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郴州那个医院做包皮手术好郴州男科医院哪个好Three days past, and the research team is once again out looking for the beaches.3天过去了,研究小队再次外出寻找比奇家庭。They catch up with Puck and Semu, she leads him out into deep water for the first time, which is a first big challenge.他们想到了帕克和莎木,看起来帕克想把莎木带到深水区。这对它来说是个挑战。Deep water is a much more dangerous place for Semu, he could easily get lost.对莎木来说深水区是个危险地带。很容易就走丢了。Hes still learning his mothers call.它还在学习妈妈的叫声。Sensing the danger, Semu stays closer to her side, mirroring her every move as he swept along in Pucks history.感到有危险,莎木就会紧靠着妈妈。模仿妈妈的动作就可以借助它的动力,往前游。Semu was indeed a little bit more coordinated today, and low like skittish, keeping it well with mum看起来莎木有点协调了。能跟上妈妈,就不会太激动了。Normally, caves can only dive a meter or so in their first week of life, but Semu is diving deeper and for longer than any other calves the researchers have seen before.通常,刚出生的小海豚只能下潜一米深。但莎木潜的要更深一点,更长一点,队员们从来没遇到过。Its a good sign.好兆头。Its Semu doing so well, Pucks finally able to start fishing again.莎木干的不错,帕克终于可以吃点东西了。She heads for a bait ball.它往鱼群游去。Mothers lose a lot of weight in the first week of their calves life.小海豚刚出生的几周内,妈妈的体重会变轻。While Pucks nursing, she needs to increase her food intake by 50%.哺乳期的帕克要比平时多吃50%的食物。Later that afternoon, something very unexpected happens as visitors from across the bay start arriving.下午发生了意想不到的事情。有访客穿过鲨鱼湾来到了这里。Mothers and calves from at least 3 different families are gathering to meet Semu.至少有三个不同家庭的成员过来看看莎木。201406/303202郴州治疗不孕不育哪家医院好 This triggered other dramatic changes. As sea levels dropped, so did the inland water tables. Floridas fresh water drained away through the porous limestone rock. Pools dried up and springs diminished. Florida was on the brink of drought. And animals would have had to travel to find food and water. So each year, mastodons would have migrated to the wetter regions. 这引起了其他的一些巨大变化。海平面越降越低,内陆水位也是一样。佛罗里达的淡水都从多孔的石灰岩中流走。小水池和泉水都干涸了。佛罗里达处于干旱的边缘。动物们必须长途跋涉以寻找食物和水源。因此,每年乳齿象都是迁徙都更加湿润的地区。But in a few key places, water was still pushed up from underground as a spring, a vital oasis where wildlife would have converged from many miles around. Many animals would have fed on the surrounding vegetation and others come here to drink. And predators would have laid an ambush for the unwary. Its no wonder that so many fossil bones have been found on the bottom of these springs, clues that can open up a window on the ice age past. 但是在一些关键的地区,淡水还是能够从地表流出形成泉水,这就成型了一个重要的绿洲,几公里外的动物们都会因此聚集到一起。很多动物都会以周围的植被为食,也有一些只是到这里饮水。而肉食动物则会在这里埋伏着,准备对那些不警惕的动物们来个出其不意。毫无疑问,在这些泉水的河底能够发现很多化石骨骼,这些骨骼会我们更好地了解冰河时代的过去提供了重要的依据。Bringing this evidence together, we can create a living picture of this region as it was then. We can now go back 13,000 years and see what a day around one of Floridas springs might have been like. 将这些线索集合起来,我们就能够想象出这个地区过去是什么样子。现在我们返回13000年前,看看佛罗里达小溪的一天究竟是什么样子。Dawn on the southeast tip of ice age North America. On the banks of a spring-fed pool, the early grazers stir.我们会逐渐了解这次向着冰河时代的北美东南之行。在泉水的河岸处,早起的吃草动物在徘徊着。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201309/256506苏仙区医院预约

郴州包皮整形多少钱Science and technology科学技术The evolution of the hand手的进化Making a fist of it拳头的演化How a dual-use bodily structure came into existence人手的双重功能如何生成THE appendage at the end of a human beings arm is a strange organ.与人类手臂相连的手掌是一个奇特的部位,也是人类唯一因不同用途而拥有不同名称的部位。It is the only one that has different names, depending on what it is being used for. Employ it to hold something, and it is called a hand. Employ it to hit someone, and it is called a fist.拿物体,我们称之为手;攻击人,我们称之为拳头。That second use, though, is almost unknown in other primates.而几乎所有的灵长类动物极少使用拳头攻击。Most primate hands are long of palm and finger, short of thumb, and suited for climbing.大多数灵长类动物的手是手掌宽大、手指较长和大拇指较短,这一结构有利于攀爬。Human hands have short palms, short fingers and long thumbs, which are not.人类的手是手掌短小、手指适中和大拇指较长,这一结构不利于攀爬,These proportions do, though, make it possible to grip things in two ways that other apes hands cannot manage well.然而,手的这种比例结构使得人类比其它灵长类动物更擅长于抓取物体,抓取有两种方式,One is by using what is known as a precision grip, in which an object is held between the pads of the finger tips and the pad of the thumb.一是精确握法,使用大拇指指尖与其它手指指尖抓紧一物体;The other is by means of a power grip, in which all the fingers and the thumb are wrapped around what is being grasped.另一种方式是力量握法,包括大拇指在内的所有手指把一物体紧紧包住。These two grips are crucial to Homo sapienss characteristic tool-crafting skills, and it has thus long been thought that the widesp use of tools by humanitys ancestors was the driving force behind the modern hands proportions.以上两种握法是智人在使用工具上的关键特征,因此,长期以来人们认为人类的祖先广泛使用工具是驱使人类手部结构进化的推动力。No doubt that was important. But a study just published in the Journal of Experimental Biology by Michael Morgan and David Carrier of the University of Utah has shown that the exact geometry of the hand is probably the result of its destructive rather than its constructive power.毋庸置疑,广泛使用工具对人手的进化起到了重要的作用,但是,由犹他大学的生物学家迈克尔根与戴维卡里尔合作完成,并在最近刊登在《实验生物学杂志》的一篇论文里写道,人类手部的精确几何结构可能是破坏性力量导致的结果,非建设性力量导致的结果。Most natural weapons are obvious: teeth, claws, antlers, horns.诸如牙齿、爪子、鹿角、牛/羊角等大多数的天然武器是很直观的。But the hand becomes a weapon only when it turns into a fist.而手只有在变成拳头的时候才成为武器。Dr Morgan and Dr Carrier therefore studied its anatomy to try to find out what makes the fist such an effective weapon—one which, like the precision and power grips, the hand of even a chimpanzee is incapable of forming properly.所以,根与卡里尔两位教授想通过解剖学来揭开拳头成为有效武器的之谜,其中包括连黑猩猩都做不到的精确握法与力量握法。Part of the reason is obvious.有一点是很明显的:A fist presents the knuckles first.拳头是关节往外凸,That means the force of a blow is transmitted through a much smaller area than would be the case for its alternative, an open-handed slap.这意味着击打的接触面比掌击的接触面要小。But the two researchers suspected that there might be more to it than that, so they dug a little deeper.但两位教授认为原因不仅仅如此,于是,他们进一步深入研究。First, they gathered some basic measurements.首先,根与卡里尔两位教授收集了一些基本的测量数据。They asked ten athletes—a mixture of boxers and martial artists—to strike a punch bag as hard as they could using either a normal fist or an open palm.他们邀请了十位运动员,包括拳击手和格斗选手,要求他们用尽全力用拳头打沙袋或者掌击沙袋。The athletes did so in many ways, including forward strikes, side strikes and overhead attacks, and Dr Morgan and Dr Carrier monitored how much force was delivered in each case using an accelerometer attached to the bag.十位运动员以冲拳、测拳和高拳等方式击打沙袋。通过在沙袋上捆绑的加速计,两位教授监控到使用拳头打击或掌击在不同的击打方式下的力度。They also used a series of pistons to measure the stiffness of different hand shapes.除此之外,两位教授还使用了一系列的活塞来测量选手击打时手的不同姿势的硬度。These included a fully clenched fist, a semi-fist with the fingers curled up but the thumb pointed outwards, and a poorly formed fist in which the fingers were folded over the palm and the thumb pointed outwards.这些姿势包括全握拳头、半握拳头以及虚拳。As the athletes formed these various fists and fist-like shapes, the pistons measured the rigidity of their hands along the knuckle bones.从选手摆出手型准备出击到完成击打,活塞测量了他们手指关节的硬度。Though the accelerometer in the punch bag suggested that a sideswipe made with a closed fist delivers 15% more force than an open-handed strike, a frontal attack with either produces about the same force.尽管在沙袋里的加速计的数据显示,拳击的近距离侧击比掌击能传递多15%的能量到沙袋上,但正面攻击沙袋时,无论是拳击还是掌击,传递到沙袋上的能量都差不多。The fists advantage thus seems to be mainly in its geometry rather than it mode of delivery.由此看来,拳头的优势是得益于几何学而不是能量传递的方式。Part of that advantage does, indeed, come from the small surface area of the knuckles.拳头的指关节面积小,这是一个优势。But the killer app, almost literally, is the stiffness imparted by the way the bones are arranged in a properly formed fist.理论上,拳头的硬度源于手指骨组合方式的完美性。This allows the force of a punch to be delivered with an effect that can, for the receiver, be bone breaking.这样,力量能够以有效的方式传递至目标而不至于使手指骨断裂。Two things are crucial.有两个因素很关键。One is the way the fingers curl back on themselves, which leaves no empty space inside the fist.一个是握拳时手指紧密地弯曲,中间不留任何空隙,That is a product of the precise lengths of the component bones of each finger, which is one reason a chimpanzee cannot form a proper fist.这可是每根手指骨以精确的尺寸构建的产物,这是黑猩猩的手无法做到的。The other is the buttressing role of the thumb, which adds yet further stiffness.另外一个因素是大拇指的撑作用使得拳头更加坚硬。Again, this requires the thumb to be of precisely the right length, and to originate in precisely the right place at the side of the palm.当然,大拇指的精确尺寸以及所处的位置两者相结合才能使之完美地发挥了作用。In combination, Dr Morgan and Dr Carriers machine indicted, these features make a properly formed fist almost four times as rigid as a chimpanzee-style fist—for when a chimp curls its fingers up it leaves a gap through the middle of the fist, fatally weakening the structure; and the thumb plays no buttressing role.根与卡里尔两位教授综合利用了测量出的各种数据,他们认为正是以上所描述的两种因素让人拳头的硬度是黑猩猩拳头硬度的四倍,当黑猩猩的手握成一个拳头时,牠弯曲的手指中有一个空隙,这是一个致命性的缺陷,而且灵长类动物的大拇指也不起到撑拳头的作用。All this suggests that fists are indeed proper evolutionary adaptations, with their own history of natural selection, rather than being just the coincidental by-products of humanitys handiness with a tool.综上所述,人手之所以能形成拳头是大自然物竞天择的结果,而不是人类碰巧使用工具所进化的副产品。In fact, it is probably easier for the gripping role of the hand to adjust to the geometrical requirements of the punching role of the fist than the other way round.实际上,很可能人手的抓取功能是为了适应拳头的几何结构而进化过来的,而不是抓取功能的副产品。Which makes perfect sense, for it has long been the case that the species is divided between those who prosper by making things with their hands, and those who rely on their fists, or the threat of them, to take what the makers have made.这就说明了,在很长一段时间里,物种之间的差异是根据使用手的不同方式开始,一些使用双手制造物品、一些利用拳头自我保护或者使用武力抢夺前者所制造的物品。 /201401/271124郴州桂东县人民医院妇幼保健包皮手术怎么样 Research shows that whether a person is an optimist or apessimist is related to their quality of life, including their physical health.研究表明,不管一个人是乐观还是悲观,都他的生活质量息息相关,包括身体健康。The subjects involved first took personality tests in the1960s and then thirty years later they completed a follow-up self-assessment of their healthstatus.这个主题首次在二十世纪六十年代提出并做了人格测试,三十年后他们后续完成了健康状况的自我评价。Researchers found that not only did the optimists from the 1960s report better physicaland mental functioning thirty years later, but that optimists also lived longer on average than pessimists.研究人员发现60年代的乐观主义者不仅身心比30年后的人更健康,而且乐观主义者比悲观主义者更长寿。Its hardly clear that there is a causal relationship between optimism and health.很难理清乐观与健康之间的因果关系。it could be thatthey are related to the same underlying gene complex or set of mechanisms.也许是因为它们与相同的潜在基因或是一套机制有关。Still, it sure istempting to surmise that its partly a positive attitude that keeps people alive for so long.不过,可以肯定的是,一定程度上的积极心态能让人长寿。It mayactually be possible that a lot of what my parents have been telling me for years is true.实际上可能多年来我父母告诉我的许多事情都是真的。If you think positively, good things may happen to you.如果你积极地看待这个世界,好的事情就可能发生在你身上。If you think negatively, then you may doomyourself.如果你总是消极地看待一切,那样只会让你自己更郁闷。 201408/321927郴州市中医院阳痿早泄价格

郴州第一医院不孕不育多少钱Business商业报道General Motors woes通用的悲鸣What do you recall?你召回什么?GM is forced to confront its faults通用被迫面对它的错误WHEN Mary Barra took the wheel at General Motors in January she inherited a company in good shape.Mary Barra 在二月份接掌通用汽车时,公司运转态势良好。Five years after bankruptcy, its profits were exceeding expectations and its share price was rising.破产5年之后,它的利润增长超过预期,股价也在持续上升。But the new bosss to-do list was long: fixing GMs loss-making European arm, keeping up momentum in China amid signs of a slowdown and rejuvenating the product line.但是新的掌门人面临着一系列的问题:整顿欧洲分的亏损问题;在出现衰退迹象的情况下,保持中国市场的发展势头并发展生产线。Ms Barras predecessor, Dan Akerson, warned her that she would also face “curve balls”.Barra女士的前任Dan Akerson 告诫她可能也会面临“曲线球”。The first has arrived sooner than she might have expected.第一个比她预期的来得更快。What appeared to be a routine recall in mid-February of about 800,000 older models, linked to a faulty ignition switch, has turned out to be anything but.在二月中旬看似是例行召回的800000辆旧款车结果显示只是因为点火开关的缺陷。The number of cars recalled has leapt to more than 2.6m.被召回的车已经超过260万辆。The companys inept handling of a safety problem that first became apparent a decade ago is now linked to the deaths of at least 13 motorists.公司对于安全问题的笨拙处理,在十年之前首次显露。现在已经与至少13位驾驶者的死亡有关。Called before Congress on April 1st to answer for GMs failings Ms Barra said she was “deeply sorry” but insisted that the post-bankruptcy “new GM” was not like the “old GM”, which had failed to deal with the ignition switches for years.4月1号被召到国会回答通用失败的原因,Barra说她“深表遗憾”,但是她强调破产重组后的“新通用”和处理点火开关多年未果的“老通用”不同。Politicians and the public alike want to know how such a problem could have remained unaddressed for so long.政客和公众想知道为什么这样一个问题能够悬而未决这么久。Cars are becoming ever more complex machines, with thousands of mechanical and electronic parts.汽车构造越来越复杂,有着成千上万的机械以及电气构造。Recalls are not uncommon.召回并不罕见。Last year it happened to 22m vehicles in America, compared with 18m in 2012.去年美国有2200万汽车召回,而2012年召回了1800万辆。In fact, GM was one of only three brands that recalled fewer vehicles than it sold.实际上,通用曾是召回比售出少的三巨头之一。Niggling problems, like squeaks or rattles, that do not affect safety are more common still.不影响安全的类似于发出吱吱声或者为嗡嗡声的琐碎问题愈发常见。 They may be fixed at a routine service; the owner may never know.它们有可能在例行务中被处理好,汽车所有者可能永远都不会知道。The growing number of recalls is testament to an improving system for picking up faults.增加的召回数量是发现问题体系在不断完善的明。But it is very complicated.但是这个系统很复杂。Dealers must record replacements of parts under warranty.经销商必须在授权下记录置换部分。The carmaker needs to spot the trend, recognise it as a problem and then determine whether or not it is a design fault that requires wholesale replacement.汽车制造者需要发现这一趋势,认定其为一个问题,然后确认是否为需要全部替换的设计失误。It relies on accurate recording of every warranty replacement in every region, says Andrew Bergbaum of AlixPartners, a firm of consultants.咨询公司AlixPartners的Andrew Bergbaum说:它依赖于每一地区的每一个授权置换的精确记录。This system appears to have broken down at “old GM”.但是这一体系在“老通用”貌似没能施行。Ms Barra needs to find out why.Barra需要找出其原因。At the heart of the matter is a widely used ignition switch that has a tendency to slip from the “on” position to “off” if a driver uses a heavy keychain or bounces down a rough road.问题的核心是:广泛使用的点火开关在驾驶者使用重钥匙串或者在崎岖路上颠簸时有从“开”滑落到“关”的趋向。A modification was made in 2008 to prevent the problem, which can lead to the engine shutting off, disabling the airbags.一个装置在2008年被设计出来解决这一问题,但是它可能导致引擎熄火和安全气囊的失效。But despite a growing list of crashes and deaths, GM failed to order a recall for a component that would have cost a few dollars at most.尽管有着上升的撞车及死亡记录,但是通用并没有进行召回,虽然这些召回最多只是花一点钱。This is odd.这很奇怪。Most carmakers want to identify and fix problems speedily despite having to bear the cost of buying and fitting a new component.大多数汽车制造者希望及时发现并处理问题,尽管会付购买以及安装新元件的费用。A small part can do great harm, if bad publicity leads to reputational corrosion, lost sales and litigation, which in America can include hefty punitive damages.千里之堤溃于蚁穴,如果坏的消息传开导致名誉受损、销量下降以及被起诉,这在美国预示着高额惩罚性赔偿。Appearing to put profits before safety is also liable to batter a firms shares, as GM has discovered.通用实了,表现得重利益甚于重视安全也会引起公司股票的大跌。So far Ms Barra has handled the situation well.Barra到目前为止将这个局面处理得很好。She seems to have acted as soon as she found out something was awry.她似乎在一发现事情不对,就立即采取行动。And she has borrowed strategies from Toyota, which was forced into recalling more than 10m vehicles in and 2010 after worrying instances of “unintended acceleration”.她借鉴了丰田公司的策略。丰田在担心“突然加速”的例子,在年和2010年先后召回了1000万辆汽车。Akio Toyoda, Toyotas boss, also appeared before Congress, contrite and apologetic.丰田公司掌门人Akio Toyoda也在国会现身,赔礼道歉。GM, like Toyota, has appointed a worldwide safety tsar to cut through the bureaucracy that may have delayed action on the faulty switch.通用和丰田一样,任命了一个全球性的安全特使来整饬可能导致拖延问题开关处理的官僚作风。And in a frenzy of housecleaning, GM has recalled another 2m vehicles in America alone.在一场狂风骤雨般的清理中,通用单单在美国就另外召回了200万辆车。GM looks set to accept moral, if not legal, responsibility.如果不是法律要求的,通用似乎也会接受道德责任。The terms of its exit from bankruptcy give immunity to lawsuits for injuries arising beforehand.通用退出破产的条件赋予其豁免于之前伤害诉讼的权利。But GM is likely to compensate survivors and victims families anyway.但是通用不管怎样,可能赔偿幸存者以及遇难者家属。Toyota had a terrible year after its big recalls, battered by mounting costs and falling sales.丰田在它的大召回后经历了困难的一年,深陷于大量的费用以及减少的销量之中。But it has since regained the lost ground.但是它已经重新夺回失去的市场。It is not yet clear how much of a hammering GM will take.通用会经受怎样的打击现在还不清楚。But hours before Ms Barras meeting with Congress, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety issued a coveted “Top Safety Pick” endorsement for the new Chevrolet Malibu, one of a growing number of well-received cars from GM.但是在Barra出席国会之前,高速公路安全保险机构颁发了一个令人垂涎的“最高安全评价”的认给了通用销量大涨、广受欢迎的雪佛兰迈锐宝。That suggests it is at least on the road to redemption.这表明通用至少在救赎的路上。 /201404/285978 郴州人民医院男科郴州苏仙区包皮手术怎么样



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