时间:2019年07月22日 14:18:11

It was with a mixture of scepticism and excitement that I headed for my British citizenship ceremony.当我前去参加自己的英国入籍仪式时,心中掺杂着怀疑和兴奋的感觉。Rituals have never been my thing. I haven’t been to any of my own graduations, despite having had three such opportunities. Dress up in an overpriced robe, listen to lofty lectures then clap for hours while queueing to receive a decorative piece of paper from a total stranger. How about no? Some weddings I find equally ridiculous. Why invite your favourite people from all geographies to one place just to not hang out with them? Instead of catching up, the couple reaches the pinnacle of a once-in-a-lifetime feat of logistics, recites a legally binding incantation and disappears on holiday.仪式从来都不是我喜欢的场面。我没参加过自己任何一次毕业典礼,尽管有过三次这样的机会。穿着昂贵的礼盛装出席,听着长达数小时豪情壮志的演讲而后鼓掌,同时排着长队等待从一个完全陌生的人手中接到装点门面的一纸文书。没有又能怎么样?我发现有些婚礼也是一样的荒谬。为什么要把你喜欢的人从各地请到一个地方,只为了不和他们共聚?新婚夫妇不和朋友们叙旧,而只是专注于完成自己的终身大事,背诵一句具有法律约束力的咒语,然后就消失度蜜月去了。By contrast, the ritual by which one completes the final step to becoming British proved surprisingly enjoyable. The ceremony I enrolled in took place two weeks ago in a south London registry office. The weather was on form — a mixture of grey skies, indecisive rain and occasionally worrying thunder. There was tea, biscuits and a longer wait than I was expecting before we even began. All in, it was the perfect setting in which to cement one’s place in the UK — in my case, after having studied here for seven years and worked for six, with stints in a couple of other countries in between.相比之下,成为英国人的最后一步的仪式却愉悦得令人意外。我参加的那场仪式是最近在伦敦南部的登记办公室进行的。天气中规中矩——灰蒙蒙的天空、连绵不断的细雨、偶尔响起的令人担忧的雷声。官方准备了茶和饼干,仪式开始前等待的时间比我预期的长些。所有这一切构成了夯实外国人在英国地位的完美情境——就我而言,这种身份是在英国学习了7年、工作了6年(其间曾在另外两个国家短期居住)之后才获得的。But something important was missing from the proceedings. Namely natives. Each soon-to-be Brit could bring up to two guests, and most appeared to be relatives or close friends. There wouldn’t have been space for more.但是,过程中少了某些很重要的事——本土英国人。每个准英国人都可以带来两位客人,其中多数客人似乎都是亲戚或密友。现场也没有场地让更多人参加。The danger of holding these ceremonies in small rooms off to the side is that few British people bear witness to the successes of settled migrants. Instead there are just headline statistics that group everyone together: those coming here to study, as I did back in 1997; or to work; or, in the case of refugees, to reach safety. Big faceless numbers can stoke fears about how many incomers the country can support, even though not all become permanent residents.在一个不起眼的地点的某个小房间内举行这类仪式的危险在于,鲜有英国人能亲眼见新移民的成功。相反,人们看到的是把同一类人捆绑在一起的整体数据:那些像我这样1997年就来英国学习的人;或者来英工作的人;再或者那些为了获得安全的难民。不分个体的大数字激起人们对这个国家能够承受多少移民的恐惧,即使并非所有来英国的人都会成为永久居民。What is clear, however, is that, for those who make it all the way to citizenship, it’s something to be celebrated by all. Ideally in a more public and personalised manner.然而,显而易见的是,对于那些终于成功入籍的人来说,这是值得所有人庆祝的事。在理想情况下,最好是以更加公开而个性化的方式来庆祝。It wouldn’t be practical for every citizenship ceremony to be open to a broader audience, of course. But, when naturalisation is approved, there could be an invitation to apply for a more elaborate public ceremony. From the applicants, a diverse group of people could be selected — from different parts of the world and professions. Much like how the recent “I am an immigrant” poster campaign in the UK did, when its organisers endeavoured to highlight the positive side of migration. A Polish firefighter was featured on one poster; a Syrian occupational therapist on another; and, full disclosure, this FT columnist made an appearance.当然,让每一场入籍仪式都向更多观众开放也不实际。但是,当入籍获得批准后,不妨邀请人们申请参加一个比较隆重的公众仪式。有关方面可以遴选来自世界不同地区、不同职业、形形色色的申请者来参加。就像英国最近“我是移民”的海报活动(其组织者努力彰显移民的积极面)。一名波兰消防员上了海报;还有一名叙利亚的职业理疗师也出现在海报上;基于全面披露原则,身为英国《金融时报》专栏作家的笔者也出现了。Given a larger venue, we could add local dignitaries, perhaps an MP, plus a touch of pomp and circumstance. This might entice British-born residents to accept invitations, without regarding the event as a duty akin to jury service. More tickets for applicants to give to friends and neighbours would further increase turnout.有了更大的场地,我们还可以邀请当地政要,或许请一位议员到场,再把排场搞得稍微隆重些。这或许会促使本土出生的居民也能欣然接受邀请,而不是把这当做类似于陪审团工作的义务。申请者可以向朋友和邻居分发的入场票更多,出席仪式的人数也会进一步增加。To make it more personal, would-be Brits could write their own vows in addition to the usual affirmation of allegiance. And participants could also do something natives struggle with but enjoy hearing others do: say how wonderful the UK is. Coming from the US, I’d have liked the chance to say how grateful I am for the National Health Service. I love it when, at the end of a doctor’s appointment, you just walk out. Straight past reception. There’s no “Show me your insurance, this is the co-payment you have to make, please can I have your credit card”. Having a health service looking after you, rather than a medical industry profiting from you, is just wonderful.为了使入籍更加个性化,准英国人不妨在标准版本的效忠誓词以外加入自己所写的誓词。同时,参与者还可以做一些本土居民自己很纠结、但又喜欢听到别人做的事:诉说英国有多么美好。来自美国的我,很愿意能有个机会表达一下自己对英国国民保健体系(NHS)的感激之情。医生问诊结束后,你可以一走了之,我非常喜欢这一点。直接走过前台。没有什么“给我看看你的保险,这是你必须做出的共同付,请把你的信用卡给我”之类的流程。拥有一个照顾你的医疗体系、而不是一个从你身上获利的医疗行业,那感觉太美妙了。Others less fortunate than me — trading one peaceful, developed country for another — would have even more solemn things to say.我是从一个和平的发达国家入籍到另一个和平的发达国家,没我那么幸运的人甚至会有更多事情需要郑重表达。As the UK prepares to welcome more migrants of all kinds, ceremonies should be open to the public to celebrate both those who make this country their permanent home and those born here who welcome them. Tea, biscuits, bad weather and all.在英国准备欢迎更多形形色色的移民之际,入籍仪式应该向公众开放,既让那些在英国安居乐业的人庆祝,也让出生在英国的本土人有机会欢迎他们加入。茶、饼干、坏天气以及所有的一切。 /201510/406663

The intermingling of different religions and the position of Lamaism : Like the Tang Dynasty, when many religions came to China from the West and from the inland of Asia, Yuan China as open to the merchants coming from the West, who had different religious beliefs.各类宗教的兼蓄并容与喇嘛教的地位:和唐朝时期一样,当来自西方和亚洲内陆的各种宗教传人中国的时候,元朝总是敞开大门,欢迎这些来自西方的、具有不同宗教信仰的商人。Muslims were special allies of the Mongols and had therefore access to many positions prohibited from Chinese.穆斯林是蒙古人的特别盟友,因此其中的很多职位对于汉人来说受到限制。A special place in the Mongol empire was reserved for Lamaism. Lamaism enjoyed state protection.喇嘛教在蒙古帝国有其特殊地位,享有蒙古人的国家保护。As Buddhism in China had aly reached and even surpassed the summit, the history of Chinese Buddhism was y to be written down, like in the book F〇zu Lidai Tongshi.佛教在中国已经达到甚至已过了高峰期,因此,当时中国的佛教史已经可以著书立传了,即《佛祖历代通史》。Religion was also a tool for the masses to rebell against the harsh Mongol rule, the exploitation by the exclusive class of Mongols and the rich Chinese gentry.但是,宗教也是群众反对蒙古人残暴统治、反对蒙古阶级的剥削和汉人贵族的工具。The secret societies rebelling against Mongol rule with the protection of religions were the White Lotus Society (Bailianjiao), the White Cloud Society (Baiyun-jiao) and the Red Turbans (Hongjin).在反对蒙古人统治的历史上,曾经利用宗教做掩护的组织有白莲教、白云教和红巾军。Yuan songs and main writers: Yuan songs are as important as Tang poetry and Song ci, which represents the important achievement in the literature in Yuan Dynasty.元曲及其代表作家:元曲与唐诗、宋词并称,它代表了元代文学的主要成就。Yuan songs include Sanqu was and Zaju. Sanqu was the new style verses in the Yuan Dynasty, and zaju(Yuan dramas) was a kind of comprehensive drama.元曲包含散曲和杂剧两个部分,散曲是元代的新体诗,杂剧是一种综合性的戏剧艺术。The famous writers and their masterpieces in the Yuan Dynasty are: Guan Hanqing and his u Dou E Yuan 11, Wang Shipu and his u Xixiang Ji, Ma Zhiyuan and his Han Qiugong and Bai Pu and his M Wutong Yu yy and so on.元代著名的杂剧作家及其作品有:关汉卿的《窦娥冤》,王实甫的《西厢记》,马致远的《汉宫秋》,白朴的《梧桐雨》等。Of all the writers, Guan Hanqing had the greatest influence. He had written more than 60 plays, and more than ten of them have been handed down so far.其中关汉卿的影响最大,他写过60多个剧本,流传到现在的尚有10多个。In 1958, Guan Hanqing was listed as the world literary celebrity.1958年,关汉卿被列为世界文化名人。The science of history and Wen Xian Tong Kaoby Ma Duanlin : The science of history in the Yuan Dynasty has made achievements in many ways.史学及马端临的《文献通考》:元朝的史学成就是多力面的。The representatives of the historical works are the privately compiled w Wen Xian Tong Kao ty and the official revision of u The History of Song 11 , u The History of Liao and The History of Jin ry and so on.较有代表性的史学著作有私家编撰的《文献通考》等和官修的《宋史》、《辽史》、和《金史》等。Wen Xian Tong Kao was compiled by the historian Ma Duanlin in the early years of the Yuan Dynasty. It covers more than twenty-four fields such as tax, monetary, registered permanent residence and the positions etc. The book has three hundred and forty-eight volumes.《文献通考》是宋末元初史学家马端临编撰,分田赋、钱币、户口、职役等24门类,共348卷。Scientific achievements and uThe Official Calendar^ by Guo Shoujing: It had its development in science and technology in the Yuan Dynasty.科学成就与郭守敬的《授时历》:元朝科学技术也有所发展。Great achievements were made in mathematics, astronomy, calendar, geography, agriculture and medicine etc.在数学、天文历5法、地理学、农业科学、医药学等方面都有许多成就。A Book of Agriculture ty by Wang Zhen in the Yuan Dynasty is the most perfect encyclopedia about agriculture since the u Qi Min Yao Shu ty.元朝王祯的《农书》,是《齐民要术》以来最完备的农业知识百科全书。The scientist Guo Shoujing in the Yuan Dynasty was good at astronomy, calendar, mathematics and water conservancy, who stressed on the on-spot observation.元朝科学家郭守敬,精于天文历法、数学和水利,并重视实地观侧。He had made thirteen kinds of astronomic equipments and observed, measured the celestial phenomena.他制作了13种天文仪器,并对天象进行实侧。On the basis of his observation and research, Guo Shoujing made the u Imperial Calendar.郭守敬根据观侧和研究,制定了《授时历》。The Imperial Calendar 11 took 365. 2425 days as a year and which only missed 26 seconds compared with the real time needed that the sun goes around the earth once. It is same to the Geliego Calendar in use today, but it was three hundred years earlier than the Geliego Calendar.《授时历》以365. 2425天为一岁,和地球绕太阳一周的实际时间只差26秒,与和现行的公历(《格列高利历》)一年周期相同,但比现行公历的确立早300年。The communication of the Eastern and Western cultures: In the era of Song and Yuan, esp. in the Yuan Dynasty, the culture between China and the west got obvious development.元朝东西文化的交流:宋元时期,特别在元代,中国和西方的文化交流有了显著发展。The four great inventions of China (printing, compass, gunpowder and papermaking) were introduced to Europe by the Arabians and they played an important part in the development of economy and science in Europe.中国的四大发明(印刷术,指南针、火药和造纸术)先后经过阿拉伯人传人欧洲,对欧州的经济文化发展起了重要作用。The three west expeditions of the Mongols promoted the communication between China and Europe.蒙古贵族三次西征,客观上促进了中国同欧洲的联系。The ambassadors, merchants, travelers and priests from the west came to China continuously. The most famous one of them was Marco. Poro.西方各国的使臣、商人、旅行家、传教士络绎不绝来到中国,其中最著名的是意大利人马可?波罗。He came to China in 1271 and had stayed in China for seventeen years. He had been an official in the Yuan government and had traveled to many big cities in China then.马可?波罗于1271年来到中国,留居中国17年,曾在元朝做官,游历过中国许多大城市。He described vividly about China then in his u Journey of Marco. Poroy,, which stimulated the Westerners9 desire for the Chinese civilizations.他在《马可?波罗行记》中对当时的中国作了生动具休的描写,激起了西方人对中国文明的向往。 /201602/426235

The Chinese are facing growing cancer risk from dioxin due to changes in their dietary patterns over the past three decades, a research has found.一项研究发现,由于过去30年来饮食模式的改变,中国人正面临日益严重的二恶英致癌风险。Changes in dietary patterns, featured by decreasing consumption of grain and vegetables and increasing intake of animal-derived food (such as meat, eggs and dairy products), raised cancer risk from 0.2% in 1980 to about 1.2% in 2009, according to a research finding published in Scientific Reports, an affiliated magazine of Nature.根据《自然》杂志的附属刊物《科学报道》上发表的一项研究,饮食模式的改变——粗粮和蔬菜摄入的减少,而动物性食品(肉、蛋和奶制品等)摄入的增加——将1980年时0.2%的癌症风险提高到2009年的约1.2%。Varying dietary patterns contributed 17 percent to the cancer risk of Chinese population in 2009, compared with 8 percent in 1980, according to the thesis, authored by Lanzhou University Professor Ma Jianmin and Dr. Huang Tao.据兰州大学马建敏教授和黄涛士合著的这篇论文介绍,2009年,由饮食模式变化引起的中国人口的癌症风险占比17%,而1980年时仅占8%。Meanwhile, residents in urban and eastern China were exposed to considerably higher cancer risk to dioxin than those in rural areas and western China, due to higher emissions, household income and greater intake of animal-derived foodstuff such as meat, eggs and dairy products, the thesis said.同时,这篇文章指出,由于城市区域和中国东部地区污染物排放量更高,居民收入水平更高,以及摄入的动物性食品如肉、蛋和奶制品等更多,这些地方的居民受二恶英影响致癌的风险,比起那些在农村地区和中国西部地区的人们来说要高出很多。;Food ingestion is still the major route for human exposure and body burden to dioxin,; said Prof. Ma.马教授表示:“食物的摄入仍然是人类感染二恶英的主要途径。”While the Chinese government has stepped up efforts to cut dioxin emissions, he said it is increasingly important to raise public awareness of cancer risks in food and convince people to take a healthier diet.在中国政府已加紧努力减少二恶英排放的同时,他表示,提高公众食品致癌风险意识、说人们采取更健康的饮食方式变得越来越重要。 /201603/429096

Colon cancer patients who were heavy coffee drinkers had a far lower risk of dying or having their cancer return than those who did not drink coffee, with significant benefits starting at two to three cups a day, a new study found. Patients who drank four cups of caffeinated coffee or more a day had half the rate of recurrence or death than noncoffee drinkers.一项新研究发现,与不喝咖啡的结肠癌患者相比,大量饮用咖啡的患者癌症复发或死亡的风险较低,而且从每天饮用咖啡两到三杯开始这种效益就十分显著。每天至少饮用四杯含咖啡因咖啡的患者的癌症复发或死亡率只有不喝咖啡者的一半。But, the researchers caution, cancer patients should not start ordering extra tall coffees. The study, the first to report such findings, does not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between coffee drinking and a lower risk of colon cancer recurrence. As other experts note, there may be differences between heavy coffee drinkers and abstainers that the research was not able to account for.不过,研究人员警告说,癌症患者不应因此就开始点超大杯的咖啡。该研究是对此类发现的首次报道,但未能明饮用咖啡与较低的结肠癌复发风险之间的因果关系。正如其他专家所指出的那样,在大量饮用咖啡者与不喝咖啡者之间可能存在着该研究没有考虑到的差异。In recent years, many studies have pointed to coffee’s health benefits, suggesting coffee may protect against Type 2 diabetes, reduce overall deaths and perhaps even help protect against dementia. Other studies have suggested coffee may reduce the risks of certain cancers, including colon cancer. The benefits are generally attributed to coffee’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.近年来,许多研究都指出咖啡具有健康效益,提出咖啡或可预防2型糖尿病,降低总体死亡率,甚至可能有助于防止痴呆症的发生。还有其它研究表明,咖啡可能会降低包括结肠癌在内的某些癌症的风险。这些优点通常都被归因于咖啡的抗氧化和抗炎特性。But as with many studies about diet, proving a link between coffee consumption and protection against cancer recurrence is difficult.然而,关于饮食的研究虽多,要实饮用咖啡与预防癌症复发之间的关联却十分困难。“Think about it: People who drink a lot of coffee tend to be high stress, high pressure, intense and compulsive,” said Dr. Alfred Neugut, a professor of cancer research, medicine and epidemiology at Columbia University and a director of NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital’s Cancer Prevention Center. “If they have cancer, they’re going to be more obsessive about following all the rules and doing all the things they’re supposed to do. So it may be that coffee itself is playing a physiological role, but it may also be a surrogate marker for you being a compulsive health-conscious good behaver.”“想想看:大量喝咖啡的人往往压力比较大、容易紧张或有强迫倾向,”美国哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)的癌症研究、医学和流行病学教授,纽约长老会医院(NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital)癌症防治中心(Cancer Prevention Center)的主任艾尔弗雷德·纽各特(Alfred Neugut)士说。“如果他们患了癌症,肯定会更严格地遵循所有的规则,去做所有他们应该做的事情。因此,或许确实是咖啡本身发挥了什么生理作用,但也有可能爱喝咖啡只是特别注重健康行为的人们的一个替代性标识。”Dr. Charles S. Fuchs, the director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, who led the research, acknowledged the limitations of his study and called for interventional studies to replicate and confirm the findings.该研究的负责人,波士顿市丹娜法伯癌症研究院(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)胃肠道癌症中心(Gastrointestinal Cancer Center)的查尔斯·S·富克斯(Charles S. Fuchs)士承认自己的研究存在局限性,并呼吁进行干预性研究以重现和实这些结果。“No one has ever done this before in colon cancer patients. It does require confirmation,” he said. Patients should not start drinking coffee based on this study, but, “If you’re a coffee drinker and enjoy your coffee, stick with it,” he said. “If a patient says, ‘Well I hate coffee,’ I’d say there are other things you can do, like avoid obesity, exercise regularly and follow a balanced diet.”他说:“此前尚无人在结肠癌患者中进行过这样的研究。它确实需要经过确认。”富克斯士还说,患者不宜因为这项研究就开始饮用咖啡,但是,“如果你本身就喝咖啡而且喜欢喝,不妨保持下去。“如果有患者说:‘我讨厌咖啡’,那我就会回答:还有很多其它的事情可以做,比方说避免肥胖、经常锻炼、均衡饮食等等。”The study, published Monday in The Journal of Clinical Oncology, followed 953 patients with Stage 3 colon cancer who had been treated with surgery and chemotherapy.这项研究发表在8月17日的《临床肿瘤学杂志》(The Journal of Clinical Oncology)上,共计随访了953名曾接受手术和化疗的3期结肠癌患者。The patients, recruited from 1999 to 2001, were asked to fill out detailed dietary pattern questionnaires about food intake and lifestyle, first during chemotherapy and again six months later. The questionnaires asked about their intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee, herbal and nonherbal tea, caffeinated soft drinks and chocolate.研究人员于1999年至2001年期间招募了这些患者,并要求他们在化疗期间和六个月后分别填写了非常详细的关于饮食和生活方式的膳食结构调查问卷。问卷询问了他们饮用含咖啡因或无咖啡因咖啡、草药茶和不含草药的茶、含咖啡因的软饮料以及食用巧克力的情况。The researchers adjusted the findings to control for differences such as gender, age, smoking, diet, caloric intake, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and alcohol, weight and physical activity. They did not, however, adjust for use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, even though their earlier work suggests such drugs may be protective against colon cancer recurrence. Dr. Fuchs said their previous research had not shown any association between coffee drinking and aspirin use.研究人员对初步结果进行了校正,以控制性别、年龄、吸烟、饮食、热量摄入、饮用含糖饮料和酒、体重和体育活动等差异。不过,他们并没有对阿司匹林和其它非甾体类抗炎药的使用情况进行校正,尽管他们此前的工作表明,这些药物或可预防结肠癌复发。富克斯士称,他们之前的研究并未发现饮用咖啡与使用阿司匹林之间有任何关联。They determined that patients who had reported drinking four or more cups of caffeinated coffee a day were 52 percent less likely to have had a recurrence of cancer or to have died than those who had never drank coffee, while those who drank two to three cups of caffeinated coffee a day were 31 percent less likely than nondrinkers to have had a recurrence or to have died. Sweetened coffee beverages did not count.他们的这项研究发现,较之从不饮用咖啡者,报告自己每天至少饮用四杯含咖啡因咖啡的患者癌症复发或死亡的可能性低了52%,而每天饮用两到三杯含咖啡因咖啡的患者癌症复发或死亡的可能性低了31%。上述数据未计入含糖咖啡饮料。The researchers’ hypothesis is that the factors that increase risk for Type 2 diabetes, such as obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and high insulin levels, also drive colon cancer, Dr. Fuchs said. And many studies have shown that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for Type 2 diabetes, a chronic illness that may increase the risk of colon cancer.富克斯士表示,他们研究人员的假设是,令2型糖尿病的风险增加的因素,如肥胖,久坐不动的生活方式和偏高的胰岛素水平等,也促发结肠癌。许多研究已经表明,饮用咖啡与较低的2型糖尿病风险相关,而2型糖尿病正是一种可能增加患结肠癌风险的慢性疾病。“We believe that activating the energy pathways that contribute to heart disease and diabetes is also relevant for the proliferation of cancer cells,” Dr. Fuchs said, while also stressing that more research was needed.富克斯士说:“我们认为,能促发心脏病和糖尿病的能量转换途径与癌细胞的增殖也有关。”但他同时强调仍需要进行更多的研究。The analysis determined the lowered risk associated with coffee was entirely because of the caffeine. One hypothesis is that caffeine increases the body’s sensitivity to insulin, so it requires less of the hormone. That, in turn, may reduce inflammation, which is a risk factor for diabetes and cancer.这项分析确定了与咖啡相关的风险降低完全是咖啡因的功劳。一个假设是,咖啡因可增加人体对胰岛素的敏感性,减少需要的激素量。这相应地也会减少炎症——糖尿病和癌症的风险因素之一。While there are inevitably gaps in these kinds of studies, the new research is “one piece of a big puzzle,” said Dr. Len Lichtenfeld, the deputy chief medical officer at the American Cancer Society, adding that there is tremendous concern about the role obesity and metabolic factors may play in promoting cancer.美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)的副首席医务官莱恩·利希滕费尔德(Len Lichtenfeld)士表示,虽然此类研究中不可避免地还有着不少缺点,但这项新的研究毕竟为“解开大谜团提供了一条新的线索,他还说,人们对肥胖和代谢因素可能存在的促癌作用极其关注。“This is an example of trying to look at those types of questions — about what the metabolic relationships are, and what might influence those metabolic relationships — in a positive way.”“这是人们试图以积极的方式,探讨代谢关系、以及这些代谢关系可能造成的影响等问题的一个范例。” /201510/403299

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