学生乔丹·莱尔(Jordan Lisle)和家人参加了一场人满为患的课外活动,活动旨在为学生培养一个新爱好:计算机编程。“I’m a little afraid he’s falling behind,” his mother, Wendy Lisle, said, explaining why they had signed up for the class at Strawberry Point Elementary School.“我有点担心他会落在别人后面,”他的母亲温迪·莱尔(Wendy Lisle)说,这是他们报名参加斯特罗伯里波因特小学(Strawberry Point Elementary School)这个辅导班的原因。The event was part of a national educational movement in computer coding instruction that is growing at Internet speeds. Since December, 20,000 teachers from kindergarten through 12th grade have introduced coding lessons, according to Code.org, a group backed by the tech industry that offers free curriculums. In addition, some 30 school districts have agreed to add coding classes in the fall, mainly in high schools but in lower grades, too. And policy makers in nine states have begun awarding the same credits for computer science classes that they do for basic math and science courses, rather than treating them as electives.一场全国性计算机编程教育运动正在不断扩大,此次活动就是其中的一部分。根据Code.org网站,自去年12月以来,从幼儿园到12年级,共有2万名老师开设了编程课。Code.org是一家由科技行业持的组织,提供免费的课程。除此之外,大约30个校区已经同意在秋季增设编程课,主要是高中,但也包括低年级。九个州的决策者已经开始给计算机科学课设定与数学和理科等基础课程相同的学分,不再将其作为选修课来对待。There are after-school events, too, like the one in Mill Valley, where 70 parents and 90 children, from kindergartners to fifth graders, huddled over computers solving animated puzzles to learn the basics of computer logic.相关的课外活动也在开展,比如在米尔谷的这次活动。活动中,从幼儿园到五年级的90个学生和70名家长围在计算机旁,通过动画智力游戏来学习计算机逻辑的基本知识。It is a stark change for computer science, which for decades was treated like a stepchild, equated with trade classes like wood shop. But smartphones and apps are ubiquitous now, and engineering careers are hot. To many parents — particularly ones here in the heart of the technology corridor — coding looks less like an extracurricular activity and more like a basic life skill, one that might someday lead to a great job or even instant riches.这是计算机科学教育的一个显著改变,几十年来,计算机科学一直受到冷遇,地位与木工课等职业技能课程相差无几。但如今,智能手机和应用程序无处不在,软件工程方面的就业机会炙手可热。对于许多家长来说——尤其是居住在科技走廊核心地带的家长——编程不像是一种课外活动,更像是一种基本的生存技能,说不定哪天可能让你得到一份不错的工作,甚至一夕暴富。The sp of coding instruction, while still nascent, is “unprecedented — there’s never been a move this fast in education,” said Elliot Soloway, a professor of education and computer science at the University of Michigan. He sees it as very positive, potentially inspiring students to develop a new passion, perhaps the way that teaching frog dissection may inspire future surgeons and biologists.编程教学的普及虽然刚刚开始,却呈现出“前所未有之势——教育领域从未有过如此迅速的行动”,密歇根大学(University of Michigan)教育和计算机科学教授埃利奥特·索洛韦(Elliot Soloway)说。他认为这是一个非常积极的现象,可能会激发学生们培养新的爱好,或许就像学习青蛙解剖可能会让更多孩子立志成为外科医生和生物学家那样。But the momentum for early coding comes with caveats, too. It is not clear that teaching basic computer science in grade school will beget future jobs or foster broader creativity and logical thinking, as some champions of the movement are projecting. And particularly for younger children, Dr. Soloway said, the activity is more like a game — better than simulated gunplay, but not likely to impart actual programming skills.不过,一些人也对让儿童过早接触编程的做法发出警告。目前还不清楚,在小学讲授计算机科学的基本知识是否会对未来的工作有帮助,也不清楚这能否培养学生总体上的创造力和逻辑思维。索洛韦说,尤其是对年幼的儿童来说,这种活动更像是视频游戏——比模拟战高级一些,但不太可能学会真正的编程技能。Some educators worry about the industry’s heavy role: Major tech companies and their founders, including Bill Gates and Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, have put up about million for Code.org. The organization pays to train high school teachers to offer more advanced curriculums, and, for younger students, it has developed a coding curriculum that marries basic instruction with games involving Angry Birds and hungry zombies.一些教育专家对这个行业的大举投入表示担忧:一些大型科技公司及其创始人,包括比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)和Facebook的马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckberg),已经为Code.org投资了大约1000万美元(约合6255万人民币)。Code.org提供资金培训高中老师,让他们能够讲授更高级的课程,此外,对于年龄更小的学生,该组织还开发了一套专门的编程课程,把基本的教学内容融入到了《愤怒的小鸟》和《植物大战僵尸》等视频游戏中。The lessons do not involve traditional computer language. Rather, they use simple word commands — like “move forward” or “turn right” — that children can click on and move around to, say, direct an Angry Bird to capture a pig.这些课程不讲授传统的计算机语言,而是使用简单的文字指令——比如“前进”或“向右转”——孩子们可以通过点击和移动的操作,让一只小鸟抓住一只猪。The movement comes with no shortage of “we’re changing the world” marketing fervor from Silicon Valley. “This is strategically significant for the economy of the ed States,” said John Pearce, a technology entrepreneur. He and another entrepreneur, Jeff Leane, have started a nonprofit, MV Gate, to bring youth and family coding courses developed by Code.org to Mill Valley, an affluent suburb across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco.这项活动并不缺少硅谷的那种“我们正在改变世界”的营销狂热。科技创业者约翰·皮尔斯(John Pearce)说,这对美国的经济具有战略意义。他和另外一名创业者杰夫·利恩(Jeff Leane)创办了非盈利组织MV Gate,把Code.org开发的适用于小学生和家庭的编程课程带给米尔谷。米尔谷是一个富裕的郊区,与旧金山之间隔着金门大桥。Parents love the idea of giving children something to do with computers that they see as productive, Mr. Pearce said. “We have any number of parents who say, ‘I can’t take my kid playing one more hour of games,’ ” he said. But if the children are exploring coding, the parents tell him, “ ‘I can live with that all night long.’ ”皮尔斯说,家长们乐于看到孩子们在电脑上做他们认为有意义的事。“无数家长对我们说,‘我不能让我家孩子再玩电脑游戏了’,”他说。但如果孩子们在研究编程,家长们告诉他,“‘编一晚上我也没意见。’”The concept has caught on with James Meezan, a second grader. He attended one of the first “Hour of Code” events sponsored by MV Gate in December with his mother, Karen Meezan, the local PTA president and a former tech-industry executive who now runs a real estate company. She is among the enthusiastic supporters of the coding courses, along with several local principals.这个想法吸引了二年级学生詹姆斯·米赞(James Meezan)。他和妈妈参加了12月份由MV Gate持的“代码时刻”(Hour of Code)活动。他的妈妈凯伦·米赞是当地家长教师联谊会(PTA)主席、前科技行业高管,目前经营着一家房地产公司。她和几名当地校长都非常持编程课程。Her son, she said, does well in school but had not quite found his special interest and was “not the fastest runner on the playground.” But he loves programming and spends at least an hour a week at CodeKids, after-school programs organized by MV Gate and held at three of Mill Valley’s five elementary schools.她说,她的儿子在学校表现很好,但是没有找到自己特别的兴趣,也“不是操场上跑的最快的那个”。但他喜欢编程,每周至少花一小时参加MV Gate组织的课后项目CodeKids。该项目已经在米尔谷的五所小学开展。James, 8, explained that programming is “getting the computer to do something by itself.” It is fun, he said, and, besides, if he gets good, he might be able to do stuff like get a computer to turn on when it has suddenly died. His mother said he had found his niche; when it comes to programming, “he is the fastest runner.”八岁的詹姆斯解释说,编程就是“让计算机自己做事”。他说这很有趣,此外,如果他做的好,说不定能够让计算机突然死机的时候自动重启。他的妈妈说,他发现了自己的兴趣点;在编程上,“他是跑的最快的那一个”。Well into the session, the youngsters were digging in, moving basic command blocks to get the Angry Bird to its prey, and then playing with slightly more complex commands like “repeat” and learning about “if-then” statements, an elemental coding concept.活动过程中,现场的孩子都全情投入,移动着基本的指令模块,让愤怒的小鸟抵达目标,然后使用稍微复杂一些的命令,比如“重复”,并学习“if-then”语句——一个基本的编程概念。The use of these word-command blocks to simplify coding logic stems largely from the work of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, which introduced a visual programming language called Scratch in 2007. It claims a following of millions of users, but mostly outside the schools.使用这些文字命令块来简化编程的逻辑,这很大程度上源于麻省理工学院媒体实验室(Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab)的研究成果。这个实验室2007年引入了视觉编程语言Scratch。该机构声称,这种编程语言已经有数百万用户,但大多数都是学校以外的用户。Then, in 2013, came Code.org, which borrowed basic Scratch ideas and aimed to sp the concept among schools and policy makers. Computer programming should be taught in every school, said Hadi Partovi, the founder of Code.org and a former executive at Microsoft. He called it as essential as “learning about gravity or molecules, electricity or photosynthesis.”后来,2013年出现了Code.org,它借鉴了Scratch的基本想法,旨在向学校和决策者传播这个概念。Code.org创始人、前微软高管哈迪·帕尔托维(Hadi Partovi)说,每个学校都应该教授编程。他说编程非常必要,就像“学习重力或分子,电学和光合作用”一样。Among the 20,000 teachers who Code.org says have signed on is Alana Aaron, a fifth-grade math and science teacher in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan. She heard about the idea late last year at a professional development meeting and, with her principal’s permission, swapped a two-month earth sciences lesson she was going to teach on land masses for the Code.org curriculum.Code.org称,已有2万名老师注册该项目。曼哈顿华盛顿高地社区五年级的数学和自然科学老师阿兰娜·亚伦(Alana Aaron)是其中之一。她去年在一个职业发展会议上听说了这个项目,在获得了校长同意之后,她放弃了原本打算教授的长达两个月的关于陆地的地球科学课程,将其换成了Code.org的课程。“Computer science is big right now — in our country, the world,” she said. “If my kids aren’t exposed to things like that, they could miss out on potential opportunities and careers.”“计算机科学现在很重要——在美国和全世界都是如此,”她说。“如果我的学生们没有接触到这样的东西,他们可能会错过潜在的机遇和工作机会。” /201412/347277

  

  Sebastian Thrun, former head of the Google X — the advanced projects lab set up to make big bets on the future — knows all about technological ambition. Driverless cars, high-altitude balloons providing internet access and contact lenses that monitor blood sugar levels were all products that flowered under his leadership.谷歌(Google)成立先进项目实验室Google X是为了对未来进行重大的。该实验室前负责人塞巴斯蒂安#8226;特伦(Sebastian Thrun)深谙什么才是科技雄心。无人驾驶汽车、提供互联网接入的高空轻气球以及监测血糖水平的隐形眼镜,都曾是他领导的研发项目。But when it comes to the Android operating system for mobile devices, Mr Thrun says this is not the time for Google to pursue bold new visions. With smartphone wars well advanced, he believes it is now all about smaller incremental advances, as Apple and Google slug it out for global advantage.但对于面向移动设备的Android操作系统,特伦说,现在不是谷歌追求大胆新愿景的时候。随着智能手机的竞争不断深化,随着苹果(Apple)和谷歌激烈争夺全球优势,他认为,现在的关键在于小步快跑。“You can have great visions, but change takes implementation, it takes small steps,” Mr Thrun said last week, after watching the opening presentation at Google I/O, the group’s annual technology showcase event. “What I saw was Android playing out, Android getting into the mature phase.”在看过上周谷歌年度科技展示大会(Google I/O)的开幕演讲后,特伦说:“你可以有伟大的愿景,但改变需要执行,需要走小步……我看到的是Android正在竭尽全力,正在进入成熟阶段。”Sameer Iyengar, a former Google employee who is now a co-founder of app maker Beautylish, questioned whether Google was being bold enough in laying out its tech vision: “The thought leadership is maybe absent, compared to where it was in the past,” he suggested.谷歌前员工、现为应用(app)制造商Beautylish联合创始人的萨米尔#8226;延加(Sameer Iyengar),质疑谷歌在阐述其科技愿景方面有足够的胆略:“与过去相比,思想领导力可能相对缺乏,”他提出。However, he credited Google with taking a lead in at least one area: machine learning — a form of artificial intelligence that the company says is being used to enhance its mobile software and make apps on Android work better.然而,他认为值得肯定的是,谷歌至少在一个领域保持领先地位:机器学习。该公司称,这种人工智能正被用于增强移动设备软件,并使Android平台上的应用更好运行。Applications of AI were among the most eye-catching demonstrations at last week’s event, underlining Google’s aims of using its massive computing base and advanced algorithms to make its services far more relevant and useful.人工智能的应用是上周大会上最受关注的演示之一,凸显谷歌的目标,即利用庞大计算能力和先进算法,使其务更具相关性和有用性。On at least one measure, Android has been a spectacular success. Conceived by Google as a defensive strategy to ensure its internet services were not locked out of mobile handsets by companies such as Apple or Microsoft, the software has turned into the dominant smartphone platform, accounting for about 80 per cent of the market worldwide.至少从一个方面衡量,Android已经是一个巨大的成功。当初谷歌研发Android系统是作为一种防御性策略,目的是确保其互联网务不被苹果或者微软(Microsoft)等公司的移动设备挡在门外。如今该软件已成为占主导地位的智能手机平台,占全球市场约80%的份额。But there is a hard slog ahead. With a disparate group of handset makers in the Android camp, the platform has struggled to match the more polished set of services and hardware that Apple has built around the iPhone, such as Apple Pay and, more recently, Watch.但前方的路也很艰难。由于Android阵营包括形形色色的手机制造商,该平台一直难以赶上苹果围绕iPhone打造的、更为精致的务和硬件,如Apple Pay以及最近的苹果手表(Apple Watch)。Also, to make money, Google needs to reinforce the prominent position of its own services at a time when the open-source Android world threatens to break apart. Hardware makers, ranging from Amazon to Xiaomi, are now looking to use Android as a platform for their own app stores and services — displacing Google.此外,为了创收,谷歌需要在开放源的Android世界有分裂危险之际,加强自身务的突出地位。从亚马逊(Amazon)到小米(Xiaomi),很多硬件制造商正希望利用Android作为自己应用商店和务的平台,取代谷歌。“They have to make sure Android doesn’t just degenerate into low-end devices and fragmentation,” says Al Hilwa, an analyst at IDC, the tech research firm.科技研究公司IDC的分析师阿尔#8226;希尔瓦(Al Hilwa)说:“他们必须确保Android不会就此沦为低端设备和割据状态。”If that were not enough, Google has to deal with the consequences of its own, expansive vision. This has taken Android into a broad array of new markets, from “smart” home appliances to cars. “Where Apple is always very focused on a few product categories, Google wants to be in everything,” says Jan Dawson of Jackdaw Research. “It’s hard for Google to keep making meaningful progress across all those different domains and keep up with Apple.”如果这些还不够,谷歌还必须应对其广阔愿景带来的后果。这一愿景已将Android带入了一系列新市场,从“智能”家电到汽车。“苹果永远紧紧聚焦于几种产品类别,而谷歌什么都想涉猎,”Jackdaw Research的简#8226;道森(Jan Dawson)表示。“谷歌很难在所有这些不同领域都不断取得有意义的进展,赶上苹果。”Winning the hearts and minds of app developers — the focus of Google I/O last week, and the rival Apple developer conference next week — has become a key part of the battle. Creating a marketplace where app developers can make money has been at the heart of Apple’s formula for encouraging them to do their best work first for its mobile devices.赢得应用开发者的拥护和持——上周Google I/O大会以及苹果下周的开发者大会的主要焦点——已成为这场竞争的关键部分。创建一个应用开发者能够从中赚钱的市场,一直处于苹果模式的核心,为的是鼓励他们首先尽心尽力为苹果的移动设备开发出最好的应用。But the Android world has been catching up. For most developers, the calculation is now finely balanced. Like many, Mr Iyengar says his app reaches far more people on Android devices but, on an individual basis, iOS customers are more profitable for his company.但是,Android世界在紧紧追赶。对大多数开发者来说,如今两边的份量差不多。和许多人一样,Beautylish的延加称,虽然其应用面向多得多的Android设备用户,但就每个用户而言,iOS用户为其公司带来的利润更多。Google’s Play Store had been gaining ground as a source of income for developers, but the momentum in recent months turned back to Apple. Tero Kuittinen, managing director of Magid Associates, a consultancy, and an adviser to several gaming companies, says app makers were “taken aback” by the shift, which followed the launch of larger iPhones. However, according to at least some industry estimates, the sheer weight of numbers is finally starting to play in Android’s favour — even if Google is not the only beneficiary.谷歌的Play Store作为开发者的收入来源一度取得进展,但最近几个月势头又转回了苹果。咨询公司Magid Associates董事总经理、为几家公司提供咨询的特罗#8226;库伊蒂宁(Tero Kuittinen)说,这一转变是在苹果推出更大的新款iPhone之后发生的,应用制造商对这种转变“大吃一惊”。然而,至少某些行业评估显示,数量优势终于开始有利于Android——即使谷歌不是唯一的受益者。Apple’s App Store accounts for around 45 per cent of the revenue that developers make from apps, compared to 29 per cent for Google’s Play, according to Digi-Capital. But, counting in the income from handsets in China where Google’s apps are blocked — meaning it makes no money — pushes the overall Android share to 52 per cent, Digi-Capital calculates.精品投资Digi-Capital的数据显示,开发者从应用获得的营收中,约45%来自苹果App Store,29%来自谷歌Play Store。但是,根据Digi-Capital的统计,若加上来自中国的手机的收入(谷歌的应用在中国遭封锁,意味着谷歌本身无钱可赚),Android的整体市场份额将升至52%。Last week, matching and trying to surpass Apple was a strong subtext of Google’s pitch to developers. New features included Android Pay, a rival to Apple Pay and a fresh attempt to break into mobile payments after the disappointment of Google Wallet.上周,赶上并试图超越苹果是谷歌传递给开发者的强大潜台词。新的功能包括与Apple Pay竞争的Android Pay,这是自Google Wallet令人失望之后谷歌进军移动付领域的新尝试。A new Google Photos app, with the promise of software that can automatically organise libraries of pictures, also echoed capabilities that are aly offered by Apple.一款承诺可自动整理照片图库的新款谷歌照片应用Google Photos,也呼应了苹果早已提供的功能。But in other areas, Google seemed unprepared. While smartwatches based on last year’s Android Wear technology have been put in the shade by the recent launch of Apple Watch, Google had little new to show off in response. This was a sign that it is surrendering early leadership in wearables to Apple, according to Carolina Milanesi, an analyst at Kantar Worldpanel.但在其他领域,谷歌似乎毫无准备。虽然近期Apple Watch的推出使基于去年Android Wear技术发布的智能手表相形见绌,但谷歌没有任何新技术作为回应。Kantar Worldpanel分析师卡罗琳娜#8226;米拉内西(Carolina Milanesi)表示,这标志着谷歌正向苹果让出可穿戴设备领域的早期领先地位。Yet some of the latest attempts to extend the Android universe clearly play to Google’s strengths. Its new photos app, for instance, offers free storage for an unlimited number of pictures, echoing the launch of Gmail, the company’s free email service, in 2004, although the cost of storage has fallen greatly since then and has become less of a competitive differentiator.然而,最近一些扩展Android世界的尝试显然有助于发挥谷歌的优势。例如,谷歌新的照片应用可提供无限量的免费图片存储,呼应了2004年谷歌推出Gmail免费电子邮件务之举,尽管自那以来存储成本已大幅降低,不再是那么大的竞争差异化工具。Sucking in large volumes of photos also presents a new opportunity for Google to add to its aly substantial mass of data about users. Company executives say they have not made plans to scan the pictures for advertising purposes but make no secret of the fact that a person’s photo library comprises a highly valuable source of information about them.吸收海量的照片也为谷歌提供了新的机遇,可扩大其已拥有的大量用户数据。谷歌高管表示,他们并没有为广告目的而扫描图片的计划,但并不掩饰这样一个事实,即一个人的照片库包含有关他/她的极有价值的信息。Meanwhile, to improve the experience of using Android handsets in emerging markets, where low-end hardware and unreliable networks often hamper performance, Google has announced new ways of using its services offline. These included the ability to view maps and directions while not connected.同时,为了改善在新兴市场中(低端硬件和不稳定的网络经常妨碍性能)使用Android手机的体验,Google发布了离线使用其务的新方法,包括在没有网络连接的情况下查看地图和导航。They all represent attempts by Google to shift more of the value to its own services rather than embed it in the Android open-source software, says Mr Hilwa — a way to ensure that Google remains at the centre of the Android universe.IDC的希尔瓦说,这些都表明谷歌试图将更多的价值转移到自己的务中,而非嵌入在开放源代码的Android软件中,以此确保谷歌始终处于Android世界的中心。 /201506/378549

  

  A Germanwings Airbus A320 crashed Tuesday morning in the French Alps, with approximately 150 people on board. In a statement to the press, French President Francois Hollande articulated the worst fears of the friends and relatives of those on board.24日,德国之翼航空公司一架载有150人的空客A320飞机在法国阿尔卑斯山区坠毁。在面向媒体的声明中,法国总统奥朗德谨慎地请机上人员的亲友做好最坏打算。“The conditions of the accident, which have not yet been clarified, suggest that there might not be any survivors,” he said.他说:“目前尚不清楚空难发生时的情况,但现状显示可能没有生还者。”Now that one of the plane’s black box recorders has been found, authorities stand a better chance of determining what exactly went wrong. These devices document radio transmissions, pilot voices and such information as the plane’s altitude and speed. They are required on all large commercial aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration, and they are often critical to uncovering the cause of a crash.现在遇难飞机的一个黑匣子已经找到,权威机构更有把握来确定到底哪里出了问题。黑匣子会记录下无线电通信、飞行员声音以及飞机的飞行高度和速度等信息。美国联邦航空要求所有大型商用飞机上都必须配备黑匣子,对揭晓事故原因,黑匣子通常是关键所在。Despite their importance, black boxes use technology that is hardly state-of-the-art. Older units store data on magnetic tape, and while newer units use digital technology, they still have to be found at the crash site, which is not an exact science by any means. For example, after Air France Flight 447 crashed in 2009, the flight data recorder wasn’t recovered until 2011.但尽管它们如此重要,黑匣子采用的却并非最新技术。老式设备用磁带来存储数据,新一些的设备虽然采用了数字存储技术,但依然只有在事故现场找到才能调取数据,而搜寻黑匣子并非一门精密科学。例如,法国航空447号班机于2009年坠毁,但机上的飞行数据记录仪直到2011年才被找到。A company that’s currently addressing the deficiencies in this system is Canada’s Flyht Aerospace Solutions. It offers an Automated Flight Information System, which costs approximately 0,000 to install, can live-stream the airplane’s performance data, and sends updates from the cockpit every five to 10 minutes. Most importantly, the system can recognize such irregularities as deviations in the flight path, and responds by streaming data every second.一家加拿大公司Flyht Aerospace Solutions正在致力于解决这种系统缺陷。它推出了一种自动化飞行信息系统,安装成本约为10万美元,可实时传输飞机的性能数据,并每隔5-10分钟更新驾驶舱相关数据。最重要的是,该系统可识别航线偏离等异常状况,,一旦发生,它会立即传输每秒数据来报告。Other airlines are pursuing similar upgrades. In January, Bloomberg reported Qatar Airways plans to equip its fleet with an automatic tracking system amid an industry-wide push to prevent incidents such as the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 last year in the Indian Ocean.其他航空公司也在探索类似的技术升级。1月份,据彭社报道,卡塔尔航空计划为其机组配备一种自动追踪系统,并希望在全行业起到一定的推动作用,以避免再度发生去年马航MH370航班那样的失联悲剧。The technology is being tested now ahead of a fleet-wide rollout. It transmits data from a plane’s flight-data recorder to the airline operations center, Chief Executive Officer Akbar Al Baker told Bloomberg.卡塔尔航空首席执行官阿克巴尔o阿尔o贝克对彭社表示,这项技术目前正在进行全面安装前的最后测试,它可将飞机飞行数据记录仪中的数据传输给航空公司的运行控制中心。Not many other airlines plan to follow suit, and the reason for the pushback is simple and predictable: money, notes Mary Schiavo, former inspector general of the Department of Transportation.然而,只有为数甚少的航空公司打算跟进。美国交通部前监察长玛丽o斯齐亚沃指出,航空公司拖延的原因显而易见:说白了就是钱的问题。“[Airlines] simply will not add additional safety measures unless mandated by the federal government,” she told CNN.她对CNN表示:“除非政府做出强制规定,否则[航空公司]不可能增加额外的安全措施。”A more cost-effective improvement is also up for consideration: black boxes that can be ejected from the plane.此外还有一种更具有成本效益的改进方法值得考虑:即可以弹出机外的黑匣子。In January, Reuters reported that the International Civil Aviation Organization, a specialized agency of the ed Nations, had proposed using them on commercial airliners, and they’re aly standard equipment on some U.S. Navy jets. But at approximately ,000 apiece, there’s still resistance to using them. After all, the widely-used, non-deployable recorders manufactured by Honeywell International cost about half that.1月份,路透社报道称,联合国下属的国际民用航空组织建议全世界的商业航班采用这种弹出式黑匣子,而且这种设备在美国海军喷气机上已经是标准配置。但每套弹出式黑匣子的成本约为3万美元,因此它的推行依旧面临阻力。毕竟,目前广泛应用的霍尼韦尔国际公司生产的非弹出式黑匣子价格要便宜一半左右。The Germanwings tragedy is still unfolding, and it’s possible that a considerable amount of time may pass before investigators can determine the probable cause of the crash. Until newer, better technology is adopted across the board in the airline industry, finding out what exactly went wrong in situations such as these is likely to remain a waiting game.德国之翼航空公司的悲剧远未落幕,各方确定事故原因或许仍需相当长的时间。而除非整个航空业采用更新更好的技术,否则,在类似情况下要想查明问题所在,人们依然要等下去。 /201503/367077

  

  

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