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来源:京东对话    发布时间:2019年11月16日 05:29:01    编辑:admin         

The theory that opposites attract is a myth, scientists have found, after discovering that people are only attracted to those who hold the same views and values as themselves.科学家发现人们只会被拥有相同想法、价值观的人所吸引,所谓异性相吸理论纯属子虚乌有。In a finding hailed as a #39;paradigm shift#39; for the understanding of relationships, researchers found that like-minded people will be drawn together but keep their distance from those who do not adhere to their beliefs.研究人员发现志同道合者往往会聚在一起,同时他们会远离跟自己信念相左的人。这一发现被认为颠覆了人们长久以来对人际关系的理解。It suggests that strangers hoping to hit it off would do better to play to their similarities rather than trying to impress the other person with attributes which make them unique.这表明想要跟陌生人交好,与其想方设法彰显自己的独特之处,不如强调你们的共同之处。To find out how important similarity was to forming relationships researchers from Wellesly and the University of Kansas approached more than 1,500 random pairs, including romantic couples, friends and acquaintances, and asked them to complete a survey about their values, prejudices, attitudes and personality traits.为找出志同道合在构建人际关系时的重要性,来自威雷斯利大学和美国堪萨斯大学的研究人员随机调查了1500多对情侣、朋友和熟人,要求他们完成一项关于价值观、偏见、态度和个性特点的调查。The information was then compared to see how similar or different each pair was and to see whether people in longer relationships had more in common.之后研究人员对所得信息进行对比,以调查每一对的相似或相异程度,并看看关系维持得更长久的人是否拥有更多的相似之处。It emerged that all pairings held similar life views even if they had only just met.结果显示每一对都拥有相似的人生观,尽管有些才刚刚认识。In a second experiment, the researchers surveyed pairs who had just met in a college classroom setting, and then surveyed the same pairs later. There was virtually no change in beliefs over time suggesting that if couples go into a relationship hoping to change the opinions of the other it is unlikely to work.在第二项实验中,研究人员调查了大学教室里初识的人,一段时间之后又对他们进行调查。结果显示随着时间流逝他们的观念几乎没变,这就表明如果一个人抱着改变别人想法的态度去交朋友是不太可能成功的。Prof Bahns from Wellesly College said: ;Though the idea that partners influence each other is central in relationships research, we have identified a large domain in which friends show very little change-- personality, attitudes and values, and a selection of socially-relevant behaviors.;威雷斯利大学的巴恩斯教授说:;尽管两人相互影响是人际关系研究的主流观点,但我们已经发现了很多朋友不能改变的地方,比如性格、态度和价值观以及种种社交相关行为。;;To be clear, we do not mean to suggest that social influence doesn#39;t happen in relationships; however, there#39;s little room for influence to occur when partners are similar at the outset of relationships.;要清楚,我们并非是说社交对人际关系没有影响,而是说,如果两人一开始就志趣相投的话,那么社交对人的改变极其有限。;;Anything that disrupts the harmony of the relationship--such as areas of disagreement, especially on attitudes, values, or preferences that are important--is likely to persist.;任何扰乱人际关系和谐的东西,比如两人间的分歧,尤其是态度、价值观或重要的偏好上的分歧,很有可能都不会随时间消弭。;;Change is difficult and unlikely; it#39;s easier to select people who are compatible with your needs and goals from the beginning.;;改变很难也不太可能,最好从一开始就选择跟你的需要和目标一致的人。;However the researchers warn that the quest for similarity in friends could result in a lack of exposure to other ideas, values and perspectives.但是研究人员也提醒道,只寻找跟自己志趣相投的朋友,可能会导致你无法接触到其他的观点、价值观和视角。 /201602/428054。

If you really want to get to know someone, travel with them.如果你真的想了解一个人,就一同出游去吧!Having said that, I’ve heard horror stories, and with a couple plans in the works for future trips with friends. I figured a call in to some people who have successfully traveled with friends for advice on how to keep sane when the trip involves lots of time lounging with my besties.谈及一起出游,我听过他人糟糕的经历。而我筹划了好几个未来与好友们一起旅游的方案,所以我想找某些曾与好友成功出游的人讨教经验,问问他们在与闺蜜共度旅游时光时如何保持清醒。 1. Talk money ahead of time1、提前说好钱的问题When you’re traveling with friends, the topic of money will inevitably come up. It’s a good idea to be upfront about expenses before even booking the tickets.当你与朋友们一起出游,难免不谈及钱这一话题。在订票前就直言费用问题,是个不错的点子哦。Kelly McCann, a professional organizer, said, “Talking about this early on will go a long way toward making sure no one is taken by surprise when you have to bring out that two-letter word: No.”专业活动组织者凯莉·麦卡恩说:“当你不得不因经费问题而否掉某些计划时,大家难免会因此大为吃惊。要想让大伙不为此惊讶,便要早点讨论旅行费用的问题。” /201511/408904。

In 1974, a handful of impoverished Shaanxi farmers were digging a well when they stumbled across one of the most incredible archaeological finds in history: thousands of unique terra-cotta warriors standing guard over the tomb of China#39;s first emperor. The legendary Qin Shi Huang united the warring states of China and built the magnificent tomb—and the stories of his life are just as fascinating as you#39;d expect.1974年的某天,陕西省临潼县的几个农民正在打井,却无意中邂逅了考古史上最令人惊叹的奇迹——秦始皇陵兵马俑。数千个风格迥异的兵马俑屹立千年,守护着中国第一位封建帝王的陵寝,规模之宏大,蔚为壮观。秦始皇横扫六国,一统宇内,修建皇陵,极尽奢华。他用自己的一生书写了一部传奇,令人心驰神往。10.Building The Tomb10.秦始皇陵兵马俑Most people are familiar with the terra-cotta warriors, each with their own unique features and armed with a variety of weapons. But the true scale of the tomb is almost impossible to comprehend, especially considering its construction began around 246 B.C.秦始皇陵兵马俑被誉为;世界第八大奇迹;,闻名遐迩。每个陶俑都具有独特的风格与迥异的武器配备。事实上,秦始皇陵兵马俑规模之宏大远超大家想象,这点从其修建时间便可见一斑:秦始皇陵始建于公元前246年,修建时间共持续37年。The entire complex hasn#39;t even been excavated yet, but archaeologists believe it sprawls over 56 square kilometers (21 mi2) and includes around 600 individual sites. In addition to the terra-cotta soldiers, with their horses and chariots, there are sections of the tomb dedicated to less militaristic figures. There are terra-cotta government officials, terra-cotta musicians with their instruments, acrobats captured in mid-tumble, and even a section mimicking the emperor#39;s worldly court—complete with terra-cotta birds. Work on the complex began when the future Qin Shi Huang rose to a princely throne at the age of 13. Craftsmen from across China were recruited for the massive project and as many as 720,000 laborers were drafted to build it.While Qin Shi Huang#39;s own final resting place hasn#39;t been found yet, it#39;s rumored to be even more incredible than the rest of the complex. Legend claims it#39;s surrounded by deadly rivers of mercury. Worryingly, high levels of mercury have actually been found in the soil around the tomb complex. Not content with rivers of death, Qin Shi Huang#39;s successor ordered that many of the tomb#39;s craftsmen be sealed inside it, ensuring that the first emperor#39;s burial place would be shrouded in secrecy.秦始皇陵至今尚未全部发掘,考古学家认为该陵墓绵延56平方千米,共包含各类陪葬坑约有600处。秦代主张以武力强国,因此秦始皇陵中有大量配备马车与双轮战车的陶俑,富有;战国主义;色。除此之外,陵墓中还有代表不同风格的陶俑,比如:朝中大臣、演奏乐器的伶官、翻滚跳跃着的杂技演员,甚至用陶俑再现了秦代法庭的模样。秦始皇自13岁即位,就开始在骊山修建大型奢华陵墓。全国各地的精兵巧匠参与了这场浩大的工程,有72万人被征募参与了陵墓的修建。尽管秦始皇的;寝宫;陵墓至今尚未发现,但据说其;寝宫;比已发现的陵墓更奢华百倍。传说秦始皇骊山陵有象征汪洋大海川流不息的;水银之河;,是用机械灌注水银而成。唯一令人担忧的是,秦始皇陵附近的土地被检测水银含量超标。为了确保秦始皇的;寝宫;骊山陵的位置能成为永久的秘密。秦二世将参与修建的工人全部埋葬在陵墓之中,无人逃脱陪葬的命运。9.The Dynasty Only Lasted 15 Years9.秦朝统治仅持续了15年When the Warring States period ended in 221 B.C., the victorious King Zheng of Qin renamed himself Shi Huangdi. Today, he#39;s usually referred to as Qin Shi Huang, or ;First Qin Emperor.; But in spite of his massive achievement in unifying China, his dynasty only lasted 15 years. In other words, construction work on his tomb lasted longer than the Qin dynasty ruled China.公元前221年,战国时代结束,中国步入封建大一统.秦国嬴政一统六国,建立秦朝,自称;始皇帝;.今天,我们通常称他为;秦始皇;或;秦朝第一位皇帝;.尽管秦始皇一统中国,功勋卓越,但秦代统治在历史上仅延续了15年,是名副其实的短命王朝.换句话说,秦朝统治时间竟比秦始皇陵兵马俑的修建时间还要短。Qin Shi Huang died suddenly in 210 B.C., leaving almost nothing in place to dictate what should come after him. It was only on his deathbed that he declared his oldest son his heir, a decision that didn#39;t sit well with his closest advisers. Needing to keep the emperor#39;s death a secret while they maneuvered to get his second son into power, his advisers subsequently hid his body in a wagon of rotting fish, knowing that the smell would mask the scent of his corpse.Spurred on by a string of natural disasters and the brutal Qin rule, the people revolted. Civil war ensued, and it wasn#39;t until 202 B.C. that the Han Dynasty would be established and life truly went on. Ironically, during his short reign Qin Shi Huang had dubbed his dynasty ;the Empire of a Thousand Generations.;公元前210年,秦始皇还来不及指点秦代未来江山社稷,就在第5次东巡途中暴毙死亡。令人疑惑的是,秦始皇即位后未立太子,直到死前才在病榻上宣布其继承人。遗憾的是,秦始皇死前宣布的继承人并不符合秦代丞相赵高与李斯的心意。为了帮助秦二世胡亥篡权,他们需要隐瞒秦始皇死亡的事实,于是赵高与李斯将秦始皇的尸体丢在放死鱼的马车上,以死鱼的腐尸味道掩盖秦始皇尸体的气味。秦二世继承皇位后实施残虐暴政,自然灾害频发,百姓生活于水深火热之中。随后人民奋起反抗,陈胜吴广揭竿而起。直到公元前202年,汉朝建立,人民才能安宁地生活。秦始皇即位后,曾多次宣称秦朝统治将延续千年,如今想来,不禁有几分讽刺。8.Rumors Of Illegitimacy8.私生子的传言According to the official story, the man who would become Qin Shi Huang was the son of King Zhuangxiang and a concubine known as the Lady Zhao. After the death of the king, Lady Zhao took another lover, giving Qin Shi Huang the headache of two half-siblings. To make sure that neither ever challenged him, he had them both killed. For good measure, he also killed his mother#39;s lover and had his mother arrested.据正史记载 ,秦始皇是秦庄襄王与其小妾赵姬之子 。庄襄王薨逝后(译者注:指王侯之死) ,赵姬又有了一个情夫,还给秦始皇生了两个惹事生非的弟弟。为了确保他们不会威胁皇权,秦始皇把两个弟弟都杀了,另外他还处死了母亲的情人并软禁了自己的母亲。Otherwise, not much is known about his early life or family, which may have helped the claims that he was actually illegitimate. Although the story is now considered doubtful, it comes from one of the definitive works of Chinese history, the Records of the Historian by Sima Qian. The author had inherited the position of court historian, choosing castration rather than death after angering a subsequent emperor. After his castration, Sima Qian went on to complete his work, including the story of Qin Shi Huang#39;s true birth. Qin Shi Huang#39;s father, according to the story, was actually a man named Lu Buwei, who would go on to be one of his advisers. A wealthy merchant, one of Lu Buwei#39;s concubines had caught the eye of the king. Naturally, the merchant gave up the concubine—but she was aly pregnant at the time. Lu Buwei knew this, taking solace in the fact that his son would one day inherit the kingdom.另一方面,秦始皇早期的生活及身世不为世人所熟知。而这些情况表明,秦始皇实际上可能是个私生子。尽管这种说法现在广受质疑,但这一说法由司马迁所著的著名史书《史记》所载。司马迁袭父职继任太史令,由于触怒继任的皇帝,在处死和阉割两种刑罚中,他选择了后者。受阉割之刑后,司马迁继续完成他的著作,其中就有关于秦始皇真实身世的故事。据《史记》所载,秦始皇的生父是一个名叫吕不韦的男子,而吕不韦也是他的臣下之一。吕不韦曾是富商,有一次庄襄王看上了他的小妾赵姬。尽管那时赵姬已经身怀六甲,吕不韦也只能主动进献。吕不韦很清楚赵姬怀这一点,他只能自我慰籍他的儿子以后会继位成为诸侯王。7.Mount Taishan7.泰山A UNESCO World Heritage site, Mount Taishan is one of the most culturally important places in China. The majestic mountain has been a sacred site since Neolithic times, and it was in part because of Qin Shi Huang that it continued to be so even after the unification of China.作为联合国教科文组织评选的世界遗产,泰山也是中国最重要的文化景点之一。庄严雄伟的泰山自从新石器时期就是一处圣地。某种程度上泰山一直在扮演这种神圣的角色,甚至延续到秦始皇统一六国后。Even today, the ruins of a massive rock wall can still be seen on the mountain, the last remnant of fortifications built by the State of Qin. After his victory, Qin Shi Huang himself scaled the mountain in order to pay homage for his victory. His pilgrimage began the practice of emperors climbing the mountain after coming to power, firmly establishing it as the cultural center of China. With its 6,600 stone steps, the mountain is host to centuries of historic artifacts, including 1,800 stone tablets and countless inscriptions. Mount Taishan, and the four surrounding mountains later became known as the Five Sacred Mountains, representing the original unification of China.直到今天,山上还能看见大量的岩石城墙的废墟,这些仅存的防御工事是秦国修筑的。统一六国后,秦始皇亲登泰山,以昭示他的丰功伟绩。他的封禅仪式开创了后世皇帝即位必登泰山的先河,由此牢牢树立了泰山是中华文化中心的形象。6600级石阶蜿蜒而上,泰山拥有众多历史悠久的古迹,包括1800块碑碣和数不清的碑文。后来泰山及其余四座大山并称为家喻户晓的;五岳;,共同代表着中国最初的统一。6.The Strange Birth Of Legalism6.法家的奇怪诞生Qin Shi Huang ruled through the principle of legalism. Simply put, legalism dictates that people must earn what they get and pay the price for doing something wrong. Accomplishments lead to promotions and wealth, while making a mistake or breaking the law leads to punishment. Laws need to be clearly stated and public, and the only way to get ahead in life is by following the rules. One of the most famous legalist reformers was Shang Yang, who first presented his theories to King Xiao of Qin. According to the story, the philosopher appeared before the king three times to impart his wisdom. On the first two occasions, the king fell asleep midway through the discussion. The third time, Shang Yang tried a different tack and talked about the use of military might to enforce the law. That got the king#39;s attention, and a fourth meeting for Shang Yang, where the details of legalism were hashed out.秦始皇以法家学说治国。法家学说施行虽简单,却规定了劳有所得、有错必罚;提出;功当其事,事当其言,则赏;功不当其事,事不当其言,则罚;;要求法律规定明确、公布于众,而人们晋升的唯一道路就是遵纪守法。商鞅是法家的代表人物之一,他是第一个向秦孝公提出法家的理论的人。传说商鞅三见孝公,畅谈变法治国之策。在前两次见面中,秦孝公都在讨论中昏昏欲睡。第三次,商鞅尝试了用不同的游说方式,他谈论了关于法律在军队中应用的问题。这勾起了秦孝公的兴趣,于是在第四次和商鞅的会面中,律法实施的细节问题在反复讨论中被敲定。In theory, some of the principles Shang Yang advocated don#39;t sound that bad. The old aristocracy was abolished, replaced with those loyal to the central government. The government itself was centralized, and merit was rewarded. Less popular was the division of the population into small family groups of 5 or 10, with the understanding that if one member did something wrong, the others needed to report it to the government or receive the designated punishment of being cut in half. Ironically, Shang Yang ultimately found himself the victim of some aristocratic plotting and was sentenced to be torn apart by five chariots.在理论上,商鞅的一些主张并没有听起来那么糟糕。他提倡废除旧贵族,取而代之的是那些对朝廷忠心的臣民,提出朝廷作为集权的中心,倡导有功必赏,建议家庭人口以更细的单位划分,每个家庭5个或10个人,同时附带一个规则:当一个成员做错了事,另外的人需要向官衙报告,否则就会被处以腰斩的刑罚。讽刺的是,商鞅最后是被一些贵族密谋陷害,五马分尸而死。翻译:小飞侠 来源:前十网 /201511/412693。

Those who find themselves easily distracted at work may be intellectually superior to their colleagues, according to research.研究发现,在工作中易被分散注意力的人可能比他们的同事智商更高。Intelligent workers may have difficulty concentrating due to the vast number of clever ideas popping into their gifted brains.高智商的人很难集中注意力,是因为他们总能灵光一闪,想出许多绝妙的主意。Bostjan Ljubic, vice president of Steelcase, a workplace solutions company that analysed the findings of neuroscientists and cognitive researchers, said: ;Employers are always on the lookout for the brightest people available, however the difficulty to withstand multiple tasks and distractions in the office affects smart people in the same way as everyone else, if not more.;斯迪凯斯公司通过对神经科学家和认知研究者的调研结果进行分析,为企业提供人力管理解决方案。斯迪凯斯副总裁斯扬·柳比奇说:“雇主们总是在寻找最聪明的人。然而,同其他人一样,聪明人在面对多重任务时也会无从下手,而且在容易走神这件事上,聪明人跟普通人差不多,甚至不如普通人。”The smartest individuals may find it more difficult to decide which ideas to prioritise with distraction leading to, what psychiatrist Dr Ned Hallowell cites as, ;a feeling of inadequacy and inability to deal with the workload as a whole,; the Telegraphreports.英国《每日电讯报》报道称,聪明人不容易分清事务的轻重缓急。引用精神病学士内德·哈洛韦尔的话说就是:这是因为“注意力不集中导致他们无法从全局的角度考虑事情,或者考虑的不够充分。”He added, the smartest brains can ultimately fall short of their own expected potential, as well as failing to live up to their employer#39;s hopes.他补充道,最聪明的脑瓜可能最终却并不能充分发挥它的潜力,达不到雇主原先的期望。Nearly half of more than 10,000 workers, surveyed in 17 countries, said they struggled to concentrate in the office, according to a wellbeing study by Steelcase.斯迪凯斯的幸福研究涵盖了17个国家,共有一万多人接受调查,其中有近一半的人都表示难以集中注意力工作。Increased access to technology has been cited as a possible reason for this lack of focus.影响注意力集中的可能因素之一是科技设备的频繁使用。Research from GlobalWebIndex, cited by Steelcase, says the average time spent on mobile devices has increased by 200 per cent since 2012; while the average smartphone user in the UK checks their phone 221 times every day and the average office worker checks their email around 30 times an hour.斯迪凯斯引用“全球网络指数”的研究称,目前人们在移动设备上平均花费的时间比2012年增长了200%;在英国,人们平均每天看手机221次,白领平均每小时查看邮件30次。The University of California suggest that, ultimately, the average office worker is interrupted or distracted every three minutes.加利福尼亚大学的研究发现,总的来说,白领平均每三分钟就要走一次神。Mr Ljubic said: ;The ways in which we work are changing more rapidly than ever before and the brain is being subjected to stresses and distractions which can lead to overload and statistics show that distractions in the workplace are on the rise.;柳比奇说:“我们的工作方式正在不断变化,变化频率比以前快多了。大脑易于焦虑、走神,由此导致脑部超负荷运转。数据显示,无法专心工作的人的数量正在上升。” /201601/423370。