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武汉包皮环切费用多少天涯新闻

2019年07月24日 06:11:37|来源:国际在线|编辑:乐视优惠
我正在节食,你能不能给我弄一个铃声,响起来就象在有人在告诉我“你(身材)看起来真棒。”摘要:笔体学旨在研究人的笔迹以提示人的性格。虽然大多数科学家称之为伪科学,笔体学在欧洲仍然流行。美国有些公司在雇佣员工时也要征求笔体学家的意见。Graphology is the study of a person’s handwriting to reveal something about his or her personality. Although most scientists regard graphology as a pseudoscience, its practice is widesp in Europe. Many American business firms consult graphologists for advice about which people to hire.Some principles of graphology are true. For example, handwriting can show whether a person is sick, old, or nervous. But most of the other principles of graphology lack scientific proof. For example, graphologists claim that lines slanting upward indicate high spirits, and that lines slanting downward show low spirits. The serious study of the relationship between handwriting and personality has been more widesp in Europe than in other places in the world. In the last 19th century, the French psychologist Alfred Binet tested seven graphologists. He asked them to distinguish writing samples of average man. All the graphologists performed better than expected, and one scored correctly on 92 per cent of the cases. But most other attempts to prove the exact relationships between personality and handwriting have not been successful.Though graphology probably has limited value, many psychologists consider the study of handwriting a useful method to obtain information about a patient’s personality without asking direct questions about it. Several universities in Europe still teach graphology courses now. /200905/70329

Dogs can be jealous, say scientistsDogs are prone to complex emotions such as jealousy and pride, according to scientific research that sheds new light on their relationship with humans.Canines do not like seeing their owners offering affection to other creatures, especially other dogs, and react negatively when their owners bring home new partners, the research found.Psychologists previously believed most animals lack the "sense of self" needed to experience so-called secondary emotions such as jealousy, embarrassment, empathy or guilt. These emotions are more complex than feelings associated with instant reaction – such as anger, lust or joy.Dr Friederike Range, of the University of Vienna's neurobiology department, has shown that dogs feel intense jealously when they spot that they are unfairly treated compared with other dogs. "Dogs show a strong aversion to inequity," she said.The dog study is the latest into several species, including cows, horses, cats and sheep, which have shown that animals are far more self-aware than was thought.Dr Paul Morris, a psychologist at the University of Portsmouth who studies animal emotions, told The Sunday Times: "We are learning that dogs, horses, and perhaps many other species are far more emotionally complex than we ever realised. They can suffer simple forms of many emotions we once thought only primates could experience."In research among dog owners, Dr Morris found almost all of them reported jealous behaviour by their pets. The dog often tried to prise their owner away from a new lover in the early days of a relationship.Behavioural experts recommend owners keeping their dog's routine as much as possible when a new partner or child comes along in order to prevent jealous activity from the dog such as interruptions with barking or whining. /200812/58441

About three years ago Eva Salem got into some trouble with a crocodile. It snapped her hand in its jaws. In a panic, she managed to knock out the crocodile and free herself. Then, she woke up."I imagine that's what it's like when you're on heroin. That's what my dreams were like—vivid, crazy and active," she says. Salem, a new mother, had been breast-feeding her daughter for five months before the croc-attack dream, living on four hours of sleep a night. If she did sleep a full night, her dreams boomeranged, becoming so vivid that she felt like she wasn't sleeping at all.Dreams are amazingly persistent. Miss a few from lack of sleep and the brain keeps score, forcing payback soon after eyelids close. "Nature's soft nurse," as Shakespeare called sleep, isn't so soft after all."When someone is sleep deprived we see greater sleep intensity, meaning greater brain activity during sleep; dreaming is definitely increased and likely more vivid," says neurologist Mark Mahowald of the University of Minnesota and director of the Minnesota Regional Sleep Disorders Center in Minneapolis.The phenomenon is called REM rebound. REM refers to "rapid eye movement," the darting of the eyes under closed lids. In this state we dream the most and our brain activity eerily resembles that of waking life. Yet, at the same time, our muscles go slack and we lie paralyzed—a toe might wiggle, but essentially we can't move, as if our brain is protecting our bodies from acting out the stories we dream.Sleep is divided into REM and four stages of non-REM; each has a distinct brain wave frequency. Stage one of non-REM is the nodding off period where one is between sleeping and waking; it's sometimes punctuated with a sensation of falling into a hole. In stage two the brain slows with only a few bursts of activity. Then the brain practically shuts off in stages three and four and shifts into slow-wave sleep, where heart and breathing rates drop dramatically.Only after 70 minutes of non-REM sleep do we experience our first period of REM, and it lasts only five minutes. A total non-REM–REM cycle is 90 minutes; this pattern repeats about five times over the course of a night. As the night progresses, however, non-REM stages shorten and the REM periods grow, giving us a 40-minute dreamscape just before waking.The only way scientists can study REM deprivation is by torturous sleep deprivation. "We follow the [electroencephalogram] tracing and then when we see [subjects] moving into REM, we wake them up," says psychologist Tore Nielsen, director of the Dream and Nightmare Lab at the Sacré-Coeur Hospital in Montreal. "As soon as you start to rob them of REM, the pressure for them to go back into REM starts to build." Sometimes Nielsen will have to wake them 40 times in one night because they go directly into REM as soon as they are asleep.Of course there is non-REM rebound as well, but the brain gives priority to the slow-wave sleep and then to REM, suggesting that the states are independent of each other.In a 2005 study published in Sleep, Nielsen showed that losing 30 minutes of REM one night can lead to a 35 percent REM increase the next night—subjects jumped from 74 minutes of REM to a rebound of 100 minutes.Nielsen also found that dream intensity increased with REM deprivation. Subjects who were only getting about 25 minutes of REM sleep rated the quality of their dreams between nine and eight on a nine-point scale (one being dull, nine being dynamite).Of course, REM deprivation, and the subsequent rebound, is common outside the lab. Alcohol and nicotine both repress REM. And blood pressure drugs as well as antidepressants are also well known REM suppressants. (Take away the dreams and, curiously, the depression lifts.) When patients stop the meds, and the vices, they're rewarded with a scary rebound.But the persistence of REM begs the question: Why is it so insistent? When rats are robbed of REM for four weeks they die (although the cause of death remains unknown). Amazingly, even though we spend about 27 years dreaming over the course of an average life, scientists still can't agree on why it's important.Psychiatrist Jerry Siegel, head of the Center for Sleep Research at the University of California, Los Angeles, recently proved that REM is nonexistent in some big-brained mammals, such as dolphins and whales. "Dying from lack of REM is totally bogus," Siegel says. "It's never been shown in any species other than a rat."Some theories suggest that REM helps regulate body temperature and neurotransmitter levels. And there is also evidence that dreaming helps us assimilate memories. Fetuses and babies spend 75 percent of their sleeping time in REM. Then again, platypuses experience more REM than any other animal and researchers wonder why, because, as Minnesota's Mahowald puts it, "Platypuses are stupid. What do they have to consolidate?"But, given that rats run through dream mazes that precisely match their lab mazes, others feel that there must be some purpose or meaningful information in dreams.John Antrobus, a retired professor of psychology and sleep research at the City College of New York says that dream content is tied to our anxieties. But he never found the extreme vividness in REM rebound that others assume is there, based on a higher level of brain activity which likely means more action-packed dreams."The brain is an interpretive organ, and when regions are less connected as they are in sleep, we get bizarre narratives," he says. "But its purpose? For that we have to ask what is the purpose of thought. We can't answer one without answering the other." /200809/48445

AFTERNOON TEA (The traditional 4 o'clock tea)This is a small meal, not a drink. Traditionally it consists of Tea (or coffee) served with either of the following:Freshly baked scones served with cream and jam (Known as a cream tea)Afternoon tea sandwiches often thinly sliced cucumber sandwiches with the crusts cut off.与其说这是单纯的饮茶,不如说这是一顿简餐。因为按照传统,它除了包含茶(或咖啡)等饮料之外,还有不少点心,例如:点缀有奶油和果酱的现烤热斯康饼(以奶油茶闻名)下午茶三明治通常都是无边的黄瓜三明治} /201105/137937

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