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青岛市妇女儿童医院属于专科医院吗千龙社区青岛市妇幼保健医院整形价钱表

2019年06月16日 06:47:15    日报  参与评论()人

烟台地区玻尿酸美白针多少钱青岛韩式假体丰胸哪里好英语演讲比赛的高手一定是英语专业的么? -- :6:57 来源:i1st 导读:作为国内权威的英语演讲比赛之一,怎样的选手才能笑傲1世纪杯的演讲台?Ta一定要英语说得倍儿溜,词汇量丰富,会写演讲稿……那么问题来了,英语演讲的高手一定都是英语专业的么?You may think that English speaking competitions are dominated by English majors, and that students from other majors don’t stand a chance of winning. But this year’s China Daily “1st Century Coca-Cola Cup” National English Speaking Competition provided strong evidence to the contrary.你可能会认为英语演讲比赛是英语专业学生的天下,其他专业的学生没什么胜算不过,今年第1届中国日报社“1世纪?可口可乐杯”全国英语演讲比赛可以明,你想错了The competition drew to an end on March at Beijing eign Studies University. None of the top three contestants were English majors. The grand champion, Zhu Xue, is a medical student from Shanghai Jiao Tong University. And the first and second runners-up – Cai Yao from Beijing eign Studies University and Li Zehan from The Chinese University of Hong Kong – are both law students.本届比赛于3月日在北京外国语大学圆满落幕获得前三名的选手均非英语专业冠军朱雪是上海交通大学医学院的学生,而亚军北京外国语大学的蔡瑶和季军香港中文大学的李泽翰则均为法学专业的学生Chen Mengzhu from New York University Shanghai won the fourth place and will be heading to London in May to compete in the International Public Speaking Competition on behalf of China. And guess what? Chen is not an English major either. She is a science student, majoring in interactive media art.来自上海纽约大学的陈梦竹同学获得第四名,她将于今年5月代表中国赴英国伦敦参加国际公众英语演讲比赛你能猜到吗?陈梦竹也不是英语专业的学生她是一名理科生,所学专业为互动媒体艺术Their advantages may lie in the unique qualities and experiences that come with their majors. example, Zhu managed to keep a cool head throughout the competition, a skill probably honed in her training as a medical student. She was even calm after she won the championship.这些获奖选手的优势或许正是来自各自专业赋予他们的独特个性和经验以朱雪为例,她比赛全程都十分淡定,这也许得益于医学的专业训练即便是在获得冠军之后,她依旧表现得云淡风轻“I see this stage more as a sharing platm like TED, instead of a competition,” Zhu said. “Just like sharing medical knowledge can save people’s lives, if what I said today on the stage has provoked even a little thinking among the audience, I would consider my speech meaningful.”朱雪说:“我更愿意把这次比赛当成一个分享的平台,就像TED一样正如分享医学知识能拯救生命,如果我今天在台上说的话能引起观众的一点点思考,我觉得我的演讲就是有意义的”Qu Weiguo, a Fudan University professor and one of the competition’s judges, believes it’s no surprise that students like Zhu surged ahead. “English majors may be superior at their language skills, but they may lack the knowledge from other fields to support their speech and enrich their arguments,” he said.比赛评委之一,复旦大学教授曲卫国认为,朱雪这样的学生能脱颖而出一点也不意外他说:“英语专业的学生可能在语言技能上更优秀,但是他们缺少其他领域的知识撑演讲内容和充实论据”Hosted by China Daily since 1996, the “1st Century” English speaking competition has become a leading brand students and English teaching experts in China.中国日报社主办的“1世纪杯”全国英语演讲比赛创办于1996年,现已成为全国英语学习与教育的领军品牌This year marks the 1st competition, a particularly special year a newspaper named “1st Century”. The final round of speeches attracted a lot of authorities and experts to the audience, including Zhu Ling, publisher and editor in-chief of China Daily; Wang Guoqing, spokesman the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference; Wu Jianmin, China’s mer ambassador to France; Tang Wensheng, executive vice-president of the Translators Association of China and interpreter to the late Mao Zedong; Zhang Daliang, head of the higher education department under the Ministry of Education; and Qu Yingpu, deputy editor-in-chief of China Daily.今年的比赛是第1届,对同为数字1的“1世纪英文报”来说更是特别的一届比赛中国日报社社长朱灵、全国政协外事委员会副主任、政协新闻发言人王国庆、中国前驻法国大使吴建民、中国翻译协会常务副会长、毛泽东主席外事翻译唐闻生、教育部高教司司长张大良、中国日报社副总编辑曲莹璞等领导和专家亲临总决赛现场Throughout the past years, contestants at the competition have transitioned from focusing solely on language skills to placing more emphasis on the content of the speeches.在过去二十年间,参赛选手们经历了从只注重语言技能到强调演讲内容的转变As Tang said in her speech after the competition, language is a means of communication. “Whether or not that communication is successful depends largely on how you present your case –what you say, how you say it, whether you are convincing and whether you make a mark in the listener’s mind,” she said.正如唐闻生在赛后的讲话中提到,语言是交流的工具她说:“沟通成功与否很大程度上取决于你如何阐述你的观点——你说了什么,你怎么说的,你是否能说别人,你能不能给听众留下印象”青岛市立医院能治疗胎痣么 他用GPS骑行创作涂鸦 你也行! -- :6:57 来源:sohu Rio's ;Christ the Redeemer; (5.8 km, 1 h min) 巴西里约热内卢耶稣神像 很多人都会定期健身以保持身体活力,但是少有人会像Stephen Lund一样,可以将健身变成一件艺术行为Stephen每天都要骑行70公里,他随身携带GPS系统,时刻记录着他的足迹;看着GPS上根根线条的标注,Stephen突然产生了一个灵感,为什么不让这些足迹看的更有趣呢!于是,从年那开始,他就开始了GPS骑行创作涂鸦经GPS记录,他的行程累计超过.3万公里,单次最长公里,而那次公里的最长纪录中,他绕城画出了一个漂亮的美人鱼 Stephen Lund cycles about 70km every day, creating clever doodles using a GPS app that maps his progress. The , Canada native began his unusual craft in to unwind and be creative; since then, he's logged ,300km, and his longest piece has been a km mermaid. Queen Victoria (.7 km, 56 min) 伊丽莎白女王 关于他的骑行创作,Stephen表示,“最难的部分是要在道路交错的城市画出连续的线,这必须要用云中视角俯视大地才能完成,而我借助了地图,看上去也不错” ;The best ones pop off the map,; Lund says, explaining his process. ;I liken it to seeing shapes in the clouds. I pour [sic] over a map of the city...The challenge is that the roads all have to connect — it has to be one continuous line.; Statue of David 米开朗琪罗雕塑《大卫 PS:其实Stephen只是GPS骑行创作涂鸦的能人之一,执牛耳者另有其人来自日本的Yasushi Takahashi曾在年创造了GPS骑行涂鸦吉尼斯世界纪录后于年又完成了一段长达.57万公里的涂鸦,虽然没有被吉尼斯认,但是他确实打破了自己的记录 Update: the actual world's record the largest GPS drawing belongs to Yasushi Takahashi from Japan, GPS drawing that was made in . He made even larger piece in that was 1,7km long (not certified by Guinness World Records). Maze (76.7 km, 3 h min) 迷宫创作 English Source: Boredpanda东京“奥运会会徽”出炉遭吐槽 -- 1:: 来源:中国日报 历经剽窃风波和数月甄选,年东京奥运会和残奥会组委会5日宣布,以日本传统颜色靛蓝色矩形组合构成的;组市松纹;被选定为新会徽专门负责挑选会徽的委员会说,这一设计简单的会徽彰显出和谐性和包容性月5日,在日本首都东京,年东京奥运会及残奥会会徽设计者野老朝雄与会徽合影(新华社)【;会徽;英文咋说】The new official emblem of the Tokyo Olympics was unveiled by organizers Monday, replacing an earlier design that was dropped after a complaint alleging plagiarism.年东京奥运会组委会5日公布了新的官方会徽,此前的设计因为被指剽窃而被弃用这里的emblem of the Tokyo Olympics就是指的年东京奥运会会徽,奥运会会徽还可以用Olympic logo来表示,来看下面的报道:Tokyo organizers unveiled a new Olympic logo featuring traditional Japanese designs on Monday, seven months after they were ced to scrap the original motif over accusations of plagiarism.年东京奥运会组委会5日公布了新的奥运会会徽,具有传统的日本风格特色7个月前,因原有的设计被指剽窃,奥组委决定弃用【新会徽style】The new logo, chosen from more than ,000 candidates, adopts a traditional indigo-blue checkered pattern called ;ichimatsu moyo ; that dates back to the Edo period (-1868).新会徽从公开征集的超过1.万幅作品中选出,采用了日本传统颜色靛蓝色矩形组合构成的;组市松纹;;组市松纹; 在日本江户时期(-1868)已经广为人知;Composed of three varieties of rectangular shapes, the design represents different countries, cultures and ways of thinking. It incorporates the message of y in diversity.;;它由3种不同类别的矩形组成,这一设计代表了不同的国家、文化和思维方式,传递出lsquo;多元统一rsquo;的信息;;东京奥运会组织方【背景小知识】在日本,长方形在日本江户时期已经广为人知,并且被称为;组市松纹市松模样(ichimatsu moyo);同时图案使用的靛蓝色也是一种日本的典型传统色,象征着优雅和成熟【会徽名称设计者】The new indigo blue logo , called ;Harmonized checkered emblem ,; was created by artist and architecture graduate Asao Tokolo, 7.新的靛蓝色;和谐方格花纹;会徽由7岁的日本著名艺术家、设计师野老朝雄设计【设计者组织方心声】;I don't know what to say, my mind's gone blank,;;(刚发现自己的设计胜出时)我不知道该说啥,我的大脑一片空白;;野老朝雄;It took me a long time to create this logo -- it's like my own child,; ;Asao Tokoro.;我为这款设计投入了大量时间和精力,把它当成自己的孩子(一样倾注心血);;野老朝雄;From today, these emblems will serve as the face of the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games. I very much hope that the emblems will prove popular with people everywhere,; said Ryohei Miyata, chairman of the Tokyo Emblems Selection Committee.;从现在起,这就是东京奥运会和残奥运的lsquo;门面rsquo;我希望大家都喜欢这一会徽;;东京奥运会会徽委员会委员长宫田亮平【网友吐槽】不过,不少日本网民并不买账会徽刚刚公布不久就有人吐槽这款设计;太过平庸;;What a dull emblem,; tweeted one user, with another dismissing it as a ;bistro tablecloth.;;多么无趣的会徽;,一位网友在推特上写道,还有人说会徽就像;小酒馆的桌布;但也有网友表达了持:;This has a Japanese look so I guess it's a good choice,; another tweet.;新会徽很有日本特色,是个不错的选择;;推特网友莱州玻尿酸美白针多少钱

青岛磨下颌骨手术需要多少钱爱犬跳入临终女主人的怀里告别,感动了在场所有的医护人员 -- :: 来源: 在它远远看看女主人的那一刹那,它便不愿再多等一分钟在所有人都还没反应过来的时候,它已经径直奔向Rejane,跳到她的病床上,舔她的脸多么感人的久别重逢! Rejane Chili is 9 years old and lives in Porto Alegre, Brazil. A few months ago, she found out that she had cancer and the disease quickly progressed into a terminal state. Very debilitated, Rejane can no longer leave the hospital, having being kept there several weeks aly. Throughout this difficult period, the woman receives the regular visit from her friends and family, but she often complains about the absence of someone very special.今年9年的Rejane Chili住在巴西的阿雷格里港几个月前她查出了自己患了癌症,并且病情迅速恶化几周之后,她的身体越来越虚弱,已经离不开医院了在这段艰难的时期,她的家人和朋友经常过来探望陪伴她,但她经常抱怨见不到她那位特殊的朋友Rejane is crazy about her dog Ritchie. She’s taken care of him ever since he was a puppy and spoils her pet as much as she does her own son. Rejane, being apart from him has been torture. Scared about the possibility of dying without seeing Ritchie again, she asks several times the dog to be brought in a last visit. However, the hospital’s police are against the presence of animals. Mostly because the risk of contamination is very high someone with such poor health. But Rejane is dying, and coming into contact with a few extra germs cannot greatly deteriorate her current state. Touched by this final wish, the Palliative Care Group of the Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, where she is being treated, decides to make an exception and allow the entry of this furry visitor.Rejane说的是她的爱犬Ritchie,她非常想念它在Ritchie还很小的时候,Rejane就开始照料它,像亲生孩子一样宠爱它对Rejane来说,与Ritchie分开这么久让她非常煎熬因为害怕不能爱犬最后一面,Rejane多次请求把她的爱犬带过来让她见见但是院方不允许将动物带进来主要考虑到这么做的话,很容易感染身体状况这么差的病人但Rejane已经到了生命中的最后一刻,即使感染一些细菌也不会对她当前的状态产生多大的影响了也是被她最后的愿望感动了,她所在的医院,埃内斯托的姑息治疗中心Dornelles医院最后决定破例允许把Ritchie带进来On the agreed day, Tiago, Rejane’s son, travels with the dog in a taxi to meet his mum. security reasons, the meeting is scheduled to take place in a special room. However, once Ritchie sees from far away his owner, he can’t wait a minute more. The animal runs toward Rejane and bee anyone could react, he jumps onto her hospital bed, licking her face. What a moving encounter! those around them, it is impossible to hold back the tears.在指定的那天,Rejane的儿子Tiago带着Ritchie坐计程车来到医院看望妈妈出于安全考虑,这次会面被安排在一个特殊的房间然而,在Ritchie远远看看女主人的那一刹那,它便不愿再多等一分钟在所有人都还没反应过来的时候,它已经径直奔向Rejane,跳到她的病床上,舔她的脸多么感人的懈逅!此时,周围的人已经抑制不住自己的眼泪Those images are really touching! Rejane’s last wish was surely an uncommon one, but it shows how attached we can become to our beloved pets. Even in her final moments, this woman wanted to make sure she could say good bye to her best friend. Whenever possible, we should always try to fulfill the last wishes of those who are about to leave this world.这些照片真的太感人了!Rejane最后的心愿的确不是很常见,但展示了我们可以与我们的宠物相互之间变得多么依恋即使到了她生命中最后的一刻,这位女主人还是想和她最好的朋友道个别不管什么时候,如果可能,我们都应满足那些即将离开这个世界的人们的愿望青岛美白针价格表 法国国庆日悲剧 两名中国公民受伤(双语) -- ::7 来源:sohu 法国国庆日7月日晚,一辆卡车冲入南部旅游城市尼斯英国人漫步大道上的人群,造成至少80人死亡、50余人受伤,伤者中已确认包括两名中国公民 At least 80 people were killed and more than 50 people are injured as a truck rammed into crowd celebriting the Bastille Day national holiday July , . 中国驻法国马赛总领馆表示,正与尼斯警方保持密切联系,目前已知有两名中国公民受伤 Chinese injured in the attack, confirmed by Chinese consulate in Marseilles. 当地民众日晚聚集在尼斯海边著名的英国人漫步大道上欣赏法国国庆日烟花表演,一辆卡车突然冲入人群,并行驶了2公里据《尼斯晨报在场记者描述,卡车冲入人群,有人被撞倒,地上都是血迹,民众不知所措,十分恐慌 At :30 Thursday night local time, a truck drove at high speed into the crowd who gathered on the promenade to watch fireworks marking July , the French national day. The incident is described as ;the worst Nice drama of history.; One victim told BFMTV that the truck was loaded with weapons and grenades, and the truck ;traveled two kilometers ploughing people.; 普罗旺斯-阿尔卑斯-蓝色海岸大区议会主席克里斯蒂安;埃斯特罗西对媒体说,这一事件已经造成至少80人死亡、50多人受伤卡车上发现有武器和手榴弹击毙卡车司机的警察实,该司机曾向人群开 法国内政部表示,已启动部际紧急指挥中心,该袭击事件中没有人质被劫持目前,尼斯所在的滨海阿尔卑斯省已动员了全部救援力量,并建立了心理干预中心巴黎检察院反恐部门已就此袭击事件和袭击动机展开调查,以确认事件是否与恐怖袭击有关 Photo Source: weibo济宁地区市第一人民医院皮肤美容科

青岛减小腿肌肉part of China’s territory.6. 1951年,旧金山对日和约会议规定日本放弃对南沙群岛和西沙群岛的一切权利、权利名义与要求195年,日本政府正式表示放弃对台湾、澎湖列岛以及南沙群岛、西沙群岛之一切权利、权利名义与要求同年,由时任日本外务大臣冈崎胜男亲笔签字推荐的《标准世界地图集第十五图《东南亚图,把和约规定日本必须放弃的西沙、南沙群岛及东沙、中沙群岛全部标绘属于中国6. In 1951, it was decided at the San Francisco Peace Conference that Japan would renounce all right, title and claim to Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In 195, the Japanese government officially stated that it had renounced all right, title, and claim to Taiwan, Penghu, as well as Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In the same year, Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao, which Japan renounced under the San Francisco Peace Treaty, together with Dongsha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao, were all marked as belonging to China on the th map, Southeast Asia, of the Standard World Atlas recommended by the then Japanese eign Minister Katsuo Okazaki with his signature.7. 1955年月,国际民航组织在马尼拉召开会议,美国、英国、法国、日本、加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰、泰国、菲律宾、南越和中国台湾当局派代表出席,菲律宾代表为会议主席,法国代表为副主席会议通过的第号决议要求中国台湾当局在南沙群岛加强气象观测,而会上没有任何一个代表对此提出异议或保留7. In October 1955, the International Civil Aviation Organization held a conference in Manila, which was attended by representatives from the ed States, the ed Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, the authorities from South Vietnam and China’s Taiwan authorities. The Filipino and French representatives served as chair and vice chair respectively. It was requested in Resolution No. adopted at the conference that China’s Taiwan authorities should enhance meteorological observation on Nansha Qundao, and no opposition or reservation was registered.8. 1958年9月日,中国政府发布《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明,宣布中国的领海宽度为海里,明确指出:“这项规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括……东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿”9月日,越南政府总理范文同照会中国国务院总理周恩来郑重表示,“越南民主共和国政府承认和赞同中华人民共和国政府1958年9月日关于领海决定的声明”,“越南民主共和国政府尊重这项决定”8. On September 1958, the Chinese government promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on China’s Territorial Sea, proclaiming a twelve-nautical-mile territorial sea bth, and stipulating that, “This provision applies to all territories of the People’s Republic of China, including [...] Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao, and all other islands belonging to China.” On September, Prime Minister Pham Van Dong of the Vietnamese government sent a diplomatic note to Zhou Enlai, Premier of the State Council of China, solemnly stating that “the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam recognizes and supports the declaration of the government of the People’s Republic of China on its decision concerning China’s territorial sea made on September 1958” and “the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam respects this decision.”9. 1956年8月,美国驻台机构一等秘书韦士德向中国台湾当局口头申请,美军人员拟前往黄岩岛、双子群礁、景宏岛、鸿庥岛、南威岛等中沙和南沙群岛岛礁进行地形测量中国台湾当局随后同意了美方的申请9. In August 1956, First Secretary Donald E. Webster of the ed States institution in Taiwan made an oral request to China’s Taiwan authorities permission the ed States military personnel to conduct geodetic survey in Huangyan Dao, Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao, Hongxiu Dao and Nanwei Dao of Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao. China’s Taiwan authorities later approved the above request.50. 1960年月,美国政府致函中国台湾当局,“请求准许”美军事人员赴南沙群岛双子群礁、景宏岛、南威岛进行实地测量中国台湾当局批准了上述申请50. In December 1960, the ed States government sent a letter to China’s Taiwan authorities to “request permission be granted” its military personnel to carry out survey at Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao and Nanwei Dao of Nansha Qundao. China’s Taiwan authorities approved this application.51. 197年,在《中华人民共和国政府与日本国政府联合声明中,日本重申坚持遵循《波茨坦公告第8条规定51. In 197, Japan reiterated its adherence to the terms of 8 of the Potsdam Proclamation in the Joint Communiqué of the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of Japan.5. 据法新社报道,197年月日,时任印度尼西亚外长马利克表示,“如果我们看一看现在发行的地图,就可以从图上看到帕拉塞尔群岛(西沙群岛)和斯普拉特利群岛(南沙群岛)都是属于中国的”;由于我们承认只存在一个中国,“这意味着,对我们来讲,这些群岛属于中华人民共和国”5. It was reported by AFP that, on February 197, the then Indonesian eign Minister Adam Malik stated that, “si nous regardons les cartes actuelles, elles montrent que les deux archipels des Paracels [Xisha Qundao] et des Spratleys [Nansha Qundao] appartiennent à la Chine”, and that because we recognize the existence of only one China, “cela signifie que, pour nous, ces archipels appartiennent à la République populaire de Chine”.53. 1987年3月日至月1日,联合国教科文组织政府间海洋学委员会第次会议讨论了该委员会秘书处提交的《全球海平面观测系统实施计划1985-1990(IOCINF-663 REV)该文件建议将西沙群岛和南沙群岛纳入全球海平面观测系统,并将这两个群岛明文列属“中华人民共和国”为执行该计划,中国政府被委任建设5个海洋观测站,包括南沙群岛和西沙群岛上各1个53. The th Assembly of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the ed Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, held from March to 1 April 1987, deliberated on the Global Sea-Level Observing System Implementation Plan 1985-1990 (IOCINF-663 REV) submitted by the Commission’s Secretariat. The Plan integrated Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao into the Global Sea-Level Observing System, and explicitly listed these two Islands under “People’s Republic of China”. the implementation of this Plan, the Chinese government was commissioned to build five marine observation stations, including one on Nansha Qundao and one on Xisha Qundao.5. 南海诸岛属于中国早已成为国际社会的普遍认识在许多国家出版的百科全书、年鉴和地图都将南沙群岛标属中国例如,1960年美国威尔德麦克出版社出版的《威尔德麦克各国百科全书;1966年日本极东书店出版的《新中国年鉴;1957、1958和1961年在联邦德国出版的《世界大地图集;1958年在民主德国出版的《地球与地理地图集;1968年在民主德国出版的《哈克世界大地图集;195至1959年在苏联出版的《世界地图集;1957年在苏联出版的《外国行政区域划分附图;1959年在匈牙利出版的《世界地图集;197年在匈牙利出版的《插图本世界政治经济地图集;1959年在捷克斯洛伐克出版的《袖珍世界地图集;1977年在罗马尼亚出版的《世界地理图集;1965年法国拉鲁斯出版社出版的《国际政治与经济地图集;1969年法国拉鲁斯出版社出版的《拉鲁斯现代地图集;197年和1983年日本平凡社出版的《世界大百科事典中所附地图和1985年出版的《世界大地图集;以及1980年日本国土地理协会出版的《世界与各国附图等5. Nanhai Zhudao have long been widely recognized by the international commy as part of China’s territory. The encyclopedias, yearbooks and maps published in many countries mark Nansha Qundao as belonging to China. example this is done in, among others, the 1960 Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations by the Worldmark Press published in the ed States, the 1966 New China Yearbook by the Far Eastern Booksellers published in Japan; the Welt-Atlas published in 1957, 1958 and 1961 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the 1958 Atlas Zur Erd-Und L?nderkunde and the 1968 Haack Gro?er Weltatlas published in the German Democratic Republic, the Atlas Mira from 195 to 1959 and the 1957 Administrativno-territorialnoe Delenie Zarubezhnyh Stran published in the Soviet Union, the 1959 Világatlasz and the 197 Képes Politikai és Gazdasági Világatlasz published in Hungary, the 1959 Maly Atlas Sv?ta published in Czechoslovakia, the 1977 Atlas Geografic Scolar published in Romania, the 1965 Atlas international Larousse politique et économique, the 1969 Atlas moderne Larousse published by Libraire Larousse in France, the maps in the 197 and 1983 World Encyclopedia, the 1985 Grand Atlas World by Heibon Sha, and the 1980 Sekai to Sono Kunikuni published by Japan Geographic Data Center in Japan.二、中菲南海有关争议的由来II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea55. 中菲南海有关争议的核心是菲律宾非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁而产生的领土问题此外,随着国际海洋法制度的发展,中菲在南海部分海域还出现了海洋划界争议55. The core of the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea lies in the territorial issues caused by the Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain sea areas of the South China Sea.(一)菲律宾非法侵占行为制造了中菲南沙岛礁争议i. The Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao56. 菲律宾的领土范围是由包括1898年《美西和平条约(《巴黎条约)、1900年《美西关于菲律宾岛屿割让的条约(《华盛顿条约)、1930年《关于划定英属北婆罗洲与美属菲律宾之间的边界条约在内的一系列国际条约确定的56. The territory of the Philippines is defined by a series of international treaties, including the 1898 Treaty of Peace between the ed States of America and the Kingdom of Spain (the Treaty of Paris), the 1900 Treaty between the ed States of America and the Kingdom of Spain Cession of Outlying Islands of the Philippines (the Treaty of Washington), and the 1930 Convention between His Majesty in Respect of the ed Kingdom and the President of the ed States regarding the Boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Philippine Archipelago.57. 中国南海诸岛在菲律宾领土范围之外57. The Philippines’ territory so defined has nothing to do with China’s Nanhai Zhudao.58. 世纪50年代,菲律宾曾企图染指中国南沙群岛但在中国坚决反对下,菲律宾收手了1956年5月,菲律宾人克洛马组织私人探险队到南沙群岛活动,擅自将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁称为“自由地”随后,菲律宾副总统兼外长加西亚对克洛马的活动表示持对此,中国外交部发言人于5月9日发表声明,严正指出:南沙群岛“向来是中国领土的一部分中华人民共和国对这些岛屿具有无可争辩的合法主权……绝不容许任何国家以任何借口和采取任何方式加以侵犯”同时,中国台湾当局派军舰赴南沙群岛巡弋,恢复在南沙群岛太平岛上驻守此后,菲律宾外交部表示,克洛马此举菲律宾政府事前并不知情,亦未加以同意58. In the 1950s, the Philippines attempted to take moves on China’s Nansha Qundao but eventually stopped because of China’s firm opposition. In May 1956, Tomás Cloma, a Filipino, organized a private expedition to some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and unlawfully named them “Freedomland”. Afterwards, Philippine Vice President and eign Minister Carlos Garcia expressed support Cloma’s activities. In response, the spokesperson of the Chinese eign Ministry issued a stern statement on 9 May, pointing out that Nansha Qundao “has always been a part of China’s territory. The People’s Republic of China has indisputable sovereignty over these islands [...] and will never tolerate the infringement of its sovereignty by any country with any means and under any excuse.” At the same time, China’s Taiwan authorities sent troops to patrol Nansha Qundao and resumed stationing troops on Taiping Dao. Afterward, the Philippine Department of eign Affairs said that the government of the Philippines did not know about Cloma’s activities or give him the consent bee he took his moves.59. 自世纪70年代起,菲律宾先后以武力侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁,并提出非法领土要求1970年8月和9月,菲律宾非法侵占马欢岛和费信岛;1971年月,菲律宾非法侵占南钥岛和中业岛;1971年7月,菲律宾非法侵占西月岛和北子岛;1978年3月和1980年7月,菲律宾非法侵占双黄沙洲和司令礁1978年6月,菲律宾总统马科斯签署第96号总统令,将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁并连同周边大范围海域称为“卡拉延岛群”(“卡拉延”在他加禄语中意为“自由”),划设“卡拉延镇区”,非法列入菲律宾领土范围59. Starting in the 1970s, the Philippines invaded and illegally occupied by ce some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and raised illegal territorial claims. The Philippines invaded and illegally occupied Mahuan Dao and Feixin Dao in August and September 1970, Nanyao Dao and Zhongye Dao in April 1971, Xiyue Dao and Beizi Dao in July 1971, Shuanghuang Shazhou in March 1978 and Siling Jiao in July 1980. In June 1978, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 96, which designated some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and large areas of their surrounding waters as “Kalayaan Island Group” (“Kalayaan” in Tagalog means “Freedom”), set up “Municipality of Kalayaan” and illegally included them in the Philippine territory.60. 菲律宾还通过一系列国内立法,提出了自己的领海、专属经济区和大陆架等主张其中部分与中国在南海的海洋权益产生冲突60. The Philippines has also enacted a series of national laws to lay its own claims of territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, part of which conflicted with China’s maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.61. 菲律宾为掩盖其非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的事实,实现其领土扩张的野心,炮制了一系列借口,包括:“卡拉延岛群”不属于南沙群岛,是“无主地”;南沙群岛在二战后是“托管地”;菲律宾占领南沙群岛是依据“地理邻近”和出于“国家安全”需要;“南沙群岛部分岛礁位于菲律宾专属经济区和大陆架上”;菲律宾“有效控制”有关岛礁已成为不能改变的“现状”等61. The Philippines has concocted many excuses to cover up its invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao in order to pursue its territorial pretensions. instance, it claims that: “Kalayaan Island Group” is not part of Nansha Qundao but terra nullius; Nansha Qundao became “trust territory” after the end of the Second World War; the Philippines has occupied Nansha Qundao because of “contiguity or proximity” and out of “national security” considerations; “some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao are located in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Philippines”; the Philippines’ “effective control” over the relevant islands and reefs has become the “status quo” that cannot be changed.(二)菲律宾的非法主张毫无历史和法理依据ii. The Philippines’ illegal claim has no historical or legal basis6. 从历史和国际法看,菲律宾对南沙群岛部分岛礁的领土主张毫无根据6. The Philippines’ territorial claim over part of Nansha Qundao is groundless from the perspectives of either history or international law.63. 第一,南沙群岛从来不是菲律宾领土的组成部分菲律宾的领土范围已由一系列国际条约所确定对此,菲律宾当时的统治者美国是非常清楚的1933年8月日,美属菲律宾前参议员陆雷彝致信美国驻菲律宾总督墨菲,试图以地理邻近为由主张一些南沙岛屿构成菲律宾群岛一部分有关信件被转交美国陆军部和国务院处理1933年月9日,美国国务卿复信称,“这些岛屿……远在1898年从西班牙获得的菲律宾群岛的界限之外”1935年5月,美国陆军部长邓恩致函国务卿赫尔,请求国务院就菲律宾对南沙群岛部分岛屿提出领土要求的“合法性和适当性”发表意见美国国务院历史顾问办公室一份由格斯等签署的备忘录指出,“显然,美国毫无根据主张有关岛屿构成菲律宾群岛的一部分”8月日,美国国务卿赫尔复函美国陆军部长邓恩称,“美国依据1898年条约从西班牙获得的菲律宾群岛的岛屿仅限于第三条规定的界限以内”,同时关于南沙群岛有关岛屿,“需要指出的是,没有任何迹象显示西班牙曾对这些岛屿中的任何一个行使主权或提出主张”这些文件明,菲律宾领土从来不包括南海诸岛,这一事实为包括美国在内的国际社会所承认63. First, Nansha Qundao has never been part of the Philippine territory. The territorial scope of the Philippines has aly been defined by a series of international treaties. The ed States, administrator of the Philippines at the relevant time, was clearly aware of these facts. On August 1933, ex-Senator Isabelo de los Reyes of the ed States-governed Philippines wrote a letter to Governor-General Frank Murphy in an attempt to claim that some Nansha islands med part of the Philippine Archipelago on the ground of geographical proximity. That letter was referred to the Department of War and the Department of State. On 9 October, the ed States Secretary of State replied that, “These islands [...] lie at a considerable distance outside the limits of the Philippine Islands which were acquired from Spain in 1898”. In May 1935, the ed States Secretary of War George Dern wrote a letter to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, seeking the views of the State Department on the “validity and propriety” of the Philippines’ territorial claims over some islands of Nansha Qundao. A memorandum of the Office of Historical Adviser in the State Department, signed by S.W. Boggs, pointed out that, “There is, of course, no basis a claim on the part of the ed States, as islands constituting part of the Philippine Archipelago”. On August, Secretary Hull officially replied in writing to Secretary Dern, stating that, “the islands of the Philippine group which the ed States acquired from Spain by the treaty of 1898, were only those within the limits described in III”, and that, referring to the relevant Nansha islands, “It may be observed that [...] no mention has been found of Spain having exercised sovereignty over, or having laid claim to, any of these islands”. All these documents prove that the Philippines’ territory never includes any part of Nanhai Zhudao, a fact that has been recognized by the international commy, including the ed States.6. 第二,“卡拉延岛群”是菲律宾发现的“无主地”,这一说法根本不成立菲律宾以其国民于1956年所谓“发现”为基础,将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁称为“卡拉延岛群”,企图制造地理名称和概念上的混乱,并割裂南沙群岛事实上,南沙群岛的地理范围是清楚和明确的,菲律宾所谓“卡拉延岛群”就是中国南沙群岛的一部分南沙群岛早已成为中国领土不可分割的组成部分,绝非“无主地”6. Second, the claim that “Kalayaan Island Group” is “terra nullius” discovered by the Philippines is groundless. The Philippines claims that its nationals “discovered” the islands in 1956, and uses this as an excuse to single out some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and name them “Kalayaan Island Group”. This is an attempt to create confusion over geographical names and concepts, and dismember China’s Nansha Qundao. As a matter of fact, the geographical scope of Nansha Qundao is clear, and the so-called “Kalayaan Island Group” is part of China’s Nansha Qundao. Nansha Qundao has long been an integral part of China’s territory and is by no means “terra nullius”.65. 第三,南沙群岛也不是所谓的“托管地”菲律宾称,二战后南沙群岛是“托管地”,主权未定菲律宾的说法从法律和事实看,都没有根据二战后的“托管地”,均在有关国际条约或联合国托管理事会相关文件中明确开列,南沙群岛从未出现在上述名单上,根本就不是“托管地”65. Third, Nansha Qundao is not “trust territory” either. The Philippines claims that after the Second World War, Nansha Qundao became “trust territory”, the sovereignty over which was undetermined. This claim finds no support in law or reality. The post-War trust territories were all specifically listed in relevant international treaties or the documents of the ed Nations Trusteeship Council. Nansha Qundao was never included in them and was thus not trust territory at all.66. 第四,“地理邻近”和“国家安全”都不是领土取得的国际法依据世界上许多国家的部分领土远离其本土,有的甚至位于他国近岸美国殖民统治菲律宾期间,就菲律宾群岛附近一座岛屿的主权与荷兰产生争端,美国以“地理邻近”为由提出的领土主张被判定为没有国际法依据以所谓“国家安全”为由侵占他国领土更是荒谬的66. Fourth, neither “contiguity or proximity” nor national security is a basis under international law acquiring territory. Many countries have territories far away from their metropolitan areas, in some cases even very close to the shores of other countries. When exercising colonial rule over the Philippines, the ed States had a dispute with the Netherlands regarding sovereignty over an island which is close to the Philippine Archipelago, and the ed States’ claim on the basis of contiguity was ruled as having no foundation in international law. Furthermore, it is just absurd to invade and occupy the territory of other countries on the ground of national security.67. 第五,菲律宾称,中国南沙群岛部分岛礁位于其专属经济区和大陆架范围内,有关岛礁属于菲律宾或构成菲律宾大陆架组成部分这一主张企图以《公约所赋予的海洋管辖权否定中国领土主权,与“陆地统治海洋”的国际法原则背道而驰,完全不符合《公约的宗旨和目的《公约序言规定:“在妥为顾及所有国家主权的情形下,为海洋建立一种法律秩序……”,沿海国必须在尊重他国领土主权的前提下主张海洋管辖权,不能将自己的海洋管辖权扩展到他国领土上,更不能以此否定他国主权,侵犯他国领土67. Fifth, the Philippines claims that some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao are located within its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf and theree should fall under its sovereignty or m part of its continental shelf. This is an attempt to use maritime jurisdiction provided under UNCLOS to deny China’s territorial sovereignty. This runs directly counter to the “land dominates the sea” principle, and goes against the purpose of UNCLOS, as stated in its preamble, to “establish [...] with due regard the sovereignty of all States, a legal order the seas and ocean”. Theree, a coastal state can only claim maritime jurisdiction under the precondition of respecting the territorial sovereignty of another state. No state can extend its maritime jurisdiction to an area under the sovereignty of another; still less can it use such jurisdiction as an excuse to deny another state’s sovereignty or even to infringe upon its territory.68. 第六,菲律宾所谓的“有效控制”是建立在非法侵占基础上的,是非法无效的国际社会不承认武力侵占形成的所谓“有效控制”菲律宾所谓“有效控制”是对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁裸的武力侵占,违背了《联合国宪章(以下简称《宪章)和国际关系基本准则,为国际法所明确禁止菲律宾建立在非法侵占基础上的所谓“有效控制”,不能改变南沙群岛是中国领土的基本事实中国坚决反对任何人试图把南沙群岛部分岛礁被侵占的状态视为所谓“既成事实”或“现状”,中国对此绝不承认68. Sixth, the Philippines’ so-called “effective control” on the basis of its illegal seizure is null and void. The international commy does not recognize “effective control” created through occupation by ce. The Philippines’ “effective control” is mere occupation by naked use of ce of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao. Such occupation violates the Charter of the ed Nations and the basic norms governing international relations and is unequivocally prohibited by international law. This so-called “effective control” based on illegal seizure cannot change the basic fact that Nansha Qundao is China’s territory. China firmly opposes any attempt to treat the seizure of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao as a so-called “fait accompli” or “status quo”. China will never recognize such a thing.(三)国际海洋法制度的发展导致中菲出现海洋划界争议iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation69. 随着《公约的制订和生效,中国和菲律宾之间的南海有关争议逐步激化69. With the mulation and entering into effect of UNCLOS, the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea have gradually intensified.70. 基于中国人民和中国政府的长期历史实践及历届中国政府的一贯立场,根据国内法以及国际法,包括1958年《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明、199年《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法、1996年《中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于批准#60;联合国海洋法公约#6;的决定、1998年《中华人民共和国专属经济区和大陆架法和198年《联合国海洋法公约,中国南海诸岛拥有内水、领海、毗连区、专属经济区和大陆架此外,中国在南海拥有历史性权利70. Based on the practice of the Chinese people and the Chinese government in the long course of history and the position consistently upheld by successive Chinese governments, and pursuant to China’s national law and under international law, including the 1958 Declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on China’s Territorial Sea, the 199 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, the 1996 Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on the Ratification of the ed Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the 1998 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, and the 198 ed Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, China has, based on Nanhai Zhudao, internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. In addition, China has historic rights in the South China Sea.71. 根据菲律宾199年第387号共和国法案、1961年第36号共和国法案、1968年第56号共和国法案、1968年第370号总统公告、1978年第99号总统令、年第95号共和国法案等法律,菲律宾公布了内水、群岛水域、领海,专属经济区和大陆架71. The Philippines proclaimed its internal waters, archipelagic waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf according to, among others, the Philippines’ Republic Act No. 387 of 199, Republic Act No. 36 of 1961, Republic Act No. 56 and Presidential Proclamation No. 370 of 1968, Presidential Decree No. 99 of 1978, and Republic Act No. 95 of .7. 在南海,中国的陆地领土海岸和菲律宾的陆地领土海岸相向,相距不足00海里两国主张的海洋权益区域重叠,由此产生海洋划界争议7. In the South China Sea, China and the Philippines are states possessing land territory with opposite coasts, the distance between which is less than 00 nautical miles. The maritime areas claimed by the two states overlap, giving rise to a dispute over maritime delimitation.三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea73. 中国坚决捍卫对南海诸岛的主权,坚决反对菲律宾非法侵占中国岛礁,坚决反对菲律宾依据单方面主张在中国管辖海域采取侵权行为同时,从维护南海和平稳定出发,中国保持高度克制,坚持和平解决中菲南海有关争议,并为此作出不懈努力中国就管控海上分歧以及推动海上务实合作等与菲律宾进行多次磋商,双方就通过谈判解决南海有关争议,妥善管控有关分歧达成重要共识73. China firmly upholds its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao, resolutely opposes the Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation of China’s islands and reefs, and resolutely opposes the unilateral acts taken by the Philippines on the pretext of encing its own claims to infringe China’s rights and interests in waters under China’s jurisdiction. Still, in the interest of sustaining peace and stability in the South China Sea, China has exercised great restraint, stayed committed to peacefully settling the disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea, and made tireless efts to this end. China has conducted consultations with the Philippines on managing maritime differences and promoting practical maritime cooperation, and the two sides have reached important consensus on settling through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea and properly managing relevant disputes.(一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea7. 中国一贯致力于在相互尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则基础上与各国发展友好关系7. China has dedicated itself to fostering friendly relations with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, namely, mutual respect sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.75. 1975年6月,中菲关系实现正常化,两国在有关公报中明确指出,两国政府同意不诉诸武力,不以武力相威胁,和平解决所有争端75. In June 1975, China and the Philippines normalized their relations, and in the joint communiqué that purpose, the two governments agreed to settle all disputes by peaceful means without resorting to the threat or use of ce.76. 实际上,中国在解决南海问题上的“搁置争议,共同开发”倡议,首先是对菲律宾提出的1986年6月,中国领导人邓小平在会见菲律宾副总统萨尔瓦多·劳雷尔时,指出南沙群岛属于中国,同时针对有关分歧表示,“这个问题可以先搁置一下,先放一放过几年后,我们坐下来,平心静气地商讨一个可为各方接受的方式我们不会让这个问题妨碍与菲律宾和其他国家的友好关系”1988年月,邓小平在会见菲律宾总统科拉松·阿基诺时重申“对南沙群岛问题,中国最有发言权南沙历史上就是中国领土,很长时间,国际上对此无异议”;“从两国友好关系出发,这个问题可先搁置一下,采取共同开发的办法”此后,中国在处理南海有关争议及同南海周边国家发展双边关系问题上,一直贯彻了邓小平关于“主权属我,搁置争议,共同开发”的思想76. In fact, China’s initiative of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes” regarding the South China Sea issue was first addressed to the Philippines. In a June 1986 meeting with Philippine Vice President Salvador Laurel, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping pointed out that Nansha Qundao belongs to China, and when referring to the matter of differences, stated that, “This issue can be shelved now. Several years later, we can sit down and work out a solution that is acceptable to all in a calm manner. We shall not let this issue stand in the way of our friendly relations with the Philippines and with other countries.” In April 1988, when meeting with Philippine President Corazón Aquino, Deng Xiaoping reiterated that “with regard to the issue concerning Nansha Qundao, China has the biggest say. Nansha Qundao has been part of China’s territory throughout history, and no one has ever expressed objection to this quite some time”; and “ the sake of the friendship between our two countries, we can shelve the issue now and pursue joint development”. Since then, when handling the relevant South China Sea issue and developing bilateral ties with other littoral countries around the South China Sea, China has all along acted in keeping with Deng Xiaoping’s idea: “sovereignty belongs to China, disputes can be shelved, and we can pursue joint development”.77. 世纪80年代以来,中国就通过谈判管控和解决中菲南海有关争议提出一系列主张和倡议,多次重申对南沙群岛的主权、和平解决南海有关争议的立场和“搁置争议,共同开发”的倡议,明确表示反对外部势力介入,反对南海问题国际化,强调不应使争议影响两国关系的发展77. Since the 1980s, China has put ward a series of proposals and initiatives managing and settling through negotiation disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea and reiterated repeatedly its sovereignty over Nansha Qundao, its position on peacefully settling the relevant disputes and its initiative of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes”. China has expressed its clear opposition to intervention by outside ces and attempts to multilateralize the South China Sea issue and emphasized that the relevant disputes should not affect bilateral relations.78. 199年7月,在马尼拉举行的第5届东盟外长会议发表《东盟关于南海问题的宣言中国表示,赞赏这一宣言所阐述的相关原则中国一贯主张通过谈判和平解决南沙群岛部分岛礁有关领土问题,反对诉诸武力,愿在条件成熟时同有关国家谈判“搁置争议,共同开发”78. In July 199, the 5th ASEAN eign Ministers Meeting held in Manila adopted the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea. China expressed appreciation relevant principles outlined in that Declaration. China stated that it has all along stood peacefully settling through negotiation the territorial issues relating to part of Nansha Qundao and opposed the use of ce, and is y to enter into negotiation with countries concerned on implementing the principle of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes” when conditions are ripe.79. 1995年8月,中菲共同发表的《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国关于南海问题和其他领域合作的磋商联合声明表示,“争议应由直接有关国家解决”;“双方承诺循序渐进地进行合作,最终谈判解决双方争议”此后,中国和菲律宾通过一系列双边文件确认通过双边谈判协商解决南海问题的有关共识,例如:1999年3月《中菲建立信任措施工作小组会议联合公报、00年5月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府关于1世纪双边合作框架的联合声明等79. In August 1995, China and the Philippines issued the Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines concerning Consultations on the South China Sea and on Other Areas of Cooperation in which they agreed that “[d]isputes shall be settled by the countries directly concerned” and that “a gradual and progressive process of cooperation shall be adopted with a view to eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes.” Subsequently, China and the Philippines reaffirmed their consensus on settling the South China Sea issue through bilateral negotiation and consultation in a number of bilateral documents, such as the March 1999 Joint Statement of the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures and the May 00 Joint Statement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines on the Framework of Bilateral Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century.80. 年月,中国同东盟国共同签署《宣言各方在《宣言中郑重承诺:“根据公认的国际法原则,包括198年《联合国海洋法公约,由直接有关的主权国家通过友好磋商和谈判,以和平方式解决它们的领土和管辖权争议,而不诉诸武力或以武力相威胁”80. In November , China and the ten ASEAN Member States signed the DOC in which the parties solemnly “undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of ce, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 198 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea”.81. 此后,中菲通过一系列双边文件确认各自在《宣言中作出的郑重承诺,例如:年9月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府联合新闻公报、年9月《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国联合声明等81. Afterwards, China and the Philippines reaffirmed this solemn commitment they had made in the DOC in a number of bilateral documents, such as the September Joint Press Statement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the September Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines.8. 上述中菲两国各项双边文件以及《宣言的相关规定,体现了中菲就解决南海有关争议达成的以下共识和承诺:一是有关争议应在直接有关的主权国家之间解决;二是有关争议应在平等和相互尊重基础上,通过谈判协商和平解决;三是直接有关的主权国家根据公认的国际法原则,包括198年《联合国海洋法公约,“最终谈判解决双方争议”8. The relevant provisions in all the aementioned bilateral instruments and the DOC embody the following consensus and commitment between China and the Philippines on settling the relevant disputes in the South China Sea: first, the relevant disputes shall be settled between sovereign states directly concerned; second, the relevant disputes shall be peacefully settled through negotiation and consultation on the basis of equality and mutual respect; and third, sovereign states directly concerned shall “eventually negotiat[e] a settlement of the bilateral disputes” in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 198 UNCLOS.83. 中菲双方多次重申通过谈判解决有关争议,并多次强调有关谈判应由直接有关的主权国家开展,上述规定显然已产生排除任何第三方争端解决方式的效果特别是1995年的联合声明规定“最终谈判解决双方争议”,这里的“最终”一词明显是为了强调“谈判”是双方已选择的唯一争端解决方式,并排除包括第三方争端解决程序在内的任何其他方式上述共识和承诺构成两国间排除通过第三方争端解决方式解决中菲南海有关争议的协议这一协议必须遵守83. By repeatedly reaffirming negotiations as the means settling relevant disputes, and by repeatedly emphasizing that negotiations be conducted by sovereign states directly concerned, the above-mentioned provisions obviously have produced the effect of excluding any means of third party settlement. In particular, the 1995 Joint Statement provides “eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes”. The term “eventually” in this context clearly serves to emphasize that “negotiations” is the only means the parties have chosen dispute settlement, to the exclusion of any other means including third party settlement procedures. The above consensus and commitment constitutes an agreement between the two states excluding third-party dispute settlement as a way to settle relevant disputes in the South China Sea between China and the Philippines. This agreement must be observed.(二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea8. 中国一贯主张,各方应通过制定规则、完善机制、务实合作、共同开发等方式管控争议,为南海有关争议的最终解决创造良好氛围8. It is China’s consistent position that, the relevant parties should establish and improve rules and mechanisms, and pursue practical cooperation and joint development, so as to manage disputes in the South China Sea, and to foster a good atmosphere their final resolution.85. 自世纪90年代以来,中菲就管控争议达成一系列共识:一是在有关争议问题上保持克制,不采取可能导致事态扩大化的行动;二是坚持通过双边磋商机制管控争议;三是坚持推动海上务实合作和共同开发;四是不使有关争议影响双边关系的健康发展和南海地区的和平与稳定85. Since the 1990s, China and the Philippines have reached the following consensus on managing their disputes: first, they will exercise restraint in handling relevant disputes and refrain from taking actions that may lead to an escalation; second, they will stay committed to managing disputes through bilateral consultation mechanisms; third, they commit themselves to pursuing practical maritime cooperation and joint development; and fourth, the relevant disputes should not affect the healthy growth of bilateral relations and peace and stability in the South China Sea region.86. 中菲还在《宣言中达成如下共识:保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化和影响和平与稳定的行动;在和平解决领土和管辖权争议前,本着合作与谅解的精神,努力寻求各种途径建立互信;探讨或开展在海洋环保、海洋科学研究、海上航行和交通安全、搜寻与救助、打击跨国犯罪等方面的合作86. In the DOC, China and the Philippines also reached the following consensus: to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability; to intensify efts, pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence; and to explore or undertake cooperative activities including marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, safe 反法西斯抗战70周年:抗日战争术语盘点 -- :58:55 来源: 随着9月3日“中国人民抗日战争胜利纪念日”的到来,英语翻译圈掀起了一场学习抗日战争术语的热潮小编根据中央编译局最新发布的抗日词汇翻译,特地分类整理了抗日战争期间的重大事件、战役、战术等相关表达,总结了下规律,以便大家学习记忆  事变:Incident  重大事件,像“……事变”,英文多用Incident表示,如:  九一八事变  September 18th Incident  七七事变(卢沟桥事变)  July 7th Incident (Lugou Bridge Incident)  会战:Battle of...  “……会战”,这类术语用Battle of...或者Campaign表示, 另外,“大捷”也用battle of...,如:  淞沪会战:Battle of Shanghai  武汉会战:Battle of Wuhan  百团大战:Hundred-Regiment Campaign  平型关大捷  Battle of Pingxingguan; victory atPingxingguan  台儿庄大捷  Battle of Tai’ erzhuang; victory at Tai’erzhuang  战术:warfare  表示战术的,像“持久战、游击战”等,使用warfare,如:  持久战:protracted war  游击战:guerrilla warfare  运动战:mobile warfare  地道战:tunnel warfare  地雷战:landmine warfare  细菌战:germ warfare  化学战:chemical warfare  “……区”:area  “解放区”、“游击区”这类,则用area,很简单啦,如:  解放区:liberated area  游击区:guerrilla area  敌占区(沦陷区)  enemy-occupied area; occupied area  “三光”政策:policy  “三光”政策,即烧光、杀光、抢光  翻译为:”Three Alls”policy (kill all, burn all, loot all)  扫荡、蚕食,清乡:operation  抗日战争中,日军对中国实施了扫荡、蚕食,清乡政策,这三个表达均为...operation,具体表达如下:  “扫荡”:“mopping-up”operation  “蚕食”:“gnawing-away”operation  “清乡”:“pacification” operation在青岛401医院专家坐诊表即墨区妇女医院光子嫩肤多少钱

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