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2019年07月16日 08:28:11    日报  参与评论()人

青岛看痛经哪家医院好青岛市妇幼保健院概况Science and technology科学技术Marine biology海洋生物Flea market跳蚤市场A newly discovered virus may be the most abundant organism on the planet一种新发现的病毒可能是地球上最丰富的物种。WHAT is the commonest living thing on Earth?地球上最常见的生物是什么?Until now, those in the know would probably have answered Pelagibacter ubique, the most successful member of a group of bacteria, called SAR11, that jointly constitute about a third of the single-celled organisms in the ocean.直到现在,那些很专业的人可能会说是遍在远洋杆菌—细菌群中最成功的细菌,称为大洋微小细菌,占了海洋单细胞有机体的三分之一。But this is not P. ubiques only claim to fame, for unlike almost every other known cellular creature, it and its relatives have seemed to be untroubled by viruses.但是,这不是它成名的原因,因为它和它的亲戚不像其它大部分已知的细胞生物,它们似乎是些不会给你造成麻烦的一族。As Jonathan Swift put it in a much-mised poem, So, naturalists observe, a flea/Hath smaller fleas that on him prey.就像乔纳森-斯威福特的一首诗表达的一样—虽然这里引用很不贴切,所以,物学家们观察,正在捕食的跳蚤/小跳蚤们。Parasites, in other words, are everywhere.换句话说,寄生虫无所不在。They are also, usually, more abundant than their hosts.通常,它们的数量也远远多于它们的寄主。An astute observer might therefore have suspected that the actual most-common species on Earth would be a flea that parasitised P. ubique, rather than the bacterium itself.精明的观察者可能因此会猜测,地球上真正最常见的特种是一种跳蚤—寄生的遍生远洋杆菌,而不是细菌本身。The absence of such fleas has puzzled virologists since 1990, when the SAR11 group was identified.自从1990年研究SAR11组群以来,病毒学家对没有发现这种跳蚤—即以所谓攻击细菌的噬菌体的形式存在—而感到很困惑。Some thought the advantage this absence conferred explained the groups abundance. But no.一些人认为没有发现这种组群的好处解释了它们之所以大量存在的原因。但是,事实不是这样的。As they report in this weeks Nature, Stephen Giovannoni of Oregon State University and his colleagues have discovered the elusive phages.正如本周自然杂志上刊登的一样,俄勒冈州立大学的斯蒂芬尼-乔凡诺尼和他的同事们发现了这种难以发现的噬菌体。Swifts wisdom, it seems, still holds good.看起来,斯威福特的智慧仍旧闪闪发光。Tracking down a particular virus in the ocean makes finding a needle in a haystack look a trivial task.与在海洋中跟踪一种特定的细菌相比,大海捞针简直是小菜一碟了。A litre of seawater has billions of viruses in it.一公升的海水中有数十亿的细菌。Modern genetic techniques can obtain DNA sequences from these viruses, but that cannot tie a particular virus to a particular host.现代基因技术可以猎取这些细菌的DAN序列,但是却不能把一种特定的细菌固定在一个特定的寄主身上。To do so, Dr Giovannoni borrowed a technique from homeopathy: he diluted some seawater to such an extent that, statistically speaking, he expected a 100-microlitre-sized ali to contain only one or two viruses.为了实现这个目标,乔凡诺尼士借用了顺势医疗论的一项技术:他把一些海水的浓度稀释到,从统计学角度上讲,即稀释后的100微升海水中只含有一种或两种病毒。The difference between his approach and a homeopaths was that what homeopathy dilutes almost to nothing are chemicals, and thus cannot breed. A virus can, given a suitable host.他的方法和顺势疗法的区别是,后者将药液稀释后几乎没有什么合成物了,因此也无法培育繁殖。而提供一个合适的寄主的话,病菌就可以继续繁殖。So he mixed each of several hundred alis into tubes of water containing P. ubique.因此,他把稀释后的海水分成几百份,再把每一份混合到含有遍在海洋杆菌的水里。Then he waited.然后他就等待着。After 60 hours, he looked to see what had happened.六十小时后,他看到了结果。In most cases the bacteria had thrived.在大部分试验品中,病菌都繁殖得很好。In a few, though, they had been killed by what looked like viral infection.但是,在少数的试验品中,病菌似乎由于某种病毒感染而消失了。It was these samples that he ran through the DNA-sequencing machine, in the knowledge that the only viral DNA present would be from whatever it was had killed the bacteria.这些少数试验品就是他用DNA测序仪检测,想知道仅有的病毒DNA,无论是不是它杀了病菌,为什么会出现的原因。His reward was to find not one, but four viruses that parasitise P. ubique.他最终发现了不只一种病菌,而是四种寄生的遍海洋杆菌。He then compared their DNA with databases of DNA found in seawater from around the world, to find out how abundant each is.后来,他把发现病菌的DNA与世界海洋的DNA数据库相对比,发现:The upshot was that a virus dubbed HTVC010P was the commonest.四种中的每一个的存在数量都非常多。It thus displaces its host as the likely winner of the most-common-living-thing prize.结果是,一种称为HTVC010P人病菌是最常见的。因此,它便取代了它的寄主,成为可能最常见的生物。That does depend, of course, on your definition of living thing.当然,这不是你们所定义的那种生物。Some biologists count viruses as organisms.一些生物学家认为病菌是微生物。Some do not.一些则不这么认为。The reason is that a virus relies for its growth and reproduction on the metabolic processes of the cell it infects.原因是,病菌依靠它所感染细胞的新陈代谢来生长和繁殖。This means viruses themselves are hard to parasitise, since they do no work on which another organism can free-ride.这就意味着病毒本身很难寄生,因为在其它可以免费寄生的微生物上它们无法正常生存。Which is why the next two lines of Swifts poem, And these have smaller fleas to bite em/And so proceed ad infinitum, are wrong—and why, because HTVC010P itself can have no parasites, it probably really is the commonest organism on the planet.这也解释了为什么斯威失特接下来的两句这些更小的跳蚤在咬它们,因此这些进程循环往复着是错误的,也是HTVC010P为什么是地球上最常见的微生物,因为它本身没有寄生虫。 /201312/269447青岛妇科检查大约多少钱 Youve probably heard someone use the phrase “blood red,”but have you ever wondered if all blood really is red?你可能听到有些人这样说“血红色”,但是你是否想过是不是所有的血都是红色的?For example, think about the bugs youveseen splatter against your cars windshield, leaving behind a clear, yellowish, or greenish liquid. Thatliquid, is hemolymph, or insect blood.举个例子,想一想你所见过的臭虫撞到你汽车的挡风玻璃上时,留下一滩清楚的,黄色或是绿色的液体。这种液体是昆虫的淋巴液,或许是昆虫的血。The blood of an insect functions differently than the blood of a human.昆虫血和人类的血在功能上大不相同。In humans, blood gets itsred color from hemoglobin, which travels through blood vessels carrying oxygen from the lungsto the rest of the body.对人类来说,血液之所以呈现红色是因为有血红蛋白,血红蛋白通过血管从肺部向全身各处运输氧气。Insect blood, however, does not carry gasses and has no hemoglobin.而对于昆虫来说,血液既不会运输任何气体,也没有血红蛋白,Instead, bugs have a system of tubes that transport gasses directly between their cells and theoutside air.相反地,昆虫的身体中有一个管路系统,可以直接在细胞核外界空气中进行气体运输。In fact, insects dont even have blood vessels. Instead there is a hollow space inside their externalskeleton in which their blood oozes around.事实上,昆虫甚至没有血管,取而代之的是外骨架内部的空洞,血液可以在周围渗出。This cavity extends to the antennas, legs, and wingveins.这种腔体结构延伸至触角,腿和翅膀。The bugs heart, a long tube that stretches the length of its body, pushes the blood fromthe rear end of the insect on forward.昆虫的心脏,一条绵延整个身体的长管子,将血液从身体的末端推到前面。The bug may also have little hearts at the ends of itsextremities to help move the blood along.昆虫在四肢处也可能有少许心脏来帮助血液流动。Pumping blood is a slow process: it takes about eight minutes for an insects blood to circulatecompletely.泵血是一个缓慢的过程:昆虫全身血液完全循环一次大约需要八分钟。Like human blood, bug blood carries nutrients and hormones to the insects cells.类似于人类血液,昆虫血液运载营养和激素到昆虫细胞中。Thegreenish or yellowish color of insect blood comes from the pigments of the plants the bug eats.昆虫血液中的绿色或者黄色来自于昆虫吃的植物的色素。 /201402/275161青岛哪里治疗妇科最好

潍坊治疗妇科一般价格多少青岛附二做B超加白带检查多少钱 Why refrigerators hum,on toays moment of science.今天的科学一刻我们要探讨冰箱会发出声音的原因。On the recent program we have discussed how fluorocarbon coolant cools your food by coming to a boil in coils hidden in your fridge.在最近的节目中我们讨论了碳氟化合物冷却剂是如何通过在冰箱内置的盘管中达到沸腾状态来冷却食物的。How is this possible?这是如何实现的?When you boil water on the stove, you supply heat energy by turning on the burner.在炉子上烧水的时候,你会打开燃灶来提供热量。In your fridge, liquid coolant boils at very chilly temperatures, but it still requires heat energy.而在你的冰箱内部,虽然液态冷却剂是在很低的温度下沸腾,但它仍然会需要热能。The coolant absorbs this heat energy from the air inside the fridge.冷却剂吸收的热能来自于冰箱内的空气。By the time all the coolant has boiled and evaporated into gas, the fridge has reached Arctic temperatures.当冷却剂沸腾并蒸发为气体后,冰箱内的温度就接近北极地区了。What happens when the temperature starts to rise again?当温度重新上升的时候会发生什么?In order to repeat this chilling performance, the gas coolant has to release heat energy and change back to liquid state.为了重复前面的降温过程,气态的冷凝剂必须释放热能并转化为液态。To release heat, the coolant is forced into a second set of coils outside the fridge, in back.而为了释放热能,冷却剂需要被排到冰箱后部裸露在外的螺旋管内。Sometimes these coils feel pretty warm.有时候,这些螺旋管摸起来会感觉相当热。How does the gas coolant that just chilled your fridge make the coils warm?这些刚才还用来降温的气态冷却剂,现在为何却能使管道发热了呢?The secrets in the refrigerators hum.秘密就在于冰箱的发出的声音。That humming is a pump that compresses and warms thegas while forcing it into the coils.这种嗡嗡声来自于用来把冷却剂压缩到外部螺旋管并使它发热的一个压缩泵。Its like pumping up a bicycle tire; the tire feels warm because youve compressed the air inside.就像给自行车胎打气一样,轮胎摸起来会有点热,因为你把空气压缩进去了。Through compression, the gas coolant in the coils has become warmer than room temperature and can now release its heat energy to the air.通过压缩,螺旋管内气态冷却剂的温度变得比室温更高,这样便可能把热量释放到空气中。As it releases heat, the gas cools and condenses back to liquid state.在气体释放热量物同时,它会重新变回液体状态。So when your fridge hums, its releasing heat energy and changing fluorocarbon back to liquid state.当你的冰箱嗡嗡响时,它是在向外释放热量并把碳氟化合物冷却剂重新转为液态。Then it can cool your food by coming to a boil once more.这样它就可以再一次通过沸腾给你的食物降温了。201404/288203高密做无痛人流价格

青岛市四方区医院查体 Science and technology科学技术What dinosaurs ate恐龙吃什么The belly of the beast腹中发现A chance discovery from China suggests some dinosaurs lived in trees在中国的一次偶然发现暗示着有些恐龙在树上生活WHAT dinosaurs ate is,恐龙吃什么?of course, a question as interesting and illuminating as what ate dinosaurs.当然,这个问题与什么吃恐龙?一样有趣,一样具有启发性。In the case of one particular dinosaur,Microraptor, the matter was addressed in a presentation to the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology by Jingmai OConnor of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, in Beijing.但就小盗龙吃什么这一问题,北京中国科学院古脊椎动物和古人类研究所的Jingmai OConnor在古脊椎动物学会年会上发表了演说。Microraptoris one of many small, feathered dinosaurs found in what is now China that were alive during the Cretaceous period more than 66m years ago.小盗龙,生活在距今六千六百多万年前的白垩纪,是现今中国境内发现的众多体型娇小、长有羽毛的恐龙之一。Being feathered, it and its kind were cousins to birds.这一种恐龙身着羽毛,是鸟类的近亲。The actual split between the two groups, though, had happened much earlier, during the Jurassic period, and by the late Cretaceous there were many species of bird around.尽管,这两种物种早在侏罗纪时期就已分道扬镳,而且,到了白垩纪后期,已出现了许多种的鸟类。What Dr OConnor and her colleagues have found is the remains of one of those birds, of an as-yet-unidentified species, in the stomach of a specimen of Microraptor.士OConnor和她同事在小盗龙样本的胃中发现了那时期鸟类的残骸,但其种类还未得到鉴别。That is interesting.那是非常有趣的。Discovering direct evidence of what a fossil animal ate,找出古生物吃什么的直接据是有价值的。rather than having to infer it from details such as the shape of its teeth, is always valuable.比起根据其牙齿形状等细节来推测出结果,But the finds true significance is a small detail of the preys anatomy:但是,这个发现真正重要之处却是其骨骼的一个细微之处:the third toe of its foot.它脚掌的第三个脚趾。The size of the preys third toe is important because, among birds, long third toes are helpful for grasping branches and perching in trees.捕食者第三个脚趾的大小是很重要的,因为,对于鸟来说,长长的第三趾可以帮助其抓紧树枝,在树上栖息。Indeed, the trait is so useful for arboreal life that it is used by many avian palaeontologists to decide whether newly excavated species of fossil birds lived in trees or on the ground.的确,对于树栖生物这一特点是相当有用的,而许多鸟类古生物学家也利用这一特点来确定新挖掘出的鸟类化石是栖息在树上还是生活在地面上。And the last meal of this particular specimen of Microraptor did, indeed, have a long third toe.而小盗龙的最后一餐显然长有长长的第三个脚趾。That elongated toe suggests to Dr OConnor that Microraptor, too,那细长的脚趾暗示着OConnor士小盗龙也是树栖的。was arboreal, and hints that its feathers may have helped it to move through an environment where hops, jumps and flaps between branches were a regular part of its daily activity.在一个需在枝桠间跳跃、滑行的生活环境中,它的羽毛可能对它的日常活动有所帮助。Whether the first birds evolved from arboreal or terrestrial ancestors is a matter of lively debate among palaeontologists.关于第一只鸟是从树栖还是陆生的祖先进化而来,一直是古生物学家激烈争论的话题。A fossil formed so long after birds emerged does not, in truth, shed much light on that debate.事实上,一个在鸟类出现很久之后形成的化石并没有使得这一论战明朗化。But it does suggest feathers may have helped promote life in the trees, even for creatures that could not actually fly.但是,这的确说明对于居于树上、即使是那些根本不能飞的树栖生物来说,羽毛可能真的有助于它们的生活。 /201306/242694李沧人流医院山东省第八医院有哪些专家

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