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2019年09月15日 15:36:05

哈尔滨省第四人民医院妇产科怎样Books and Arts; Book Review;Japanese history;文艺;书评;日本历史;Selective memory;选择性记忆;Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern World. By John Dower.《淡忘之道,铭记之途:现代日本》,约翰·道尔著。As the ghosts of the Pacific war judder back to life in Asia, it seems appropriate to consider how nation states remember, and misremember, the past. Japans current tiffs with its neighbours, China and South Korea, are rooted in the march to war and its undigested aftermath, more than 75 years ago. They are inflamed, however, by different narratives of history, and by national media coverage that is often parochial and amnesiac.近日,太平洋地区发生战争的阴霾再次笼罩着亚洲。现在来思考民族国家是如何铭记及误记历史的,似乎正是时候。日本最近和中韩两个邻国之间起了种种争执,这都源于75年多以前发动的那场战争和它所带来的尚未平复的创伤。然而,各国对历史的记述不同,国家媒体的报道也往往狭隘而有所回避。因此,这些争执被激化了。Conflict and memory are the themes that animate this new collection of essays by John Dower, author of the Pulitzer prize-winning “Embracing Defeat” (1999), which looked at Japan after the second world war. Mr Dower is particularly interested in Japans sanitisation of its military past, but also the way history in general is often a tool used by the powerful.冲突和回忆这两种主题为约翰·道尔这本新散文集赋予了生命。他另著有《拥抱战败》(1999),该书研究了二战后的日本,获得了普利策奖。道尔对于日本粉饰其军国主义历史的行为特别感兴趣,但他也同样关注当权者通常是如何利用历史的。Mr Dower discusses his surprise at hearing his own work cited after 9/11, when American officials evoked the post-war occupation of Japan as a model for post-invasion Iraq. President George W. Bush should have seen that Japan provided “no model” for occupying Mesopotamia, Mr Dower wrote in a strikingly prescient 2002 New York Times op-ed, reproduced here. “To rush to war without seriously imagining all its consequences, including its aftermath, is not realism but a terrible hubris.”在9.11事件之后,美国官员援引了道尔的作品,要求以战后占领日本的模式在入侵伊拉克之后占领该国。道尔表示他听到这一消息以后有些错愕。他在2002年《纽约时报》的社论专栏里极有先见之明地写道:乔治·W·布什总统应该认识到,日本不能为攻占美索不达米亚“提供模式”。“不认真考虑战争的后果、包括可能带来的创伤就匆匆发动战争,这不是现实主义,而是一种可怕的傲慢狂妄。”He returns to the terrain of “Embracing Defeat”, marvelling at how the vicious racial hatreds of the Pacific war dissipated so quickly, as though “turned off like a spigot”. The lesson for Mr Dower is not only that reluctant civilians must be mobilised by propaganda to fight and die, but also that new realities force new biases.回到《拥抱战败》 的主题上,道尔惊叹于太平洋战争深刻的种族仇视竟然平息得如此之快,就像“水龙头一样关掉了”。道尔得到了一个教训:问题不仅仅在于不情愿的平民被政府宣传所鼓动才去拼死一战;还在于新的现实形成了新的偏见。No side, he argues, launched a more sophisticated propaganda blitz than the Japanese, who saw their “mongrel” enemies as biologically inferior. But they were hardly alone. During the war Americans viewed their Asian rivals as “monkeys” or “rats”, but with the start of the occupation, Japan became an ally. The popular racism in the American media more or less stopped, and stayed buried until the 1970s, when Japan emerged as an economic superpower. This resurrected Japanese stereotypes of “predatory economic animals” in Western suits who were launching a new “financial Pearl Harbor”. The spigot of racial hatred had been turned back on.道尔指出,日本人最善于在短时间内对人民进行宣传鼓吹,他们认为那些“杂种”敌人天生就低他们一等。但这种现象并不只出现在日本人身上。战时,美国人把亚洲对手视为“猴子”、“老鼠”;但侵占开始以后,日本就成了他们的盟友。后来,美国媒体中盛行的种族歧视或多或少有所收敛,归于沉寂。直到20世纪70年代,日本以经济超级大国的姿态登上世界舞台,于是西方又老调重弹,把日本视为“穿着西装、掠夺成性的经济野兽”,认为日本正准备发动一场新的“金融珍珠港”之战。种族仇视的水龙头再次拧开了。When the fighting is finished, history is written, inevitably by those in power, observes Mr Dower. The standard American view of the struggle against Japan is that it was just and moral. But this grants little space for the ghastly side of victory, which included the airborne destruction of 66 cities and the incineration of more than half a million civilians. China and Koreas political elites have found it endlessly useful to bang the nationalist drum to unite potentially fractious populations against their old enemy. Japanese conservatives have made it easy for them, whitewashing the past and attempting to pass off Imperial Japans rampage across Asia as a “holy war” against Western colonialism.道尔做出了这样的:当战争结束后,历史将不可避免地由当权者写下。美国人普遍认为对日战争是公正的、合乎道德的。但这份胜利仍然有着极为惨烈的一面——其中日本66座城市遭到空袭破坏,50多万平民灰飞烟灭。中国和韩国的政治精英发现,想要把内心愤怒的民族联合起来对抗其共同的宿敌,敲响民族主义这面大鼓最为有效。日本的保守派粉饰历史,试图将日本帝国在全亚洲的暴行伪装成对西方殖民主义的“圣战”——这给中韩两国的政治精英提供了有利机会。Selective memory is often a harmful feature of childrens education. Japanese high-school textbooks devote impressively little space to the war, reflecting official attempts to “downplay the dark aspects of Japans modern history,” writes Mr Dower. For its part, Chinas government relies on its struggle against Japanese aggression for its historical legitimacy, so memories of wartime atrocities are kept fresh in schools. This helps to explain the strikingly different public reactions to the current island disputes. While the Chinese angrily take to the streets, the Japanese stay at home and watch it on TV.选择性记忆往往不利于对下一代的教育。道尔写道,日本的中学教科书对战争描述极少,反映了官方试图“淡化日本近代史的阴暗面”。在中国这一方面,政府依靠抗日战争来突出其历史合理性,因此学校教育不断提及日本在战时的暴行。这可以解释为什么对于当下的岛屿纠纷两国的公众反应截然不同。中国人愤怒地走上街头抗议,而日本人却待在家里看电视,电视里正是中国人抗议的镜头。For a solution, Mr Dower looks to the 20th-century views of E.H. Norman, a Japan expert and Marxist historian. Like Norman, he feels that most countries need a “revolution from below” against any system that “represses freedom, sacrifices life, and retards the creation of true self-government”. All citizens should be able to challenge the narratives held by elites. At a tense time of toxic nationalism in Asia, this book is a timely reminder of the uses and abuses of history.为了寻求解决方案,道尔研究了日本专家、马克思主义史学家 E.H. 诺曼在20世纪提出的观点。和诺曼一样,道尔认为大多数国家需要一次“自下而上的改革”,推翻所有“压抑自由、牺牲生命、阻碍真正实现自治”的体制。所有公民都应当能够质疑社会精英所持的观点。民族主义正在毒害亚洲国家。在这紧张时刻,道尔的这本书及时地提醒了人们历史是如何被利用和滥用的。 /201208/197408黑龙江四院支持刷信用卡吗The first one to form is Hydrogen. Then, over the next 3 minutes the Universe begins to create two more elements, helium and lithium.We went from a Universe that was infinitely small to a Universe that was light-years in size. In the first 3 minutes, essentially everything interesting that was going to happen in the Universe happened.形成的第一种元素是氢。在接下来的3分钟里宇宙内开始形成其他两种元素:氦和锂。我们赖以生存的宇宙从无比渺小扩大到以光年来衡量大小。从本质上来说,在最初的3分钟宇宙内该发生的有趣的事情都发生了。 Well, not quite. If you were there, you couldnt see it.When we look at the night sky, we can see a literally billions of years into the past. And we think its always been that way. Nope, not true. 380 thousand years after the Big Bang, thats when the Universe began to become transparent. But before then, it was milky.其实,也未必。就算你在这里,也看不见。当我们望向夜空,我们能看见过去几十亿年前星球发出的光,从字面上来说是几十亿年前。而且我们认为自古以来就是这样。不,其实不是这样。宇宙大爆炸38万年后,宇宙开始变得透明起来。但是之前,宇宙内部则浑浊不清。There was a milky soup of loose electrons. The young Universe has to cool down enough for the electrons to slow down and stick to new atoms. It took a long time for all of the hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms in the Universe to form. Scientists calculate it took 380 thousand years for the electrons to slow down enough so that the Universe could start mass producing atoms. When that happens, the milky fog clears. The first light escapes and raises across the Universe.就像一锅充满松散电子的浓汤。年轻的宇宙渐渐冷却,电子也随之放慢速度,粘附于新生代原子。经过了很长时间,宇宙内氢原子,氦原子和锂原子才全部形成。科学家们计算,电子经过38万年才将速度减得足够慢,这样宇宙才开始大量生产原子。批量生产原子的同时,宇宙内浑浊的迷雾也开始消散。第一束光逃逸出来,在宇宙内无限延伸。Nearly 14 billion years later, two young scientists in New Jersey picked it up by accident.In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were mapping radio signals across our galaxy. Everywhere they looked, they picked up a strange background hum. They first suspected their equipment, maybe pigeon droppings on the antenna were causing the strange signal. But after cleaning the antenna, the mysterious hum remained, so much for pigeon droppers.大约140亿年后,两位年轻的科学家在新泽西偶然接收到这束光波。1964年,阿诺·彭齐亚斯和罗伯特·威尔逊在映射系的无线电信号。不论从哪个方向,他们都会接收到一种奇怪的背景辐射噪音。开始他们怀疑是设备的问题,也许是鸽子落到天线上的粪便导致的。但是清理完天线后,那种神秘的嗡嗡声依然存在,也就排除了鸽子粪便这一因素。Penzias delivered a talk at Princeton University. And according to law, one person in the back said,;either you have discovered the effects of bird-droppings or the creation of the Universe.;彭齐亚斯在普林斯顿大学的举行了一场讲座。根据物理定律,一位后排的人说道:“要么你发现了鸟粪的作用,要么你发现了宇宙的起源。”201205/184169Not only are they moving, but they are flying away from earth at incredible speeds. This was the first real evidence of the Big Bang.星系们不仅仅是在移动,而且是在以惊人的速度飞离地球。这是持大爆炸宇宙学的第一个有力据。All galaxies on average are moving away from us, and stranger still, those that were twice as far away were moving twice as fast.基本上所有的星系都在远离我们,也包括未知的星体。距离我们两倍远的星体,以两倍的速度在退移。And those that were three times as far away, were moving three times as fast and so on. Everything was moving away from us.那些距离我们三倍远的物质,以三倍的速度退移,如此类推。 It became known as Hubbles Law. His discovery is still the starting point for exploration of the Big Bang.这就是著名的哈勃定律。直到现在,他的发现仍然标志着大爆炸学说的开端。What Hubble convincingly demonstrated by seeing the motion of those galaxies is that the universe is expanding.这条定律是哈勃通过观测星体的退移所得,充分明了宇宙膨胀论。Theoretically, an expanding universe must have started from a single point.理论上说,膨胀的宇宙开始于一个体积小,密度超大的粒子。By measuring how fast the universe is expanding, astronomers calculated backwards and figured out when it burst into life.通过测量宇宙膨胀的速度,天文学家计算往后推算,计算出了大爆炸的发生时间。People ask the question, how do you know that the universe is 13.7 billion years old.有人会问:你们怎么知道宇宙开始于137亿年前。I mean, smarty-pants, you werent there 13.7 billion years ago.我是说,你们是在自作聪明,137亿年前你可不在这里。Well, when you watch television on tape, you hit the stop button when you see an explosion, and you could run it backwards and see when it actually took place.不,打个比方,看录像的时候,遇到爆炸的画面,按下回放键,录像就会回放,你可以看到爆炸是何时发生的。The same thing takes place with cosmology. We can run the tape backwards and then calculate when it all came from a cosmic explosion.研究宇宙学也是如此。我们可以倒带回放,然后计算宇宙大爆炸开始的时间。You dont have to be an astronomer to look back in time.不是天文学家,你也可以观望到过去的时间。If you gaze up at the night sky, youre seeing stars that are millions of light years away, meaning it took the light from those stars millions of years to get here.凝望夜空,你看到的星星离你有百万光年的距离,也就是说,这些星星的发出光要经过几百万光年才能抵达这里。So, if you look far enough, you should be able to see the beginning of the universe.因此,如果观测得足够远,就会看到宇宙的开始。Named for the ground breaking astronomer, the Hubble Space Telescope allows us to look deep into the universe, back in time and closer to the moment of the Big Bang.以这位河外天文奠基人物命名的哈勃望远镜能帮助我们深入得窥测宇宙,回望过去的时间,越来越接近爆炸的瞬间。But for scientists, winding back the clock to the Big Bang was only the first step.但是对科学家来说,把时钟拨回到大爆炸只是第一步。201205/181724平房区儿童医院医生的QQ号码

巴彦县人流好不好富裕县人流一般多少钱Science and technology.科技。Animal testing.动物实验。Be nice to mice.善待小鼠。and they may return the favour.它们可能会知恩图报。Home, sweet home.家,舒适的家。ONLY one drug of every ten successfully tested in laboratory animals ends up working in people. One reason, of course, is that mice are not men. Another, though, might have to do with the fact that whereas human patients are afforded all manner of creature comforts, their animal proxies are not.用实验动物试验成功的药物最终只有十分之一对人体起效。原因之一当然是:老鼠毕竟不是人。但另一个原因可能是,患病的实验动物无法像人类患者一样能够得到方方面面的呵护。Although medical sciences favourite critters relish temperatures of a little over 30°C, laboratories routinely keep them at five or ten degrees below that. This is not in order to torture the beasts but, rather, because when kept warm they are unmanageably aggressive. The downside is that they have to eat more than they otherwise would, in order to keep their bodies warm. That changes their physiology. And that in turn alters the way they metabolise drugs, with possibly confusing results.虽然老鼠这种医学实验最喜欢使用的啮齿动物偏爱呆在稍高于30摄氏度的环境里,但实验室却常被控制在比这低5到10摄氏度的温度上。这并不是要存心虐待这些动物,而是因为当环境暖和了,它们会变得十分好斗,很难应付。而这样做的弊端是动物们为了保持体温,要比平常吃得更多。这样动物的生理机能就会有所改变,因此会影响到药物在动物体内的代谢,出来的实验结果也可能会很费解。Joseph Garner, of Stanford University, thinks the answer is to keep the labs cool, but let mice cope with the low temperatures as they do in their natural habitat: not by eating more but by building nests. So far, though, no one has a clear idea of how much nesting material is needed to keep mice happy. Dr Garner and his colleagues therefore decided to find out. They have just reported their results in the Public Library of Science.斯坦福大学的约瑟?加纳(Joseph Garner)认为,解决办法就是令实验室保持低温,但让老鼠们像在自然环境中一样通过筑巢(而非吃得更多)来自行应对低温。不过至今都没有人清楚到底需要多少材料才能让老鼠们筑一个舒适的窝。于是约瑟?加纳士及其同事决定要弄清这点,他们的实验结果刚刚发表在《公共科学图书馆》上。Dr Garner and his team let each of their mice, 36 males and as many females from three strains commonly used in trials, roam free in two cages connected by a narrow tube. One cage was kept constant at one of six temperatures between 20°C and 35°C. The other was maintained at 20°C but was stocked with up to ten grams of finely shredded paper, which the mice could use to weave a nest. The idea was to check whether the animals would rather build a nest in the cooler cage or move to the warmer one, possibly tugging nesting material along with them strand by strand.约瑟?加纳士及其实验小组让所有老鼠(公鼠、母鼠各36只,属于三个常用于实验的品系)在两个由一条窄通道相连的笼子里自由活动。其中一个笼子的温度保持在20-35摄氏度之间(总共有六档温度)。另一个温度保持在20摄氏度,但里面储有多达十克撕得很碎的纸条,以供老鼠们用来筑窝。实验目的是看看老鼠们是会在更冷的笼子里筑巢还是会移居到更暖的笼子里(可能还会将筑巢用的纸条一条条拖过去)。The researchers found that the rodents preferences varied slightly between strains, as well as between sexes (with females partial to higher temperatures, possibly because of their thinner protective layer of fat), confirming that there is no single set of conditions in which all mice feel cosy. In general, though, with little nesting material around, the animals laboriously carried strands of paper over to the warmer spot, one or two at a time. But leave at least six grams of paper in the chilly cage, and many mice will prefer instead to brave the cold and build a nest there. That seems a small price to pay for better drug trials.研究者发现,老鼠们的偏好稍有差别,与性别和品系都有关(母鼠偏爱较暖和的环境,可能是由于其脂肪保护层比较薄),这就明没有一个温度能让所有老鼠都感觉舒适。但通常在周围没什么筑窝的材料时,老鼠们会费力地将纸条拖至更暖的地方,每次一到两条。不过如果在温度较低的笼子里放至少六克纸条,那么会有很多老鼠宁愿忍受寒冷,在那里筑窝。用六克纸条就能让药物试验有更好的效果,这个代价看来微不足道。 /201209/199823黑龙江第八人民医院引产需要多少钱哈尔滨哪家做无痛人流做的好

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