楼主:ask大全 时间:2019年07月17日 06:51:23 点击:0 回复:0
South Korea’s education system韩国的教育体制The great decompression大减压There are perils for a country in having all your children working too hard for one big exam对一个国家来说,让所有孩子都为一场大型考试而精疲力尽是很危险的Oct 26th 2013 |From the print editionFEW countries have done better than South Korea over the past half-century. Within the span of a single working life, its economy has grown 17-fold, its government has evolved from an austere dictatorship into a rowdy democracy, and its culture, once scarred by censorship, now beguiles the world with its music, soap operas and cinema. Scholars enthuse about the speed and precocity of its “compressed development”.在过去的半个世纪,几乎没有国家表现得比韩国更好。在仅仅一代工作人口的时间跨度里,韩国经济增长了17倍。韩国政府也从严厉的独裁政权进化成了热闹的民主政体。韩国的文化原来被审查体制弄得千疮百孔,现在韩国的音乐、连续剧和电影席卷世界。学者们对这种快速且早熟的“高压发展”非常关注。The only people unimpressed by South Korea’s accomplishments may be South Koreans themselves. As our special report notes, the prosperity they enjoy has not relieved the competitive pressure they endure. To them, the country’s development is compressed in a different way. Its success is confined to a few big employers and industries. The country’s manufacturers are more impressive than its service firms, although these now generate most jobs. And in manufacturing its big, family-owned conglomerates (the chaebol) do far better than their small, hard-pressed suppliers.唯一对韩国的成就不以为然的大概只有韩国人自己了。正如本刊特别报道里所说,韩国人所享受的繁荣并没有缓解其承受的竞争压力。对韩国人而言,国家发展是通过其他方式实现的。韩国的成功仅限于几家大企业和大产业。韩国制造业表现要比务业好得多,虽然现在后者提供大部分的工作岗位。而在制造业中,几家大型的家族式企业集团(即财阀)的表现要比拮据的小型企业好得多。Unsurprisingly, ambitious young South Koreans crave employment in the thriving bits of the economy. Medicine, law, finance and government remain popular, but the chaebol now take the cream. Like the civil service and the professions, Samsung, Hyundai and their peers tend to hire people straight from the best universities, with little chance of entry later in life. This creates a double bottleneck in the labour market. There are only a few appealing employers to choose from, and only one realistic chance to join them. So youngsters spend ages padding out their CVs and prepping for exams—especially for the test taken at 18 which determines your university.毫无疑问,雄心勃勃的韩国年轻人都渴望能在经济中的强势方谋一份职业。制药、法律、金融以及政府职位依旧受欢迎,但财阀才是最。跟公务员和专业人士招聘一样,三星、现代等大集团喜欢直接从顶尖大学中挑人,不给年纪稍大的人留下多少机会。这就给劳动市场造成了双瓶颈现象。有吸引力的雇主就这么几家,而想加入他们,比较现实的机会仅有一种。于是,年轻人花大把时间炮制自己的简历,不停备考,尤其是准备18岁时参加的大学入学考试。This seems like a small thing, and many Western countries would kill to have South Korea’s problem: it is hard to imagine British or American parents fretting that their teenagers work too hard.South Koreacomes at or near the top of most international comparisons of ing, maths and science. But there are costs. A lot of effort goes into costly credentialism, rather than deep learning. The system excludes late-developing talent: blossom at 25, and it’s too late. And in the very long term it means a smaller country. The expense of educating children for the test is one reason why South Korean women give birth to so few of them. With the lowest fertility rate in the OECD rich-country club,South Korea’s greying threatens to be as rapid as its growth.这看起来没什么大不了的,许多西方国家对韩国能有这种问题羡慕得要死:很难想象英国或美国的家长抱怨自己的孩子太努力了。在阅读、数学以及科学方面的国际对比中,韩国人就算不是最优,也是名列前茅。但这是有代价的。大量的精力花在了追求文凭,而不是深入学习。这种体制排斥了那些大器晚成的人:25岁才开窍,太晚了。从长远来讲,这会导致国家人口减少。孩子应试花费过大是韩国女性少生育的原因之一。韩国的生育率在经合组织发达国家中是最低的,老龄化威胁的增长跟经济增长一样快。The indirect cure for education fever教育狂热的间接疗法Other education-obsessed countries in Asia face a version of the same problem. In the pastSouth Korea’s government tried to help parents by banning out-of-class tutoring. (The president of Seoul National University had to resign after letting his own child dodge the ban.) But such pedagogical prohibition is illiberal, and was anyway ruled unconstitutional in 2000. The answer lies not in the schools but in the overall economy—and in creating a more open labour market where more firms are interested in hiring people later.亚洲许多对教育偏执的国家都有类似的问题。之前,韩国政府想帮父母一把,制订了禁止课外补习的政策。(首尔国立大学校长违反规定,让自己的孩子补习,最后只能辞职。)但是,这种针对教学方式的禁令是违背自由精神的,而且在2000年还被判为违宪。要解决问题,关键不在学校,而在整体经济——要构建更开放的劳动市场,让企业有兴趣雇佣年纪稍大的人。 The government should do three things. First, scrap regulations that divide the jobs market into permanent employees, paid more than they are worth, and temporary workers, paid less. Second, it should encourage more firms, including foreign ones, into industries now dominated by the chaebol, expanding the range of alternative employers. And third, it should push the chaebol to expand into services, which they have diplomatically refrained from doing. Retailing, tourism, local transport: all these need some chaebol clout and efficiency.政府能做的有三点。第一,现在就业市场里有长期雇员和临时雇员之别,长期雇员能得到与其能力不相称的高薪,而临时雇员的薪资则达不到应得的水平,必须消除造成这种差别的规矩。第二,政府应鼓励更多企业,包括外国企业,进入目前为财阀所掌控的行业,扩大求职者可选择的雇主范围。第三,政府要推动财阀进入他们目前不想插手的务业。零售、旅游、本地交通等行业都需要一些财阀参与,增进效率。South Korea has astonished the world with its compressed development. For the benefit of hard-pressed parents and hard-working youths, it needs a bout of decompression.韩国已经以其高压发展让世界刮目。为了那些钱包紧张的家长和紧张学习的年轻人,韩国需要减一减压。201310/262699We are really able to spy pretty much anywhere in this little beach here.我们会拍到的,这个小海滩,到处都是海豚。where the dolphins are and basically tell Nick and Ben to hurry up and round over there and see if they can get a shot of it.尼克和本跑到那边去,看他们能不能拍到。Stifling aly, it s gonna be about 35-40 today I reckon.真令人沮丧,我想差不多已经有35,40天了。Then up on the cliff, Eric spots a movement.悬崖上面,艾瑞克拍到了一些。Oh there comes one, just stare on the point by the see whether Berge is flying off.来了一只,就在鸟停靠的那个地方。She really closes in, so she might...now.真的靠的很近,我去告诉他们。So she looks like she might surf hydroplaning.离岸边很近,好像开始划水了。See, we can get it, come on.看能不能拍到,快点!Normally, natural history ships are a game of patience.通常拍摄自然影片需要很大的耐心。This one is turning into a chase, in 40 degree eat.这次就是在40度高温下奔跑。201407/315405Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My friend ;Marianna; wont give me breathing room and cannot stop talking. She is constantly hanging on my arm, literally and figuratively. She is very emotionally clingy, calling as many as three times a day after spending six hours with me in school. I dont like talking on the phone and have hinted as much, but the hour-long conversations persist. She will also grab my hand and twist my fingers, tap my leg repeatedly with her foot, lean on me, etc. Its exhausting and annoying.我的朋友玛丽安娜从不给我喘气的机会,她一直说个不停。毫不夸张的说,她经常挂在我的胳膊上。她很黏人,在学校一起度过6小时候之后,她还会每天给我打三次电话。我不喜欢煲电话粥,也给过她很多暗示,但通话还是会持续个把小时。她还会抓住我的手,掰我的手指,用脚重复拍我的腿,靠在我身上等等。我感到十分的疲惫和懊恼。I dont want to hurt her feelings or end the friendship because shes usually a lot of fun. But I am sick of her constant chatter and lack of respect for my personal space. How can I politely give her the message to back off?我不想伤害她的感情或者中断我们之间的友情,因为她总是给我带来许多乐趣。但我讨厌她一直喋喋不休,不懂得尊重别人的隐私。我怎么才能让她明白我的意思,又显得礼貌呢?Dear Annoyed:亲爱的:The phone calls are easy—after youve had enough, say, ;I have to get off the phone now. Ill talk to you later,; and hang up. You also have the option of letting her calls go to voicemail. If she twists your fingers, yell ;ouch; loudly. The rest requires kindness and firmness. Its OK to tell Marianna that you treasure the friendship but are uncomfortable with so much physical contact. A real friend cares about your feelings, too.应付电话很简单——你感到厌倦的时候,可以说“我得挂电话了。晚点再聊,”然后就挂掉电话。你也可以选择把她的来电转到语音信箱。如果她掰你的手指,就大声喊“哎哟”。你的态度要友善而且坚定。告诉玛丽安娜你很珍惜这段友情,但这么多的身体接触让你感觉不舒,这没什么问题。一位真正的朋友同样会在乎你的感受。原文译文属!201305/237951Yael:Theyre months away, and Im aly stressed out about the holidays.雅艾尔:他们已经走了几个月了,而我已经对假期感到惶恐。Two different relatives of mine have died of natural causes on Christmas Day.我的两个不同亲戚在圣诞节那天自然死亡。You think my familys cursed?你说我的家族是受到了诅咒吗?Don:If your familys cursed, Yael, then a heck of a lot of other families may be too.唐:如果你的家族被诅咒,那么很多其他家庭可能也是如此。Research indicates that more people die of natural causes during the holiday season than any other time of the year.研究表明相比其他任何时间,很多人在节假日期间会死去。Yael:Really? You think that has something to do with the harshness of winter in some places?雅艾尔:真的吗?你认为在一些地方的严冬天与这有关系吗?D:It probably does have something to do with certain side-effects of winter, such as increased respiratory problems and increased inhalation of airborne particulate matter from the more frequent use of fireplaces.唐:可能对于冬天有某些副作用,如呼吸问题及频繁使用壁炉造成可吸入的空气颗粒物增加。But thats not the whole story.但这还并不是全部。The study revealed a seasonal increase in deaths from natural causes over the winter, but also an additional increase in deaths from natural causes in the period December 25th to January 7th.研究揭示冬天死于自然原因随季节性增加,而且在12月25日到1月7日的时间段死于自然原因也是额外增加。In fact, whether were looking at natural deaths or unnatural, the most common days to die are Christmas Day, the day after Christmas, and New Years Day.事实上,不论我们看到是自然死亡还是非自然,最常见的死亡之日是圣诞节,圣诞节后的第二天及新年。Yael:Youre not easing my stress any, Don.雅艾尔:唐,你一点也没缓解我的任何压力。And my guess is that stress is the leading culprit in these holiday deaths.而我的猜测是压力是这些假日死亡主要的罪魁祸首。D:Not so fast.唐:压力不会那么快导致死亡。While stress surely has some impact, as well as overindulgence of food and alcohol, scientists think that two other culprits are most likely to have the largest impact.虽然压力肯定有一些影响,而科学家认为另外两个罪魁祸首食物和酒精的过度很可能有最大的影响。One is peoples reluctance to put down their forks and eggnog and seek medical attention when they need it.一是人们当需要的时候不愿放下刀叉和蛋酒寻求医疗救助。Two is the changes in medical staffing over the holidays.二是医疗人员在假期的更替。Staff schedules often change over the holidays, and this may result in less efficient care. 人员安排在假期经常变化,这可能导致更为低效的护理。 201310/260176

So you made lasagna last night, and it was delicious.你昨晚做了千层面,之后享用了一顿大餐。You saved the leftovers by wrapping aluminum foil over the top of the pan, and putting it in the fridge.大快朵颐之后,你将剩下的千层面用铝箔纸包好放入冰箱中。When you get hungry today, you go to look for that lasagna, but it looks like the lasagna was getting hungry too!今天你饿的时候,便去拿昨天吃剩的千层面,但是你会发现千层面似乎也饿了!Its eaten tiny holes in the aluminum foil that was covering it.包裹它的铝箔纸上出现了一个个的小洞,好像被咬过一样。Why does this happen?为什么会这样呢?A listener asked this question and well find the answer on todays moment of science.一位听众问到了这个问题,我们将在今天的科学一刻中为你解答。There are really two things responsible for those holes in the aluminum foil: the acidic nature ofthe lasagna and some curious properties of aluminum.铝箔上出现这些洞有两个原因:一个是千层面本身具有酸性,另一个就是铝具有一些非常奇特的属性。Lasagna gets most of its acid from the tomatoes in its sauce.千层面的酸性主要是来自酱汁中的番茄酱。Almost everything you eat is at leastslightly acidic, but tomatoes are especially so.几乎你吃的每样东西都会至少呈轻微酸性,而番茄的酸性尤为明显。This acid wouldnt be a problem for a glasscontainer, or stainless steel, or plastic wrap, or for most of the materials we use to store andprepare food.这种酸对玻璃容器,不锈钢,塑料袋或大多数我们用于储藏和准备食物所用的材料都不会产生任何影响。Aluminum, though, is especially vulnerable to acid.但铝却非常容易受到酸的侵蚀。Heres why.这就是原因。Most metals form a protective layer on their surface called an oxide layer.大多数金属会在表面生成一种叫做氧化层的保护膜。Aluminum forms an oxide layer too, but it is very thin, allowing the tomatos acid to easily break through.铝金属也会形成氧化层,但是这层膜很薄,番茄中的酸能轻易腐蚀透。This lets the tomato sauce dissolve the aluminum, and it creates grey or black chemicalson top of the lasagna that taste very bad.由此番茄酱就会溶解铝,在千层面上产生一种灰色或黑色的化学物质,会使千层面变得非常难吃。The same thing can happen if you use aluminum cookware for acidic sauces.如果用铝制厨具来做酸味儿酱料,也会发生相同的情况。Sauce made in an aluminum pot will be grayer and not as tasty as sauce made in other cookware.铝制锅所做的酱料颜色看起来会更灰些,吃起来也不如其他厨具所做的酱料味道好。 201403/282540

  • 青岛假体隆鼻哪里最好
  • 青岛地区耳部做双眼皮多少钱时空典范
  • 青岛黄岛开发区治疗痘痘的医院天涯频道
  • 青岛韩式隆胸手术多少钱
  • 山东省青岛市第八人民医院诊疗中心同城频道
  • 青岛祛眼袋手术费用快乐中文青岛那个整容医院好
  • 当当咨询青岛重睑价格多少
  • 导医专家青岛纺织医院整形普及活动
  • 山东青岛诺德医院治疗痘坑多少钱
  • 青岛隆鼻的价格美大夫
  • 在青岛市妇女儿童医院祛疤多少钱搜索活动山东省青岛潍坊抽脂减肥价格多少钱
  • 青岛玻尿酸隆鼻多少钱
  • 120共享青岛为什么会长斑
  • 青岛自注射鼻部多少钱
  • 医社区青岛比基尼脱毛哪家医院好百姓诊疗
  • 泡泡知识在青岛地区哪里抽脂好
  • 青岛隆胸哪家整形医院做的好豆瓣互动烟台市中医院治疗狐臭多少钱
  • 爱分享山东口腔医院多少钱平安信息
  • 青岛海慈医院是正规医院吗?搜医中文
  • 青岛湿气会使脸上长粉刺吗?
  • 青岛消除黄褐斑
  • 快乐信息山东省青岛济宁美容医院哪家好
  • 99爱问青岛高密遗传性雀斑激光祛斑
  • 在青岛腭裂手术哪家医院好龙马养生
  • 平度妇幼保健医院是属于私立还是公立?
  • 山东省青岛平度市做腋臭手术的费用
  • 青岛热马吉做一次多少钱
  • 山东省青岛菏泽冰点脱毛去哪家医院放心在线
  • 管分享东营市中心医院口腔科
  • 山东青岛诺德整形医院官网专家在线咨询
  • 相关阅读
  • 瞒天过海!集体耕地上建厂房!村民:相关部门集体哑火(三)
  • 暮影战神武灵攻略大全
  • 唐嫣赵丽颖吴昕林允儿李易峰和谁最有感(图)
  • 酒类电商双罢斗
  • 南京查处违规补缴社保证明份购房证明被注销
  • 内蒙古自治区政协原副主席赵黎平一审被判处死刑
  • 近日李念与刚斩获年北京青年电影节影帝的巩峥出现在街边
  • 徐娇穿白袜撑伞古典韵味十足邻家有女初长成
  • 单机斗地主下载:首存优惠
  • 小学生作业本开口说话曝光盗伐林木团伙
  • 相关推荐