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2019年07月24日 06:05:06 | 作者:网上诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Acting on a tip from spelunkers two years ago, scientists in South Africa discovered what the cavers had only dimly glimpsed through a crack in a limestone wall deep in the Rising Star cave: lots and lots of old bones.两年前,南非科学家按照洞穴探险爱好者的指引,在启星洞(Rising Star Cave)深处发现了探洞者通过石灰岩壁上的缝隙隐约瞥见的东西:大量古老的骨头。The remains covered the earthen floor beyond the narrow opening. This was, the scientists concluded, a large, dark chamber for the dead of a previously unidentified species of the early human lineage — Homo naledi.狭窄洞口内的泥土表面上铺满了骨骸。科学家得出结论,在这个巨大、漆黑的洞穴里面放着的遗体,来自一种属于早期人类谱系的不知名物种——“纳勒迪人”(Homo naledi)。The new hominin species was announced on Thursday by an international team of more than 60 scientists led by Lee R. Berger, an American paleoanthropologist who is a professor of human evolution studies at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. The species name, H. naledi, refers to the cave where the bones lay undisturbed for so long; “naledi” means “star” in the local Sesotho language.美国古人类学家李·R·伯杰教授(Lee R. Berger) 带领的一个国际团队在周四公布了这种新的人亚族(hominin)物种,团队由60多名科学家组成。伯杰在约翰内斯堡的金山大学(University of the Witwatersrand)任人类演化学教授。物种的命名取自那个让骨骸得以安然保存至今的洞穴;在塞索托语(Sesotho)里, “纳勒迪”的意思是 “星星”。In two papers published this week in the open-access journal eLife, the researchers said that the more than 1,550 fossil elements documenting the discovery constituted the largest sample for any hominin species in a single African site, and one of the largest anywhere in the world. Further, the scientists said, that sample is probably a small fraction of the fossils yet to be recovered from the chamber. So far the team has recovered parts of at least 15 individuals.在两篇本周刊登于开放阅读期刊《eLife》的文章里,研究人员说,该发现记录了超过1500件化石,是非洲单个考古地点中发现人亚族样本最多的一处,在全世界范围内也居于前列。接着,科学家们还说,洞穴中可能还有大量化石有待发掘,目前发现的这些只是一小部分。目前团队已经找到了最少15个个体的身体部分。“With almost every bone in the body represented multiple times, Homo naledi is aly practically the best-known fossil member of our lineage,” Dr. Berger said.“‘纳勒迪人’身体上的几乎所有骨头都出现过很多次,事实上他们已经是我们这一谱系中得到了最多了解的化石成员,”伯杰说。Besides introducing a new member of the prehuman family, the discovery suggests that some early hominins intentionally deposited bodies of their dead in a remote and largely inaccessible cave chamber, a behavior previously considered limited to modern humans. Some of the scientists referred to the practice as a ritualized treatment of their dead, but by “ritual” they said they meant a deliberate and repeated practice, not necessarily a kind of religious rite.除了引出一个前人类家族的新成员,该发现还表明,一些早期人亚族动物会故意把死者遗体存放在一个偏僻且很难进入的洞穴里,这是一种以前被认为只限于现代人的行为。一些科学家把这种做法归为对遗体的一种仪式性活动,但科学家们说,在“仪式”这个词上,他们是指故意和反复的活动,而不一定是一种宗教仪式。“It’s very, very fascinating,” said Ian Tattersall, an authority on human evolution at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, who was not involved in the research. “No question there’s at least one new species here,” he added, “but there may be debate over the Homo designation, though the species is quite different from anything else we have seen.”“这非常、非常令人着迷,” 纽约的美国自然历史物馆 (American Museum of Natural History)的人类演化研究权威伊安·泰特萨(Ian Tattersall)说。他没有参与该研究。“毫无疑问这里至少有一个新的物种,”他还说, “但是否归入人属(Homo)可能存有争论,尽管该物种和我们之前见过的任何物种都相当不一样。”A colleague of Dr. Tattersall’s at the museum, Eric Delson, who also is a professor at Lehman College of the City University of New York, was also impressed, saying, “Berger does it again!”泰特萨在物馆的同事、纽约市立大学李曼学院(Lehman College of the City University of New York)教授埃里克·戴尔森(Eric Delson)也对这项研究十分激赏,说这是“伯杰再次出手!” Dr. Delson was referring to Dr. Berger’s previous headline discovery, published in 2010, also involving cave deposits at the Cradle of Humankind site, 30 miles northwest of Johannesburg. He found many fewer fossils that time, but enough to conclude he was looking at a new species, which he named Australopithecus sediba. Geologists said the individuals lived 1.78 million to 1.95 million years ago, when australopithecines and early species of Homo were contemporaries.戴尔森指的是伯杰在2010年发表的另一项轰动发现,其中也涉及到位于约翰内斯堡西北30英里(约合48公里)处的“人类摇篮”内的洞穴。那次他找到的化石比这次少得多,但也足以得出找到了新物种的结论,他把该新物种命名为南方古猿源泉种(Australopithecus sediba)。地质学家说,该物种在178万至195万年前生活在地球上,古猿和人属早期物种存在于同一时期。Researchers analyzing the H. naledi fossils have not yet nailed down their age, which is difficult to measure because of the muddled chamber sediments and the absence of other fauna remains nearby. Some of its primitive anatomy, like a brain no larger than an average orange, Dr. Berger said, indicated that the species evolved near or at the root of the Homo genus, meaning it must be in excess of 2.5 million to 2.8 million years old. Geologists think the cave is no older than three million years.负责分析纳勒迪人化石的研究人员还没测定出化石的年代,由于洞穴内的沉积物混杂在一起,化石周围亦没有其他动物遗骸,因此年代测定会很困难。伯杰说,从一些原始的解剖构造看,比如顶多只有普通橙子大小的大脑,此物种已演化到接近或到达人属之初,也就是说肯定超过了250到280万年。地质学家认为洞穴的存在时间不会超过300万年。The field work and two years of analysis for Dr. Berger’s latest discovery were supported by the University of the Witwatersrand, the National Geographic Society and the South African Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation. In addition to the journal articles, the findings will be featured in the October issue of National Geographic Magazine and in a two-hour NOVA/National Geographic documentary to air Wednesday on PBS.伯杰此次新发现的实地工作及两年的分析工作均由金山大学、国家地理学会(National Geographic Society)和南非科学与技术部(South African Department of Science and Technology)/南非国家研究基金会(South Africa National Research Foundation)提供持。除学术论文外,此次发现还会出现在《国家地理杂志》(National Geographic Magazine)的10月号以及一部2小时的NOVA/国家地理纪录片中,纪录片将于周三在PBS播出。Scientists on the discovery team and those not involved in the research noted the mosaic of contrasting anatomical features, including more modern-looking jaws and teeth and feet, that warrant the hominin’s placement as a species in the genus Homo, not Australopithecus, the genus that includes the famous Lucy species that lived 3.2 million years ago. The hands of the newly discovered specimens reminded some scientists of the earliest previously identified specimens of Homo habilis, who were apparently among the first toolmakers.研究团队及没有参与研究的科学家都注意到,新物种包含了一些迥异的解剖特征,包括较像现代人的下颚、牙齿和脚,这就明应该被归为人属的人亚族物种,而非生活在320万年前的南方古猿属,也就是著名的露西(Lucy)所在的属。新发现物种标本中的手令一些科学家想起了此前已知最早的能人(Homo habilis)标本,而能人看来是最早开始制作工具的物种。At a news conference on Wednesday, John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, a senior author of the paper describing the new species, said it was “unlike any other species seen before,” noting that a small skull with a brain one-third the size of modern human braincases was perched atop a very slender body. An average H. naledi was about five feet tall and weighed almost 100 pounds, he said.在周三的一场新闻发布会上,论文资深作者、威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin, Madison)的约翰·霍克斯(John Hawks)说,该物种“不像我们之前见过的任何物种”,指出该物种在非常苗条的身体上有一个很小的头骨,以及只有现代人脑壳三分之一大小的大脑。他说,一个普通的纳勒迪人身高大概5尺(约合1.51米),体重将近100磅(约45公斤)。Tracy Kivell of the University of Kent, in England, an associate of Dr. Berger’s team, was struck by H. naledi’s “extremely curved fingers, more curved than almost any other species of early hominin, which clearly demonstrates climbing capabilities.”伯杰研究团队成员、英格兰肯特大学(University of Kent)的翠西·凯威尔(Tracy Kivell)说, 让她十分惊讶的是,纳勒迪人“有极度弯曲的手指,比任何早期人亚族物种都要弯,清楚地表明了他们的攀爬能力。”William Harcourt-Smith of Lehman College of the City University of New York, a researcher at the American Museum of Natural History, led the analysis of the feet of the new species, which he said are “virtually indistinguishable from those of modern humans.” These feet, combined with its long legs, suggest that H. naledi was well suited for upright long-distance walking, Dr. Harcourt-Smith said.纽约城市大学李曼学院的威廉·哈考特-史密斯(William Harcourt-Smith)亦是美国自然历史物馆的研究员,他负责对该新物种的脚展开研究,他说他们的脚“与现代人的双脚基本上没分别。”结合他们的长腿,他认为纳勒迪人完全适合长时间直立行走。In an accompanying commentary in the journal, Chris Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London, found overall similarities between the new species and fossils from Dmanisi, in the former Soviet republic of Georgia, dated to about 1.8 million years ago. The Georgian specimens are usually assigned to an early variety of Homo erectus.在期刊随附的一篇中,伦敦自然历史物馆(Natural History Museum in London)的古人类学家克里斯·斯特林格(Chris Stringer)发现,新物种大致上与前苏联格鲁吉亚共和国境内的德马尼西(Dmanisi)发现的化石近似,后者能追溯到约180万年前。格鲁吉亚标本通常被归类为早期直立人(Homo erectus)的一个变种。 /201509/398466Can a planned economy build great brands? The history of the Chinese auto industry suggests not. Domestic brands’ market share has fallen five percentage points year to date to less than a third. On Monday, China found Mercedes-Benz guilty of price fixing.计划经济能否缔造伟大品牌?中国汽车业的历史似乎表明不能。今年迄今为止,中国国产品牌市场份额已下降5个百分点,降至不到三分之一。周一,中国裁定梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)在定价上违法。These facts may not be related, but regulation in China’s auto market has long been aimed at supporting local names. In the early days, state planners decreed that foreigners must go halves with a local partner on any auto venture. This policy did not lead to the hoped-for transfer of technology and management knowhow. State-owned enterprises and their foreign partners alike found it easier to make money just letting foreigners get on with it.这两个事实也许不相关,但长期以来,中国汽车市场监管的目的一直都是持本土品牌。初期,中国政府的规划者规定,外商投资的任何汽车企业必须由本土合伙人持有一半股份。这项政策并没有带来他们所期盼的技术和管理知识的转移。中国国有企业和他们的外资伙伴都发现,放手让外国人运营企业更容易赚钱。Thus, from the mid-2000s, the government tried a different tack. This time, foreign partners were encouraged to develop an entirely “local” brand for transfer to the domestic partner. Foreign carmakers used the opportunity to introduce a lower-priced brand based on older overseas models. The ironic result has been to undermine the proper homegrown brands – Geely, Chery, Great Wall and BYD – whose cars had previously dominated the lower end of the market.因此,从2005年前后开始,中国政府尝试了另一种策略。这一次,官方鼓励外资合作伙伴开发一个完全“本土”的品牌,然后将其转交给中国国内的合作方。外国汽车制造商利用这一机会,推出了基于海外旧款型号的低价品牌。具有讽刺意味的结果是,这破坏了正宗本土品牌的成长:吉利(Geely)、奇瑞(Chery)、长城(Great Wall)和比亚迪(BYD)这些中国本土品牌的汽车此前曾主导低端市场。Auto industry benchmarking firm JD Power’s 2013 survey, released in April, included five Chinese brands. Four that were the “local” offspring of the international partnerships, including Wuling Hongguang (General Motors and two local partners) and Changan Star 2 (Ford and Changan). BYD was the only fully Chinese brand on the list.汽车行业基准研究公司JD Power在4月公布的2013年调查报告中,包括了五家中国品牌。四家是源于国际合作的“本土”产物,其中包括五菱宏光(由通用公司(General Motors)与两家本土企业合作)和长安之星2代(福特(Ford)与长安)。比亚迪是该名单上唯一完完全全的中国品牌。Market forces are asserting themselves elsewhere. BYD and Daimler have linked up to create the Denza; Chery and Jaguar Land Rover signed a deal in 2012, with production due this year. If the government wants domestic brands to succeed, it might reconsider which champions it backs.市场力量在其他方面也显示出威力。比亚迪和戴姆勒(Daimler)合作创造了Denza;奇瑞和捷豹路虎(Jaguar Land Rover)在2012年签订了合约,定于今年投产。如果中国政府想让本土品牌成功,可能要重新考虑应当持哪些冠军。 /201408/322683The Chinese Embassy in Madagascar expressed shock Sunday at a deadly riot involving local workers at a Chinese-run sugar plant and criticized the island nation#39;s government for failing to protect Chinese interests.中国驻马达加斯加使馆周日发表声明,就当地一家中国制糖厂发生的致死骚乱,批评马国政府保护中方利益不力。The statement came three days after local workers clashed with Madagascar security forces, leaving two people dead, before they looted the sugar plant in Morondava.该声明发表的三天前,当地的工人和军警发生了冲突,至少两人死亡,工人们之后洗劫了穆龙达瓦的一家制糖厂。The embassy said the Chinese staff evacuated the factory because of fears for their safety.使馆在声明中说,中方雇员出于自身安全的担忧已经从工厂撤出。;We hope the Madagascar government will take necessary measures to properly handle the attack at the Morondava sugar plant and to erase the ill impact this incident has brought to the country#39;s international image and its ability to attract foreign investments so as to create a good environment for Madagascar to cooperate with China and other countries,; the statement said.“我们希望马国政府采取必要措施,妥善处理穆伦达瓦糖厂遭袭事件,消除事件对马国际形象和吸引外资造成的恶劣影响,为马达加斯加与中国和世界各国的合作创造良好环境,”声明说道。Madagascar Prime Minister Roger Kolo and the country#39;s industry minister, Jules Etienne Rolland, have pledged to try to resolve the situation.马达加斯加总理罗杰·库卢(Roger Kolo)和工业部长朱尔斯·艾蒂安·罗兰德(Jules Etienne Rolland)已经表示要妥善处置骚乱。The labor protest started when the plant#39;s seasonal workers demanded contracts that offer better pay and better conditions, according to reports.据报道,当地工人抗议活动爆发起因在于一些季节性短工要求中方提供更好的合同,以得到更好的收入及其他条件的改善。The Chinese Embassy said the requests were unreasonable, and that the workers began in early November to block the factory, cutting off utilities, harassing employees and sabotaging equipment.中国使馆称这些要求是无理的,工人们从11月初开始就封堵厂区道路,切断工厂水电,驱逐上班员工,破坏工厂设备。Confrontation escalated after Madagascar security forces arrested two strike leaders.在马达加斯加军警逮捕两名罢工领袖后,冲突扩大。On Wednesday, about 500 workers rushed to a base of the security forces to demand the release of their colleagues, and police fired tear gas and live ammunition, the Madagascar Tribune reported. Two people died. Police said they were acting in self-defense because some workers had guns and machetes.据《马达加斯加先驱报》报道,周三,约500名工人冲到当地安全部队的一处基地,要求释放他们的同事,警察发射了催泪瓦斯和实弹。两人在冲突中死亡。警方称自己的行动是出于自卫,因为一些工人持有和砍刀。The official China News Service said the workers were armed with axes, slingshots and rocks.官方媒体中国新闻社称,工人们持有斧子、弹弓和石块。Rioters then converged on the factory, looted its sugar supply and set fire to a building. Some looters carried bags of sugar on their backs or in carts and wheelbarrows, and some of it was quickly sold on the illegal market, according to reports.据报道,骚乱者们之后聚集到了工厂,洗劫了糖品供给并放火烧了大楼。一些掠夺者或用背扛、或用小推车运着成包的白糖,其中很多很快就被卖到了黑市上。China is Africa#39;s largest trading partner, but closer ties have resulted in sometimes violent labor disputes.中国目前是非洲最大的贸易伙伴,但这种亲密关系有时也导致了劳工纠纷。 /201412/348807Frankfurt airport has caused controversy after it painted a section of its car park pink and designated it entirely for the use of women.法兰克福机场近日将部分停车区涂成粉色并将其指定为女士专用,这一举动引发了广泛争议。Worse still for people striving for equality, the Ladies Parking section has bigger parking bays insinuating they require less skill to manoeuvre their vehicle safely into the parking spot.对于那些追求男女平等的人来说,更过分的是“女士专用停车区”的停车位比普通停车位要宽敞,似乎在暗示她们即使技术欠佳也可将自己的座驾安全停进这种停车位。According to airport authorities, the new bays offer #39;quick, safe and convenient from your parking to the terminal.#39;机场管理人员表示,新停车位会使您“快速、安全且便捷地从停车场到达航站楼”。Airport officials said the bays are #39;bigger, nicer and close to the terminals#39;.机场官员说,新停车位“更大、更好且靠近航站楼”。They added: #39;This is our exclusive parking offer at Frankfurt Airport for women only. With new and special designed parking areas, which are colour-coded and easy to find.#39;他们还补充说道:“这是我们法兰克福机场为女士提供的专享停车务。我们的新停车区专为女士设计,这一区域用色标出很容易找到。”Women hoping to avail of the new parking zones have to find their way to the pink areas which are located in several areas.然而,这些粉色停车区分散在多个地点,那些希望使用新停车区的女士不得不想办法找到前往那里的路线。According to the airport#39;s website, forward-planning women can avail of #39;early bird online rates#39; and save more than 50 per cent on the cost of their parking.机场网站上称,提前计划出行的女士可以享受“网上预订优惠价”,可以省下一半以上的停车费。Geraldine Herbert, editor of Wheels for Women magazine told The Local that many areas in Germany have a requirement that 30 per cent of parking spaces are allocated exclusively for women.《Wheels for Women》杂志的编辑杰拉尔丁·赫伯特(Geraldine Herber)在接受The Local采访时说道,德国很多地方都要求划出停车区域的30%给女司机专用。She said: #39;It#39;s very patronising for women to be singled out in this way. All this does is reinforce the stereotype that women are bad at parking.#39;她说:“以这样的方式给女性搞特殊化,施舍的意味很浓。这种做法只会强化女司机停车技术差的成见。”Ms Herbert said that all parking spaces needed to be increased in size to accommodate larger, modern vehicles.赫伯特女士说所有的停车位都需要加大以停下更大的现代车辆。She branded the women-only spots as #39;sexist parking spaces#39;.她将这种女士专用停车位称作“性别歧视停车位”。Campaigners claim that women-only parking spots enable the introduction of better security and CCTV systems to help lady drivers feel safer.持者称女士专用停车位意味着可以引进更好的安全和闭路电视(CCTV)监控系统,使女司机感到更安全。The German Automobile Association added: #39;We believe that in car parks, every parking space should be a ;women#39;s; parking space.德国汽车协会(German Automobile Association)补充道:“我们认为停车场的任一停车位都应该是女士停车位。”#39;This means making sure every space and stairwell is well-lit, avoiding blind spots and corners and installing sufficient electronic security systems - most importantly surveillance and emergency call systems.#39;“这意味着我们要确保每寸空间、每个楼梯口都要配备良好的照明系统,避免出现盲点和看不见对向来车的转弯,并且安装充足的电子安全系统,其中最重要的是安装视频监控和紧急呼叫系统。” /201508/392808

Rescue workers have recovered a second flight recorder belonging to the Malaysian airliner which was shot down over eastern Ukraine on Thursday as President Petro Poroshenko blamed the deaths of nearly 300 passengers squarely on pro-Russia separatists.马航载298人的飞机周四在乌克兰东部被导弹击中坠毁后,救援人员目前已经发现了失事飞机的第二个黑匣子。The US said Flight MH17, a Boeing 777 flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, had been shot down in a missile attack as it flew over eastern Ukraine on Thursday. US authorities have not been able to conclude where the missile was fired from and have not directly accused anyone of shooting down the jet.美国方面表示,这架客机隶属马来西亚航空公司(Malaysian Airlines)的波音777飞机,坠毁前正从阿姆斯特丹飞往吉隆坡,航班在飞经乌克兰东部由亲俄武装分子掌控的地区时失去联系。飞机是被一枚从地面发射的导弹击落的,但美国政府目前还无法实导弹是从何处发射的。But Mr Poroshenko said on Friday morning in an address to the Ukrainian nation that the pro-Russia separatists who have taken control of parts of eastern Ukraine were to blame.周五早上乌克兰总统波罗申科在全国讲话中表示,控制乌克兰东部地区的亲俄武装分子应对此次事件负责。He referred to tapped phone conversations during which a rebel leader “boasted that the airliner had been shot down”.他在谈话表示,有电话录音实反叛武装分子领导人“曾扬言已经将飞机击落了。”“War has come to the territory of Ukraine, and the consequences of this war have rolled across the world,” he said. Mr Poroshenko added that he had ordered the establishment of an investigative commission including experts from the Netherlands, Malaysia and the US.波罗申科说“乌克兰领土已起战火,而战争的后果却已经波及到全世界。”他还表示已经要求成立了一个包含荷兰、马来西亚和美国专家的调查委员会。But he raised concerns over whether the probe could be conducted properly, given the crash site lies within separatist-occupied territory. The Reuters report of the discovery of the second black box followed rebels’ claims on Thursday that they had found the first one and said that all evidence would be sent to Russia for examination.路透社报道称,第二个黑匣子已经被找到。此前乌克兰反叛武装曾声称他们发现了第一个黑匣子,并表示有关坠毁客机的所有据都将送到俄罗斯进行调查。 /201407/313186

Europeans are more pessimistic about how equal their societies actually are, while in the US people are wedded to the American dream and believe society is fairer than it really is.欧洲人对本国社会的实际平等程度更加悲观,而美国人则紧抱美国梦、他们眼中的美国社会比实际上更加平等。German research sheds new light on the political challenges involved in tax, income distribution and social fairness and raises questions in the equality debate revived by French economist Thomas Piketty.德国的一项研究为涉及税收、收入分配和社会公平的各项政治挑战带来了新的启发,在由法国经济学家托马斯#8226;皮凯蒂(Thomas Piketty)重新点燃的不公平辩论中提出了问题。The study, to be presented at Germany’s Lindau conference this week, “suggests that in the political debate on income distribution, it is often not the facts that count but [perceptions]”, said Professor Michael Hüther, director of the Cologne-based IW economic institute.德国科隆经济研究所(IW)负责人迈克尔#8226;许特(Michael Hüther)教授表示,本周将在德国林道(Lindau)会议上发表的这份研究报告“似乎表明在这场有关收入分配的政治辩论中,重要的往往不是事实,而是(印象)”。Author Judith Niehues compared actual and perceived income levels in the US and 23 EU countries, using economic data and polling of about 1,000 people in each country.研究报告的作者朱迪丝#8226;尼许斯(Judith Niehues)利用经济数据,并在每个国家对大约1000人进行调查,比较了美国和23个欧盟(EU)国家的实际收入水平和本国人认为的收入水平。She found that Europeans underestimate the proportion of middle-income earners and overestimate the proportion of the poor, commonly defined as people on incomes of 60 per cent or less of the median.她发现,欧洲人低估了中等收入者的比例,高估了穷人的比例,后者通常定义为收入达到或低于中值收入60%的人士。Only the US has a more unequal income distribution than its citizens imagined, with many more poor people.只有美国的实际收入分配情况比其国民想象的更为不平等,穷人的数量也大大超过他们认为的。In Europe, people on middle incomes are far more numerous than those at the bottom or the top of the pay ladder. So a European income-distribution chart resembles a barrel, with a bulge in the middle. But many see it as a tower standing on a broad plinth, with a small elite, a modest middle-class and a big base of low earners.在欧洲,中等收入者的数量远远超过位于收入阶梯最底端或最顶端者。因此,欧洲的收入分配呈桶形,中间部分比两头更鼓。但在许多人眼中,欧洲的收入分配为塔形,基座宽,塔尖小,中产阶层不多不少,底部有庞大的低收入人群。This is particularly true in Germany and France, where people see income distribution as far more unequal than it is. In the UK and Spain, where distribution is less equal, perceptions are more accurate.德国和法国尤其如此,这两国人眼中的本国收入分配不平等程度远远超过实际情况。在收入分配更不平等的英国和西班牙,人们的印象更为准确。More than 30 per cent of Americans have incomes of 60 per cent or less of the median. But most people think that only 24 per cent of their fellow citizens are at this level. “The middle class is truly smaller in the USA and the lower income group considerably more numerous than its citizens suppose,” says a summary of the study, which suggests this might be partly linked to social mobility in the US. People may be less focused on inequality if they think they are climbing the income ladder, explaining why pressure for redistributive taxation is lower in the US.逾30%美国人的收入刚刚达到或低于中值收入60%。但大多数美国人认为这个比例仅为24%。研究摘要称,“在美国,实际的中产阶层人数比其国民想象的更少,较低收入人群则庞大得多”。报告提出,部分原因可能是美国的社会流动性较大。如果人们认为自己在收入阶梯上的位置正在攀升,那么他们或许不会那么关注不平等,这解释了为何在美国通过征税对财富进行再分配的民意压力较低。In Europe, the gap between perception and reality is particularly wide in former communist states, with citizens convinced their countries are far less equal than they really are.在欧洲,国民的印象和实际情况差异格外大的是那些前共产党统治国家,这些国家的国民认为的不平等程度远远超过实际情况。The report adds that levels of concern about inequality tend to be greater in countries with higher levels of perceived inequality. More than half of Germans and 79 per cent of French think income differentials are too great, against about 30 per cent of Britons and Spaniards.报告补充称,在国民认为的不平等程度超过实际情况的国家,有关不平等的担忧往往更强烈。逾一半德国人、以及79%的法国人认为,本国的收入差距太大,而在英国和西班牙,持这种看法者的比例约为30%。 /201408/321905

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