楼主:百科新闻 时间:2019年08月25日 02:00:43 点击:0 回复:0
You might not have as many close friends as you think. Researchers have provided new evidence that lends weight to a theory that says you can only maintain five close friendships.你的亲密朋友也许没有你想的那么多。研究员提供的新据强调了一种观点,你只能维护好与5个人的亲密友谊。You’ve probably heard of Dunbar’s Number which suggests that human beings can only maintain meaningful relationships with between 100 to 230 other people, and that number is typically 150. It’s been demonstrated to hold true in all kinds of situations—from ancient armies to big business.你可能听说过邓巴数,它指出人只能与其他100~230个人维持有意义的人际关系,而且这个数字通常是150。从古代军队到财团,各种情况都明它是有效的。But you might not know that Robin Dunbar, the anthropologist behind the number, has since also suggested that those relationships are layered, like an onion. He argues that people typically have five ultra-close relationships, then 10 slightly less cozy companions, 35 at more distance, and then 100 in an outer circle. Now he and follow researchers have published data that appears to lend weight to the theory.但是你也许不知道这个数字背后的人类学家罗宾·邓巴,他后来也指出,人际关系就像洋葱一样,是分层的。他表示人们通常有5个非常亲密的朋友,10个稍微不那么默契的朋友,35个有些距离的朋友,然后是100个自己圈子以外的朋友。如今他和追随他的研究员公布了那些看上去似乎强调了该观点的数据。The remaining data was then clustered, to sort out whether there was layering in friendship closeness, where closeness was measured by the frequency of calls between two individuals. Turns out that the clusters shape up rather similarly to Dunbar’s suggestions, with 4.1 in the first layer, 6.9 in the next, then 18.8, and finally 99.1. The results are published on arXiv.此外,剩余的数据是成串的,要整理出亲密友谊是否分层,而亲密度是通过衡量两个人之间通电话的频率来得出的。结果发现,这串数据发展成邓巴观点,更确切的说,与邓巴观点相似,4.1在第一层,6.9在下一层,然后再下一层是18.8,最后一层是99.1。这个研究结果被发表在arXiv上。 /201605/442619Zhang Zhiyun (1904 ~197?)张织云(1904 ~ 197?)Zhang Zhiyun was born in Zhang Ahshan (Ahxi) a village of Panyu in Guangdong, now a city of Guangzhou. She was three when her father died and moved to Shanghai with her mother. She was one of China#39;s first generation actresses and the first Chinese film empress.张织云,原名张阿善(阿喜),广东番禺(今广州)人,三岁丧父,幼年随母移居上海,中国第一代女明星之一,中国第一位“影后”。In 1923, Zhang Zhiyun entered the Dazhonghua Filim Company through the test and Starred the silent films A Poor Heart (1924) and Amid the Battle of Musketry (1925), which made her attracting. Her appearance in Dazhonghua Film Company brought her to the attention of the Star studio.Playing the lead in a string of three popular silent films A Sincerely Pity Girl ( 1925 ) , Suspects of Couple ( 1925 ) and Lonely Orchid (1925) for Star quickly made her one of what the press New World in Shanghai termed the Mingxing studio#39;s uFour Great Dan; (actresses), a-long with Yang Naimei, Wang Hanlun and Xuan Jinglin.1923年张织云考人上海大中华影片公司,主演无声片《人心》(1924)、《战功》(1925)而引人注目。她在大中华公司初露头角后,又受聘于明星公司,主演《可怜的闺女》(1925 )、《新人的家庭》(1925 )、《空谷兰》(1925)等系列无声片。In 1926, the Shanghai magazine, New World, conducted a fan poll, which made Zhang Zhiyun No. 1 actress among Star#39;s Four Great Dan and she was selected as ;Film Empress;. In Why Not Her (1926) directed by Bu Wancang, she acted a country girl, for which had her named a “tragic Empress”.1926年,上海《新世界》杂志社举办电影皇后选举,结果张织云独占鳌头,被选为“电影星后”,其他依次是杨耐梅、王汉伦、宣景琳,于是她们被合称为明星公司中国电影早期的“四大名旦”。在卜万苍导演的《玉洁冰清》中,张织云在片内因饰演乡村少女,被人称誉为“悲剧圣手”。In 1927, she went to America with Tang Jishan and married him thus left film-dom since then. In 1931 she was abandoned by his husband, and after that, there came the sound age of films. Not speaking Chinese Language made this ; Empress; hardly be employed and had to depend on and live with her friend. In 1933, Star Company produced Disappointed Love according to her suffering. In 1935, she starred New Peach Blossom Fan, and then moved to Hongkong and acted Cantonese films. For a long time since then, she had lived a helpless life and beggared along the street. Zhang Zhiyun had starred thirteen tragic love films in her life and she was drowned by her tragic life just as the main characters in films. She died in Hong Kong in 1970s.1927年张织云随唐季珊去美国结婚,离开影坛。1931年被唐抛弃。婚变后,电影已经到了有声时代,这位“影后”不会讲国语,很难找到受聘用的机会,只好寄居朋友家中。1933年明星制片公司以其遭遇拍摄《失恋》,并由其本人主演。1935 主演《新挑花扇》。后移居香港,曾参加粤语片的拍摄,以后长期生活无着,曾沿街乞讨。张织云一生主演了13部爱情悲剧,自己和影片中的主角一样,被人生的悲剧所淹没,20世纪70年代在香港去世。 /201605/443517When it comes to fragrance, the idea that freshness becomes a part of our perpetual ode to the season is inevitable, and rightly so; lighter, airier and less heavy scents will give you that instant hit of holiday and carry you through the hot, sticky months ahead. Finding #39;The One#39; for you can be tasking but with so many seasonal offerings on the market, from cult classics to new releases, the quest for your go-to summer scent is never too wide off the mark.每当人们提起香氛的时候,新鲜度总是不可避免地成为人们对夏季永恒的赞歌;轻如空气,如雾如烟的香气会使人们即时感受到夏日的活力,但却也能带人们徐徐度过之后如同流金铄石般的日子。如众里寻他千百度,想要找到最适合的那一款香氛并不容易。但市场上无数的应季产品,从经久不衰的经典款到当季新品,看得出人们对于入夏香水追求的脚步从未停止。BEACHY KEEN海滩风情If the thought of blissfully digging your toes into the sand is more of a daydream than a reality this year then bring the shore to you with a fresh-from-the beach summer scent. Summing up the smell of holiday, warm fragrances do their best to transport you to a sunny beach. An oldie but a goodie, Estee Lauder#39;s Bronze Goddess is a classic - think coconut, jasmine and the very slight hint of suncream. If you#39;re in the market for something new then Tom Ford#39;s Soleil Blanc combines a luxurious base of coconut milk with spicy notes of pink pepper and bergamont for a scent that exudes the endless pursuit of summer sun; it#39;s also unisex so great for couples who care to share.如果对你而言,今夏愉悦地在沙滩漫步是一个难以实现的幻想,那么这一款香水将会带你体验来自沙滩的夏日气息。集假日风情于一身,这款温和的香水最大程度地还原了热带海滩上的诱人味道。历久弥新,雅诗兰黛古铜女神可谓之经典-椰香,茉莉和微量的防晒霜的味道浑然一体。如果你想要尝试新选择,那么汤姆·福特的阳光琥珀则是不二之选。椰奶、香辛料、粉红胡椒以及佛手柑构成香奢的基调,散发着对夏日艳阳无尽的追求。这款香氛的中性风格也使它能成为想要分享同款香氛的爱侣的上上之选。SWEET DREAMS酣梦If sickly sweet florals are more your thing then YSL have got you covered with a fragrance that guarantees a holiday romance that will never end. The Datura orchid and white flower heart combined with a hint of musk captivates, while top notes of juicy pear bring freshness and a sense of vibrancy. A new scent is all well and good but what if you can#39;t bear to part with your favourite aroma? Well, both Jimmy Choo and Viktor amp; Rolf have sought to revitalise their most popular fragrances with lighter versions of some winning whiffs; Illicit Flower and Flower Bomb La Vie en Rose.如果你更青睐甜蜜的花香,那么依夫·圣罗兰为你提供了一种能够让你沉浸在悠远不息的夏日香水。兰花与白色花心加入少许麝香,仅是前调中甜美的梨香就能给人以无穷的新鲜与活力。如果一款很棒的新香水中有一种你不喜欢的味道怎么办呢?没关系,周仰杰和维果·罗夫已经尝试将旗下一些畅销款的香水调制成更清淡的款式。其中就包括Illicit Flower 与 Flower Bomb,和 La Vie en Rose这三种香水。ZEST FOR LIFE生活Infused with tangy zest and energy citrus fruit fragrances are a lively addition to anyone#39;s summer scent-drobe but this season both our favourites are uni-sex, rebellious and totally addictive. First up, Diptyque bring an unexpected offering with a citrus aromatic fragrance reminiscent of warm Italian summers -think orange blossom, juniper berry and patchouli. Meanwhile, Calvin Klein present their annual summer limited edition with CKOne Summer; crisp lime and lemon peel is fused with wet cucumber and ginger root to create an intoxicating scent which has us dreaming of gin and tonics by the pool.充满浓郁热情和能量感的柑橘类果香能够夏日增添不少活泼的气氛,不过当季人们都偏好一些中性风格、更加热烈叛逆以及更加魅惑的香气。于是,蒂普提克推出了一款令人意想不到的新品:柑橘馥郁的香气令人不由自主地想起意大利温暖的夏季,橙花、杜松和广藿香的味道萦绕在鼻尖久久不散。同时,卡尔文·克莱恩也推出了他们当年限量款的夏季香水:清脆酸橙和柠檬皮、新鲜青瓜和生姜的融合创造出一种醉人的香味,令人隐约觉得似乎是身在充斥着杜松子酒和奎宁水的泳池派对上彻夜狂欢。译文属 /201608/459977A 1971 study claimed that the dates of housemates#39; periods move, then align - but that long-held belief is being challenged by evidence and new studies一个1971年的研究声称,室友的月经期会变,然后统一 - 但是,这种观点被新的研究和一些据推翻了。You know what happens when women live together. They start to menstruate together. Suddenly everyone craves chocolate and runs out of tampons at the same time. Not only that, but the chosen cycle often seems to belong to the most assertive woman. Well that#39;s biology for you - it must be pheromones or the lunar cycle or something. Evolutionary anthropologists have suggested that synchrony would prevent any one woman being monopolised by a single dominant male.你知道,当女人住在一起会发生什么。她们都会来月经。突然,所有人都渴望巧克力,并在同一时间用完卫生巾。不仅如此,最后大家的的月经周期似乎往往会和最自信的室友同步。既然这是生来就被赋予的 - 它必须是信息素或月球周期有关。进化人类学家认为,同步将防止任何一个女人被一个占主导地位的男性垄断。Ever since Martha McClintock, a psychologist from Harvard University, published her 1971 study of 135 female undergraduates living in a college dormitory together, it has been an accepted truth that menstrual cycles synchronise when women live together. Her study, based on an analysis of about eight cycles per woman, found that roommates and close friends saw the average number of days between the starts of their periods fall from eight or nine to five days.自从玛莎麦克林托克,哈佛大学的心理学家,在1971研究并出版了关于135位一起住在大学宿舍女大学生的课题,它一直是一个公认的真理,即女人住一起月经周期会同步。她的研究基于对每名妇女大约八个周期的分析,研究发现,室友和密友亲历了她们月经持续的平均天数降到八,九直至五天。A control group of randomly chosen women had cycles that remained 10 days apart from each. A study in 1999 found that 80% of women believed in the synchronising phenomenon with 70% saying that it was a pleasant experience. It#39;s a powerful concept after all - that the empathy of women can make their periods fall in line. But is it really true?随机选择的对照组的女性,她们月经周期都是相隔10天。在1999年的一项研究中发现,80%的女性相信同步现象, 70%的人说这是一次有意思的经历。毕竟这是一个震撼的概念, - 女性的共鸣可以使她们的月经周期统一。但是否真的如此吗?The solution解决办法Well if you are one of the 80% of women who believes in synchronicity - brace yourself. It isn#39;t a thing. Since McClintock#39;s study there has been enough research with negative results to move menstrual synchronicity into urban mythology. Many studies have tried to replicate McClintock#39;s findings - some have succeeded, but more have not.那么如果你是这相信月经同步说的80%女性中的一员一 - 振作起来。这是不是一个物品。由于麦克林托克的研究后,有更多的研究给出了否定的结果,让月经同步说变成了城市童话。许多研究都试图复制麦克林托克的发现 - 一些成功了,但更多的还没有。A study of Dogon women in west Africa, who were segregated into menstrual huts, found no synchronicity over 763 days and no effect of the moon on periods (and these were ideal test conditions, as there was no electricity).西非的多贡妇女,被分组到月经木屋,研究历时763天却无同步现象,并且月亮对于月经没有影响(而这些测试条件很理想化,因为没有电)。A study of 186 women in China who lived together for a year also found no synchronicity. But the researchers pointed out that the start of periods varied for women, and cycles were often variable, which could give the false impression of synchronicity. Menstrual cycles can vary from between 21 to 35 days. Stress, weight loss or illness will all disrupt periods. A study of 26 lesbian couples found no synchronicity but did find individual menstrual cycles varied by up to 10 days. So despite the internet refusing to let this myth die - you are the owner of your menstrual cycle and no friend, however close, can control it.经过对186名住在一起的中国女性为期一年的研究发现,月经周期没有同步。但研究人员指出,月经的的开始时期各不相同,周期也不相同,它可以给人同步的假象。月经周期可能从21天到35天各不相同。压力,体重减轻或生病都会打乱周期。 对26对女同性恋情侣的研究发现,没有同步,但确实发现个体月经周期会有10天左右的变化。所以尽管互联网不想让这个神话消失 - 但你是你的月经周期的主人,没有任何朋友可以控制它,不管你们多亲近。译文属 /201608/461075A Brief Introduction of Death in China中国人对死亡的看法The keynote for funeral and memorial service is spiritual eternity and continuation of life after death. Death at old age is a normal course of life referred to as ;passing away; or ;return to heaven;,which means back to mother#39;s body of the universe. Wedding and funeral are ;red and white happy events; in Chinese culture.殡葬追悼会的主旨是精神的永恒和生命死后的延续。老年死亡是人生的一个正常过程被称为“逝去”或“回归天堂”,这意味着回到宇宙母亲的身体。婚礼和葬礼是在中国文化中的“红白喜事”。 /201605/443135

There#39;s no such thing as dreaming too big or setting unreachable goals. Today might be one of those days when you find yourself wishing for something better for yourself or your family. Wanting better life doesn#39;t have to mean you#39;re dissatisfied with what you aly have or that you#39;re greedy, so if you#39;re feeling guilty about those dreams, cut it out. Instead, take a look at some concrete steps that you can take toward reaching those goals.根本就没有遥不可及的梦想或不可实现的目标这件事。今天你可能会希望自己或家人能够更好。想要更好的生活并不一定意味着你对现有的生活不满或者你很贪婪,所以如果你对这些梦想感到愧疚,那大可不必。相反,你可以想想具体的步骤,以实现这些目标。Your well being horoscope幸福运势Your sense of self may be challenged today. Keep in mind that the way others see you isn#39;t necessarily who you really are. Don#39;t feel like you have to change your direction to please anyone. Ultimately, your only responsibility is to yourself. Bizarre events are apt to spring up today, asking you to change your way of thinking.今天,你的自我感可能会受到挑战。切记别人对你的看法并不一定就是真实的你。不要觉得你得改变自己以迎合他人。最后一点,你唯一的责任就是要对自己负责。今天可能会发生奇怪的事情,这些事情会让你改变自己的思维方式。Your finance horoscope财务运势A gift you weren#39;t expecting could arrive, and you might not even be sure who sent it. Communications of all kinds are vague and somewhat unfinished, as though everyone#39;s too preoccupied to express themselves very well. You might be wondering if you should go out and run some more errands, but unless they#39;re vital, this isn#39;t a good idea. You need to relax more this evening than you need to go out.你可能会收到意料之外的礼物,你可能都不确定是谁送的。这类的交流都是含糊不清的,还有一点未完待续之意,就好像每个人都太全神贯注了,以至于不能清楚地表达自己。你可能会想要出去,多干些活,但除非这些活十分重要,否则这就不是好想法了。今晚,相比出去来说,你更需要放松放松。Your love horoscope爱情运势Family issues play an important role in your day today. Speak from your heart and tell your closest of kin how much they really mean to you. In general, you might be feeling a bit reserved with your energy. Don#39;t feel like you have to make any great strides in things today. It is more a time in which you can enjoy what you have worked for. Reap the rewards of all your hard work.今天,家庭事务扮演着重要的角色。说出内心的想法,告诉自己最亲的亲人他们对你的重要性。总体来说,你可能会觉得精力有所保留。不要觉得自己今天必须要在某件事上取得重大进步。今天更是享受以往奋斗结果的日子。收获努力工作的结果吧。Your career horoscope事业运势Why are you moping around? Are you worn out? If so, it#39;s probably because you are too stubborn to take time off from your work. You may wish to consider doing this, though, as some time still remains in which you can relax. In other words, this is the calm before the storm! Why not take advantage of it? Rather than being afraid of silence and inactivity, embrace them.你为什么闷闷不乐呢?感到十分疲惫?如果是的话,大概是因为你太固执了,工作都不愿意休息。然而,你可能想要考虑花些时间休息休息。换句话说,这是暴风雨前的宁静!为什么不好好利用呢?不要害怕安静和懒散,拥抱它们吧!译文属 /201608/463626

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