明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年03月24日 17:23:06
Private equity私募股权融资Tax attack税收攻击Leveraged buy-outs face legal scrutiny衡平收购面临法律审查Aug 24th 2013 |From the print editionTAX planners at private-equity firms are having an unusually busy summer. A fiscal ruling in Sweden and a court case in America are threatening to upend the arrangements that buy-out firms use to minimise their tax bills.私募股权公司的税务规划师这个夏天非一般的忙碌。瑞典的金融管制以及美国的一起案件有可能颠覆收购公司用于最小化其税收单的安排。Both cases relate to a tax loophole used by private-equity firms in America and much of Europe. Under “carried interest” rules, buy-out executives pay (relatively low) capital-gains taxes on profits made from buying and selling companies, in the same way investors or entrepreneurs do. This is odd, given that the money wagered on private-equity deals comes overwhelmingly from outside investors, not the executives themselves. It would make more sense for these profits to be taxed like salaries, or bankers’ bonuses, at the (higher) income-tax rate.这两起事件都与一个税收漏洞有关,这个漏洞在美国和欧洲大部分地区的私募股权公司被利用。根据附带权益规则,控制股权收购的主管跟投资者和企业家一样付相对较低的资本利得税,这项税是针对公司买卖获利所征收。鉴于押在私募股权融资交易中的资金大部分来自外部投资者,而不是主管,所以这项规则很奇怪。这些利润应该按照工资税或者家的红利,征收更高的所得税更合理。That is exactly what Sweden’s tax administration has decided. In a ruling on August 20th it demanded SKr647m (m) of back taxes from EQT, a local private-equity fund, and its executives. The amount covers the difference between the 25% capital-gains rate and the 57% income tax for 2007-09, plus interest and penalties. EQT is not alone: dozens of other executives at other firms have been handed multi-million-kronor bills as a result of the tax authorities’ change of heart. The potentially impoverished bosses say they are confident courts will find in their favour on appeal.瑞典的税务局就是这样做的。在8月20日的一起判决中,税务局命令一个当地的私募股权基金EQT及其主管补交税款6.47亿瑞典克郎(9900万美元)。这笔税款包括25%的资本利得税和自2007年到年的57%的所得税加上利息和罚金。不只是EQT一家,其他几十家公司的主管也因为税务局中心的改变而交出了数百万克朗的资金。这些即将变成穷光蛋的老板说他们很有信心法庭能找到有利于他们的请求。The American case, decided on July 24th, chips away at carried interest from another angle. An appeals court in Boston ruled that Sun Capital, a private-equity fund that specialises in turning around distressed companies, is liable for some pension obligations of a firm it bought in 2006, and which subsequently went bust.美国的案子于7月24日作出判决,从另一个角度撤销了附带权益。位于波士顿的一家上诉法院判决私募股权基金太阳资本对其于2006年购买的一家公司的养老金付负有责任,这家公司最终破产。太阳资本专注于使运转不佳的公司好转。The case is limited to pensions (and is being contested by Sun Capital) but the precedent could have a wider tax impact, says Jon Zorn of Ropes amp; Gray, a law firm. The core of the ruling blows away a legal fiction that private-equity funds are passive investors who do not actively control the companies they buy. That premise is also used to justify putting profits into the lower tax bracket.这起案件局限于养老金,并且太阳资本提出了异议。但是格雷律师事务所的Jon Zorn表示,先前的例子对税收更有影响。判决的核心推翻了私募股权基金都是不会主动控制收购公司的消极投资者的法律假想。该假定之前也常常用于将利润划为更低的税率等级征税的辩护。Executives in Sweden and America complain about the uncertainty created by the cases. They have a point. It would be better to make clear that private-equity profits should be taxed as income, and carried interest done away with.瑞典和美国的主管抱怨案件引起的不确定性。他们有一个观点。弄清楚私募股权利润应该按照所得征税,并且废除附带权益,这样更好。 /201308/254358

The study of genes has shown that every individual is genetically unique, and this discovery leads to a host ofquestions as to the relationship between an individuals genesand environmental factors such as diet.由对基因的研究人们得出结论,每个人从遗传学的角度来看都是独一无二的。这一结论引出了一大堆的问题,例如人体基因与环境因素之间的关系。That is, how does diet interact with ones genetic make-up to affect ones health?换句话说,饮食是如何与人体的基因相互作用,从而影响到人们的身体健康?This is the primary concern of nutrigenomics.这是营养基因组学关注的核心问题。It is the study of how different foods interact with particular genes, affecting howthese genes act or altering their structures.营养基因组学是研究不同的食物是如何与特定的基因相互作用,进而影响这些基因的活动以及结构转变的科学。Specifically, nutrigenomics is concerned with how chemicals in different foods can interact withparticular genes to increase the risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease,and some cancers.特别要说明一点,这门科学关注的问题是:不同食物中的化学物质是如何与特定的基因作用来增加人体患病的风险的,这些疾病可能是2型糖尿病、肥胖症、心脏病和一些癌症。Nutrigenomics dictates that understanding how dietary chemicals regulate different genes will leadto individualized nutrition, the ability to design diets catered to ones specific genetic make-up.在营养基因组学研究中,如果了解膳食化合物如何影响不同的基因,便可以研究出个性化营养方案,还可以根据一个人特定的基因构造来制定日常饮食计划。For example, the food pyramid developed by the USDA assumes that all Americans are the sameand have the same dietary needs.比如说,由美国农业部发布的食物金字塔,我们可以做出假设:所有的美国人都是一样的,人们有着同样的饮食需求。Of course, the truth is that were not.当然,事实并非如此。A lucky few of us can consume high fat diets and yet not develop heart disease, while others onmoderate fat diets may develop heart disease.只有少数的幸运儿才可能在摄入高脂肪的食物后不患上心脏病,很多人就算食物脂肪含量适中也可能患上心脏病。Perhaps one day our doctors will our DNA and take into account our genotype along withother environmental factors such as our physical activity.也许某一天,我们的医生能解读我们的DNA,同时将各人的基因型及其他的环境因素考虑在内。They may then prescribe usindividualized diets, designed to match our unique nutritional needs.其后,再根据各人独特的营养需求开出个性化的饮食规定。This way, diseases such as cancer and Alzheimers may actually be slowed down or evenprevented.这样一来,像癌症、老年痴呆这样的病的患病率就可能有所降低,甚至是得到预防!201406/306875

Business商业报道The cigarette industry卷烟工业Running out of puff强弩之末Big tobacco firms are maintaining their poise, but quietly wheezing烟草巨头们都保持姿态,蓄势待发。CIGARETTE smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the ed States to warrant appropriate remedial action.吸烟在美国是一项引起足够重视的健康危害,以保障适当的补救措施。It was 50 years ago this month that Americas surgeon-general sounded that warning, marking the beginning of the end of cigarette manufacturing—and of smoking itself—as a respectable activity.这是50年前的这个月美国卫生部部长发出的警告。这一警告的发出标志着卷烟制造业以及吸烟这一行为本身不再是一项让人尊敬的行为。Some 20m Americans have died from the habit since then.从那时起,大约有2千万美国人死于吸烟。But advertising restrictions, smoking bans and stigma have had their effect: the proportion of American adults who smoke has dropped from 43% to 18%; smoking rates among teenagers are at a record low.但是不论是广告限制或是严禁吸烟的标志都还是起到了作用:吸烟的美国成年人比例已经从43%下降到了18%,青少年的吸烟率也处于历史新低,In many other countries the trends are similar.这种趋势在其他国家也是相似的。The current surgeon-general, Boris Lushniak, marked the half-century with a report on January 17th, declaring smoking even deadlier than previously thought.现任卫生部部长,鲍里斯在1月17日发布的报道对过去的50年作了总结,指出吸烟比预期的更加致命。He added diabetes, colorectal cancer and other ailments to the list of ills it causes, and promised end-game strategies to stamp out cigarettes altogether.在吸烟导致的疾病里,他加入了糖尿病,直肠癌和其它病症,并且提出了终结策略来完全杜绝香烟。Were that to happen Americas three big tobacco firms, Altria, Reynolds and Lorillard, could be snuffed out, too.美国三大烟草公司,奥驰亚,雷诺和罗瑞拉德烟草公司会因此而被扼杀吗?Public-health officials plot the same fate for multinationals that supply other markets.卫生部的官员们为供应其它市场的跨国公司也安排了相同的命运。The hit list includes Philip Morris International, which along with Altria makes Marlboro, the top-selling global brand; Japan Tobacco; and British American Tobacco and Imperial Tobacco of Britain.这其中包括菲利普莫里斯国际公司,它和奥驰亚一起打造了万宝路这一全球最畅销的品牌,除此之外还有日本烟草公司、英美烟草公司和英国的帝国烟草公司。They are a hardy bunch, unlikely to be spooked.这些公司都是硬骨头,不太容易被震慑到。But the methods they have used to withstand a half-century of battering by regulators may be losing potency.但是他们采取的与监管部门周旋了半个世纪的方法可能会失去效力。In the rich world, where the economy is sluggish, smokers are trading down to cheaper puffs.在经济低迷的富裕国家,吸烟者开始选择便宜的产品进行交易,The regulatory climate in developing countries is becoming more hostile.发展中国家的监管环境也变得更加严苛。New technologies such as e-cigarettes promise to deliver nicotine less riskily.一些新的技术,比如电子香烟承诺提供危害风险更小的尼古丁。Big tobacco firms may master them, but it would be a radical shift, akin to converting the car industry from internal-combustion engines to battery power.大的烟草公司可能掌握这项技术,但是这将是一个根本性的转变。类似于汽车产业中从内燃机到电池电源的转变。David Adelman of Morgan Stanley, an investment bank, does not see anything thats upending the conventional tobacco business model.根士丹利投资的大卫阿德尔曼表示,并没有看到任何的颠覆了传统的烟草商业模式,But the model needs tweaking.但模型需要调整。Some reasons for Mr Adelmans confidence are sound. Advertising bans and the industrys pariah status deter would-be competitors.阿德尔曼先生有这样的信心是有理有据的,广告禁令以及烟草业所处的低贱地位都将阻止潜在竞争者的出现。When cigarette-makers raise prices, smokers cough up.当卷烟制造商提高价格的时候,烟民们就咳嗽起来。Global consumption keeps rising, thanks largely to population growth in poorer countries.由于贫困国家人口的快速增长,全球消费量不断上升。The cigarette giants pamper investors with big dividends and share buy-backs; they have flocked to tobacco shares.烟草巨头们放任投资者获得丰厚的分红以及股票回购,使得投资者纷纷涌向烟草股。But the going is getting tougher.但是这种发展趋势已是举步维艰。This month health officials in China, home to more smokers than any other country, called for a ban on smoking in public places.中国作为拥有比其他任何国家更多烟民的国家于本月由卫生部的官员发布了禁止公共场所吸烟的禁令。That would mainly affect state-owned China Tobacco, which has a near-monopoly.这将主要影响到在行业中几乎处于垄断地位的中国烟草国有企业。But multinationals shares wobbled anyway: the proposed crackdown could portend tighter regulation elsewhere.但是跨国公司的股份也是摇摆不定:打击的提议可能会预示着更为严格的监管。Britains government, after some wavering, may now go ahead and copy Australias requirement for cigarettes to be sold in ugly, scary plain packs.英国政府在几番举棋不定后最终决定采取与澳大利亚同样的做法,在烟草的包装上采用印有丑陋恐怖图案的普通包装。Such pleasure-pinching regulation strikes at one of the main ways cigarette companies boost profits: converting smokers to pricier brands.这种pleasure-pinching监管方式主要打击的是烟草公司获取利润的其中一种方式:促使吸烟者选择价格更高的品牌。Premiumisation is still happening in developing countries, where incomes are rising.消费品质优化仍然发生在那些收入增加的发展中国家。But elsewhere smokers are turning to cheaper brands or rolling their own cigarettes.但是在其他地方烟民们开始转而选择低价品牌或是自己卷烟。Many smokers will not trade back up once the economy improves, largely because smoking and advertising bans have robbed the habit of its air of glamour.当经济有所好转时,许多烟民也不会改变他们的选择,这很大程度上是因为吸烟和烟草广告的禁令已经夺走了烟草香味一贯的魅力。Euromonitor International, a research firm, forecasts that everywhere except in Asia and the Middle East prices will rise less from 2012 to 2017 than they did during the previous five years欧睿国际预测除了亚洲和中东地区外,从2012年到2017年烟草价格的上涨将低于过去5年来价格的上涨。Shane MacGuill of Euromonitor sees in all this a very serious threat to the long-term health of the tobacco industry.欧睿国际的巴蒂尔认为这些对于烟草业长期的健康发展是一个严重的威胁。This is spurring a quest for safer methods of supplying smokers with their nicotine fixes.这将促使该行业烟民们以更加安全的方式提供尼古丁。Most of the hype is about e-cigarettes, which give users a hit of vapour infused with nicotine but none of the other, nastier ingredients of tobacco smoke.这其中最有可能的方式就是电子香烟,这种香烟主要提供的是尼古丁蒸汽而不含其它物质,特别是烟草中的有害成分。In America, the fastest adopter, sales have jumped from nearly nothing five years ago to at least 1 billion in 2013.在美国最先采用这种方式的厂家,5年来其销售量实现了从零开始的激增,截止2013年已经达到至少10亿美元。At first, it looked as if e-cigarettes might lure smokers from the big tobacco brands to startups such as NJOY.起初的时候,电子香烟似乎已经诱导烟民们从大的烟草品牌转向诸如NJOY的新兴公司。But incumbents have been quick to see the threat.但是公司们也都迅速的意识到了这种威胁。Lorillard acquired Blu, now the biggest American brand, in 2012.罗瑞拉德烟草公司于2012年收购了蓝光这一现今最大的美国品牌。Altria and Reynolds are expected to launch e-cig ventures nationwide this year.奥驰亚集团和雷诺预计今年将在全国范围内推出电子香烟业务。Imperial recently acquired the e-cigarette operations of Dragonite, a Chinese firm that pioneered the technology.帝国烟草公司最近收购了一家名为叁龙的中国公司,因为该公司率先掌握了该项技术。Though not the first movers, tobacco companies have bigger war chests, more knowledge of smokers habits and better ties to distributors than the newcomers.虽然不是起步最早的,但是烟草公司比起新进的公司来说更具实力,它们更了解烟民们的习惯也有更多的分销渠道。Some pundits reckon Americans will puff more e-cigarettes than normal ones within a decade, but tobacco folk are sceptical.一些专家预测在未来的十年里,美国人将消费更多的电子香烟,但是烟民们对此却持怀疑态度。E-cigs account for just 1% of Americas cigarette market.在美国的烟草市场,电子香烟只占到了1%的份额。In Europe 7% of smokers had tried vaping by 2012 but only 1% kept it up.在欧洲,有7%的烟民都试过了这种 电子烟雾,但是只有1%的人到2012年还在使用。PMI has higher hopes for a new type of cigarette, which heats tobacco rather than burning it.PMI公司更希望有一种全新的香烟,这种香烟只是加热烟草而不点燃。Such cigarettes could deliver fewer toxins than conventional sticks and more pleasure than mere vapour.这种香烟比起普通香烟产生的毒素更少,而与电子香烟的烟雾相比又能使人更加愉悦。PMI says it will invest up to 500m in a factory in Italy to make them.PMI公司表示它们将投入5亿欧元到意大利一家生产这种香烟的工厂。Earlier efforts to hook smokers on heated tobacco flopped, so there is no assurance that PMIs versions will succeed.早期为了使烟民们使用加热烟草的努力都以失败告终,因而不能保PMI公司的这一思路能得以实现。And no one knows what sort of restrictions regulators will eventually place on reduced risk products, including e-cigarettes.并且每人知道对于包括电子香烟在内的降低风险产品会出台什么样的监管措施。If they can manage the transition to less harmful smokes, and convince regulators to be sensible, the tobacco giants could keep up the sort of performance that has made their shares such a fine investment over the years.如果这些公司能实现向低危害的烟草的转变,并且说监管机构意识到这种转变。那么这些烟草巨头们将能有实力继续为他们的投资者们提供丰厚的分红。But some analysts are not so sure.但是一些分析人士对此却不那么肯定。Many tobacco firms are struggling to deliver the consistency of the earnings-per-share model weve seen in the past, says David Hayes of Nomura. If that persists, investors may fall out of love with the industry.野村公司的大卫表示许多的烟草公司都在挣扎着想要继续沿用以前烟草按股数收益的经营方式。如果它们坚持,那么它们的投资者们可能会失去对该行业的兴趣。A half-century after the surgeon-generals alarm, they, and incorrigible puffers, are its last remaining friends.从卫生部部长发出警告的半个世纪以来,这些公司最后的朋友就只剩那些已经无药可救的烟民们了。 /201402/274795

  Pitched back into the past新电影,回到过去A new film about Jackie Robinson is a surprise hit新版《杰基罗宾逊的故事》强势来袭BRIAN HELGELANDS latest film is steeped in nostalgia without ever being sentimental. Its title, “42”, is the number on the back of the jersey worn by its hero, Jackie Robinson, a gifted player who broke the colour bar in baseball.由布莱恩海尔格兰德导演的最新电影充满了怀旧之情,但又不伤感。电影名称《42号》,正是男主角杰基罗宾逊—一个打破种族歧视的天才棒球运动员球衣的号码。Robinson played himself in “The Jackie Robinson Story”, which was released in 1950 when the violence that led to the civil-rights movement was raging. The fact Mr Helgelands script sticks closely to the narrative of that film means audiences are hearing Robinsons story the way he wanted it told, as a manual of non-violent resistance to injustice.1950年,美国的黑人民权运动日益高涨,由罗宾逊本人主演的《杰基罗宾森的故事》在此时上映。海尔格兰的剧本非常忠于影片(《杰基罗宾森的故事》)的叙述,他希望以自己的方式让观众知道罗宾森的故事,使之成为用非暴力向种族歧视抵抗的典范。Harrison Ford plays Branch Rickey, the major-league baseball executive who recruited Robinson to be the first black player in the league. Mr Ford brings authority as well as a touch of celebrity to the film, and he is rewarded with some of its best lines. “Robinson is a Methodist,” Rickey explains to a worried colleague. “Im a Methodist. God is a Methodist. So were going to do just fine.”哈里森福特饰演布鲁克林道奇队的总经理布兰奇瑞基,他招收了道奇队第一个黑人运动员罗宾逊。福特给影片增添了好名声和权威,他也因为剧中出色的台词而赢得嘉奖。“罗宾逊是卫理公会派教徒,”瑞基向满腹忧虑的同事解释道,“我也是卫理公会派教徒,上帝也是。所以我们这样做很好。”Mr Helgeland mines the imagery of old sports movies to show the way Robinson faced up to a series of ferocious pitchers. And he skilfully uses symbolism from 1940s films to create a national mood that harks back to a gentler time. “42” is a tribute to a post-war America in which sports stars had not yet been corporatised and the victory over fascism abroad was a recent memory. The fact that this weeks Boston bombs were detonated on what has come to be called “Jackie Robinson Day” makes his film seem more poignant.海尔格兰德挖掘出旧版本电影中罗宾森面对一个个实力强大的投球手这些场景的内涵意义,并且他灵活运用了1950年版电影里的经典镜头,营造出回到那个和平年代的民族情绪。《42号》是向体育明星还没被商业化运作的战后美国的致敬,也是对世界反法西斯胜利的一次回忆。 事实上,这周发生波士顿爆炸案的日子,正是“杰基罗宾逊纪念日”,这也使得电影显得更加意味深长。 /201405/298760

  Yes,eating organic foods is a great way to reduce the amount of pollutants in your body,选择有机食物大大减少了污染物进入体内,but you cant entirely escapepollution, no matter where you live.但是无论你身在何处都无法一点不受污染的侵害。Persistent organic pollutants, or POPs, are everywhere-in ourfood, soil, air, and water.持久性污染物无处无在—我们的食物、土壤、空气、水。They can travel far distances, so thateven if you live in an area relatively free of the use of pesticidesor industrial processes, pollutants will find their way to you.持久性污染物“跋山涉水”也会靠近你,即使你生存的地方没有使用杀虫剂或工业生产。In many instances, the levels of POPs found far from a source of pollution are significantly lowerthan the levels near the source.远离污染源的污染程度明显比污染源低很多。However, for some POPs, even low levels can be dangerousbecause they resist break down.但是,即使是相对低的污染浓度也可能是安全隐患,因为污染物无法分解,When they get into your body, they stick around, accumulatingin fatty tissues.当进入体内,滞留体内,堆积在脂肪组织。There is a global movement, involving over 150 countries, to eliminate some of the mostdangerous of these POPs, which include pesticides,全球超过150个国家发起运动,坚决杜绝使用一些危害甚大的持久性污染物:包括杀虫剂、industrial chemicals, and their byproducts.Some of them have aly been banned in the U.S.工业化学剂及相关副产品。美国禁止使用其中的一些。201405/300573。

  Don, flying is tougher than walking or running, right?飞行比走路和跑步都要困难些,对吧?So how come birds dont get winded and run out of breath?那为什么鸟类飞行的时候不会喘不过气来?Actually, in terms of distance per unit energy, flying is pretty efficient.按照单位距离来看的话,飞行是非常顺利的。Plus birds have a super efficient respiratory system.并且鸟类有一个特别高效的呼吸系统。While a birds respiratory system takes up about one fifth of its body, its lungs are relatively rigid and small, and dont fully deflate.当鸟呼吸系统占据它身体的五分之一时,它的肺比较僵硬,也比较小,不会完全紧缩。Instead, birds have a complex network of air sacs that work likebellows to pump a constant stream of air through the lungs.相反地,鸟类有一个复杂的肺泡结构,就像一个风箱把源源不断的空气打进肺里。Whats more, air only goes through the lungs in one direction, which means it has a higher oxygen content than the air in human lungs.更重要的是,空气在肺里只能流向一个方向,那就意味着它里面的氧气含量比人类肺里氧含量高。When a bird inhales, the air goes into the rear air sacs, and when it exhales, that air movesforward to the lungs, where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide waste.鸟在吸气时,空气进入鸟肺泡的底部,而当呼气时,空气就向肺的前面移动,在那里氧气被交换成二氧化碳废气。Then, when the bird inhales again, the air is pushed out of the lungs and into the front air sacs.然后,鸟再次吸气,气体就从肺中进入肺泡。When it exhales asecond time, the air leaves the body.当第二次呼气时,气体就从身体出来了。So it takes two breaths to process a packet of air.所以鸟类需要呼吸两次才能处理气体了。Yep, Plus the air sacs mean that birds weigh less than youd expect, which makes flying lesscostly in terms of energy.是的。加上肺泡的话就说明鸟比我们想象的要轻,那样飞行就不会那么耗能量。But scientists still dont fully understand how birds breathe.但是科学家们现在也不完全明白鸟类是如何呼吸的。Birds fly over Mount Everest at altitudes where the air is so thin humans cant function, and no one knows howthey do it.鸟可以在珠穆朗玛峰上空飞行,但山上空气太稀薄人类无法呼吸,没有人知道它们是怎么做到的。 201409/327429

  Business商业报道Internet access互联网接入Congestion on the line网上的拥堵Internet-service providers clamour for a fairer contribution from content firms互联网务提供商要求内容商的付出更加公平THE raid by the European Commissions antitrust gumshoes this month on Orange,Deutsche Telekom and Telefónica of Spain seemed to come out of the blue.欧盟委员会反托拉斯调查人员本月对Orange电信、德国电信和西班牙电信的突击调查事先显得毫无征兆。The companies professed a surprise verging on stupefaction.这些公司莫名惊诧,全然不知所措。Even some Brussels insiders were caught on the hop.即使布鲁塞尔的一些内部人士也是措手不及。Naming no names, the commission said the inquiry involved internet connectivity.委员会表示这次调查与互联网连接有关,但没有具体指名。The question is whether entrenched telecoms firms are abusing their strength in the market for internet traffic to deny -streaming websites and other content providers full access to their networks to reach consumers.调查的问题是:强势的电信公司有没有滥用它们在互联网传输市场上的优势地位,拒绝给视频流网站和其他内容提供商到达消费者所需要的完全的网络接入。Besides the content providers themselves, the other potential plaintiffs are the wholesalers that the content providers use to ship their data across borders.除了内容提供商,其他可能的原告方是中间人。内容提供商利用中间人跨界传输数据。These rely on incumbent internet-service providers such as Orange to take the data the last bit of the way to subscribers screens and mobiles.这要靠占据主导地位的互联网务提供商,比如Orange,来完成数据传输到用户电脑屏幕和手机的最后一段路。All eyes turned to Cogent Communications, an American wholesaler which handles data for the likes of YouTube.所有人的眼光都转向了一家美国中间人公司:Cogent通信公司。这家公司处理YouTube以及类似网站的数据。Cogent has complained, fruitlessly, to French and German regulators that their former monopolies were asking too much to handle data, and throttling the flow to consumers when bigger fees were not forthcoming.Cogent曾徒劳地向法国和德国监管者抱怨它们以前的垄断者对处理数据要价太高,如果不能带来更高的收费,就限制传输给消费者的流量。It is appealing against the French decision.Cogent正在对法国判决提出上诉。In theory Orange and the other network providers might simply pass on to their customers the cost of all their streaming and downloading of funny cat s and porn.理论上,Orange和其他网络提供商可以很简单地将它们传输和下载搞笑猫咪和色情视频的所有成本转嫁给它们的客户。But Europes market is fiercely competitive; and regulators place all sorts of constraints on how networks can charge for their services, while haranguing them to invest in new technology and new capacity to keep up with rising traffic.但欧洲的市场竞争非常激烈,监管者对网络为它们的务收费的方式设置了各种限制,同时喋喋不休地劝它们投资于新技术和新能力,以跟上流量不断增长的步伐。Though there are similar spats in America, it looks to some Europeans like another example of the rape of the old continent by Americas data-mining, tax-avoiding internet giants.尽管在美国也有类似的争端,但在某些欧洲人看来,这只是旧大陆又一次被美国从事数据挖掘和避税的互联网巨头欺凌。The broader issue—and the reason, perhaps, why the antitrust watchdogs chose to weigh in—is that Europe is on the brink of big regulatory change.一个更大的问题是:欧洲正处于一场管制大变革的边缘,也许这也是反托拉斯监察机构选择介入的原因。A draft law to be published in September will subtly alter the principle of net neutrality,the idea that companies which own the infrastructure cannot give priority to some traffic over that of others.9月份即将公布的一项法律草案将对网络中立原则带来微妙的改变。这一原则要求拥有基础设施的公司不能偏向特定的流量,不利于其他流量。This rule has fostered competition and kept prices down in Europe but has discouraged networks from investing.这一规则在欧洲培育了竞争,压低了价格,但打消了这些公司进行投资的积极性。The draft law will ban incumbents from blocking data from some sources,这一法律草案将禁止占主导地位的运营商阻塞特定来源的数据,but it will let them impose varying charges for different qualities of service for data sent through wholesalers.但允许它们对通过中间人发送的数据务的不同质量收取不同费用。Together with other provisions in the package, this should encourage Europes telecoms firms to invest in upgrading their networks, its authors hope.制定者希望,这一规定和该法律草案的其他一些规定将鼓励欧洲的电信公司投资于网络升级。But the commissions antitrust watchdogs are bound to be on guard against any moves that might reduce competition.但委员会的反托拉斯监察机构下定决心,时刻提防任何可能削弱竞争的举动。 /201308/253266The World Cup世界杯Pitch imperfect球场不够完美They think its all over budget他们认为超出预算Down to the finishing touches开赛在即,已到最后收尾工作FOOTBALLS World Cup was meant to display Brazils coming-of-age as a global player. Instead, the preparations have illustrated the improvisation for which the country is nearly as famous as its footballers. With less than a month to go, organisers are scrambling to get everything y. A swanky new terminal opened at Guarulhos Airport in Sao Paulo on May 11th. But just eight airlines will be operating there next month, not 25 as planned. Chunks of the airport in Belo Horizonte, another host city, are wrapped in scaffolding and sprinkled with dust—and will remain so well after the tournament ends in July.足球世界杯是巴西这个世界足球强国显示其成熟老道的绝好时机。然而,其糟糕的筹备,就像其足球运动员即兴表演那样闻名于世。距世界杯开幕已不足一个月,可是组委会正仓促地想要一切在一个月内各就各位。5月11日,位于圣保罗的Guarulhos机场,一个超炫豪华的机场航站楼建成开始对外开放。然而下个月,只有8个而不是计划的25个航空公司可以在这里起落。而位于另一个主办城市贝洛哈里桑塔的机场,绝大部分依然围着脚手架,到处是灰尘,而这个状态可能直到六月世界杯赛结束都不大会有所改观。Unfinished work at Arena Corinthians stadium in Sao Paulo means only 40,000 fans will attend a pre-tournament test game on May 18th, well shy of the 68,000 expected at the opening match on June 12th. The media centre at the stadium in Curitiba wont be y for the event; journalists will slum it in a tent.圣保罗哥林蒂安斯体育场作为世界杯的竞技场现在尚未完工,这意味着仅有4万球迷可以参加5月18号举行的赛前测试,这远远少于六月12号世界杯首场赛事的6.8万人。库里蒂巴市体育场的媒体中心届时可能无法为大赛务,记者只能挤在自搭的帐篷中。Red tape and overlapping federal, state and municipal fiefs have snarled projects. Jerme Valcke, secretary-general of FIFA, footballs governing body, has described dealing with Brazilian authorities as “hell”. Eight construction workers have died in accidents, six more than in South Africa four years ago. FIFA insists stadiums will be y when fans start pouring in. But delays have left little time to install and test telecommunications kit, prompting worries over patchy television and radio transmission.繁文缛节官僚习气以及冗杂的联邦、政府和市级区划让各个项目混乱不堪。国际足球联盟足球赛事的领导机构的总秘书长Jerme Valcke将与巴西当局的办事风格描述为“极不像话”。8名建筑工人在施工事故中丧生,这比四年前南非世界杯多整整6人。国际足球联盟坚持要求体育馆必须在观众前来参与赛前测试之前一切准备就绪。但是由于一再拖延,几乎没有时间安装、测试电信设备,这给不完善的电视转播和广播转播买下隐忧。Cost overruns, partly blamed on alleged price-gouging, mean that, measured by the cost of a seat, Brazil now boasts ten of the worlds 20 most expensive football venues, according to KPMG, a consultancy. The whitest of these elephants, in Brasília, may end up consuming 2 billion reais, nearly triple the initial estimate. After the Cup it is unlikely ever to draw capacity crowds again, as the city lacks a good league side.足球世界杯筹备成本远远超出预算,部分原因是由于价格欺骗。意思是,以一个座位的成本作为衡量手段,根据毕马威会计事务所的数据,现在巴西拥有世界上最贵的20个足球竞技场。在巴西利亚,这些造价昂贵而使用价值又不太高的场馆最终可能花费20亿里亚尔,是最初预算的3倍。在世界杯赛事之后,因为这个城市缺乏一个好的联赛赛事它不可能再整场爆满。A promised public-works bonanza has not materialised. Brazils government insisted on staging games in 12 cities, rather than the required eight, in order to sp the benefits across the country. It succeeded only in sping itself thin. Just five of 35 planned urban-mobility schemes are complete. Fans will use buses or taxis to get to most city centres.因此一个颇具前景的市政工程金矿也无法带来物质财富。巴西政府为了均衡举办世界杯带来的红利,坚持在12个城市举行赛事而非按照要求在8个城市举办。而这,只会让传播世界杯赛事的成功几率降低。而35个城市交通方案也仅有5个竣工。最后,球迷只能通过公交车或者计程车前往各个位于市中心的赛场。Support for hosting the World Cup has fallen sharply, from 79% after it was awarded to Brazil in 2007 to 48% now, according to Datafolha, a pollster. Given Brazilians love of football and knack for making merry, the tournament is almost certain to be a blast. But the legacy has been left in the changing-rooms.根据圣保罗页报的民意调查,巴西国内民众对世界杯的持也急剧下降,由2007年申办成功之初的78%降至现在的48%,世界杯赛几乎注定了将是猛烈的一击。而这一现象已经在更衣室得到验。 201406/304653

  Prohibition and drugs禁止和毒品Press down, pop up打压,弹出Cracking down on illicit drugs means they surface in another form打击非法毒品, 意味着他们会以另一种形式浮出BEFORE “Breaking Bad”, there was “Miami Vice”. The 1980s television show pitted detectives in white linen suits against drugs traffickers who used the Caribbean as their point of entry into Florida. The route, at least, is back in fashion. The proportion of cocaine imports entering the ed States via the islands is rising (see article), as clampdowns in Central America and Mexico push drugs gangs back to their old haunts.“迈阿密风云”先于《绝命毒师》。这部80年代的电视剧讲述了白衣警探对抗毒贩的故事。剧中的毒贩以加勒比海为入口进入佛罗里达,至少这条路线现在又流行起来了。通过群岛, 可卡因在美国的进口比例上升(见文章). 由于中美洲和墨西哥对贩卖毒品团伙严打,这些团伙又回到其回到其老巢。The revival in Caribbean drugs traffic is just the latest example of the “balloon effect”, in which squashing down on illicit activity in one place causes it to pop up somewhere else. Colombias war on drugs in the 1990s and 2000s is another: coca crops moved back to Bolivia and Peru, now the worlds biggest grower; cocaine-processing shifted next door, to Ecuador and Venezuela; Mexicos drugs gangs grabbed market share. A subsequent bloody clampdown on Mexican gangs diverted traffickers to Central America: Honduras became the regions largest entry point for airborne smugglers. With the shift back to the Caribbean, the trade has come full circle.加勒比海走私路线的复兴是“气球效应”的最新例。在一个地方打击非法活动,会迫使其转移到别的地方。1990年和2000年的哥伦比亚的毒品战争就是明: 古柯种植回到玻利维亚和秘鲁- 现在世界上最大的古柯种植地, 可卡因加工转移临近地区- 厄瓜多尔和委内瑞拉,墨西哥的毒品团伙抓住了此市场份额。随后墨西哥帮派的血腥打击,迫使这些团伙转移到中美洲: 洪都拉斯成为该地区最大的机载走私的入口。这些团伙重新回到加勒比海, 贸易也兜回来了。The balloon effect also operates among consumers. Cocaine and heroin usage is dropping in places like the ed States and Britain, partly because of educational campaigns, partly because of falling levels of purity. But consumption of synthetic drugs like methamphetamine, ketamine and mephedrone is rising to compensate, in both developing and developed countries. Seizures of methamphetamines have tripled in Asia in the past five years. New ways of getting high proliferate faster than the authorities can keep tabs on. A report from the UN Office on Drugs and Crime says that 348 new psychoactive substances have been reported to the agency, most of them since 2008.消费者也受到了气球效应的影响。在美国和英国等地,可卡因和海洛因的使用减少, 一部分是因为教育起了作用, 还有部分原因是纯度水平的下降 (例如, 在欧洲, 可卡因通常用牛用抗寄生虫药物掺假)。在发展中国家和发达国家,合成毒品冰毒、氯胺酮和4-甲基甲卡西酮的使用却上升了。在过去五年里,在亚洲缴获的冰毒量翻了三倍。当局的密切关注赶不上制造毒品新方法的高增殖速度。联合国毒品和犯罪室的一份报告说, 该机构已报告的348种新刺激神经类物质, 其中大部分2008年以后才出现的。Prohibitionist drugs policies do have an effect. Traffickers are being inconvenienced; prices are raised. But the war on drugs surely aimed higher than merely altering the stuff people that take and how they get hold of it. It cannot count as a success if global consumption of illicit substances is going up, not down.禁止毒品政策确实奏效了。贩子们越来越难, 毒品价格也因此提高了。但是对毒品的战争不应只是改变人们吸食的物质,改变他们获得毒品的途径,而必然有更高的目标。如果非法物质在全球的消费上升了, 而不是下降,它也不算成功。Worse, the spillovers can be grave. Attacking gangs in one country does not just increase bloodshed there, it also exports violence abroad. Seizures of drugs create scarcity further down the supply chain, giving traffickers a greater incentive to use force. Researchers have estimated that Colombian interdiction policies may explain as much as half of the increase in drug-related homicides in Mexico between 2006 and 2010. The extraordinary homicide rates in Central America—Honduras is the worlds most murder-prone country—partly reflect the influx of narco-traffickers after Mexicos own crackdown. Once the gangs arrive, they are hard to dislodge entirely; the side effects, like corruption and extra weapons, outlast them.更糟糕的是,会产生严重的溢出效应。在一个国家,打击这些团伙,不仅增加该国的流血事件, 也会引发国外的暴力。癫痫药物的稀缺供不应求, 会给贩子更大的动力来使用武力。研究人员猜测,哥伦比亚封锁政策,正是为何在2006年和2010年之间墨西毒品相关的杀人事件增长了一半。中美-洪都拉斯的谋杀率为世界最高。这也反映出了墨西哥对毒贩镇压后,他们涌入洪都拉斯。一旦贩毒团伙来了, 他们是很难完全驱逐; 腐败和私藏的武器会让他们逃生。Consumer countries suffer, too.No one yet understands the long-term health effects of the new psychoactive substances that people hoover up, but some synthetic cannabinoids are clearly more dangerous than farmed marijuana. And production is more mobile, which means that the violence associated with supplying drugs is creeping closer to sources of demand. Meth labs are being discovered in the ed States and Europe on a daily basis.消费国也不好过。目前我们还不知道人们吸食的新型精神药物对健康有什么长期的危害, 但一些合成大麻类显然比种植的大麻更加危险。因为其生产更具移动性, 这意味着暴力与毒品供应正悄悄接近需求来源。在美国和欧洲每天都能发现冰毒实验室.Circular logicThis newspapers views on drugs are well known. Legalisation is the best way to prevent harm to users, and to shove the gangs aside.To work, prohibition requires an almost impossible sustained level of international co-operation and resourcing.The drugs war needs a rethink, not endless repeats.循环逻辑本报对毒品的看法是众所周知的。防止伤害用户, 并打击犯罪团伙最好的方法是合法化。禁毒工作, 需要一个持续水平的国际合作和资源分配。毒品战争更需要反思, 而不是无休止的重复。 /201406/306872

  Leaders社论The European Commission欧盟委员会Lagarde for president拉加德或将成为欧盟委员会掌门人If ever Europe needed a competent reformer with new ideas, it is now如果欧盟需要一个有想法的领导者,就趁现在吧CHANCES for a new beginning in Europe are rare and should be seized.对于欧洲来说,重新开始的机会不多,一旦出现,就该紧紧抓住。In the coming months, after five can-kicking years of crisis and austerity, the European Union will clean out its executive suite and appoint new presidents of the European Commission, as well as a new foreign-policy chief.在危机中过了5年艰苦的日子后,再过几个月,欧盟将迎来一次大换血,届时目前的行政人员将陆续离职,欧盟委员会和欧洲理事会将有新的首脑走马上任,同时欧盟外交政策负责人也会出现新的面孔。The EU desperately needs a fresh vision.如今,欧盟急需注入新的血液。Its citizens are disenchanted with the remote machinations inside Brussels.欧盟成员国公民已对布鲁塞尔的种种政策不抱任何幻想,Insurgent political parties, many of them anti-EU, are snapping at the heels of the centrists.许多反欧盟政党纷纷开始争取中间派的持。If the EU were a company, its board would have been sacked: if it were a football team, it would have been relegated. It needs new leadership.如果欧盟是个公司,它的董事会早就被炒鱿鱼了;如果欧盟是个足球队,它也早就该被降级了。如今,欧盟需要的是全新的领导班子。Unfortunately, Europes leaders have not got the message.遗憾的是,欧洲各国的首脑们还没意识到这些。The names being canvassed for commission president include two former prime ministers of smallish countries, Jean-Claude Juncker and Guy Verhofstadt, an assortment of obscure European commissioners and the president of the dysfunctional European Parliament, Martin Schulz of Germany.目前,欧洲委员会主席的候选人包括来自欧洲小国卢森堡的卢前首相让克洛德·容克和比利时前首相付思达。此外,欧盟委员会专员,欧洲议会议长,德国人马丁·舒尔茨或也会参选。It is an uninspiring list of Eurocrats, still mouthing nostrums about ever-closer union.这份竞选名单对欧洲官僚来说并无甚新意,仍旧在唠叨着那些欧洲一体化的老话。One person—who is not a declared candidate—would be far better: Christine Lagarde, head of the IMF.而有这么一个人,虽然没有宣布参选,却不失为一个更好的人选:国际货币基金组织总裁拉加德。She is a French former finance minister, yet her years in Washington dealing with the euro crisis, as well as running a huge law firm in Chicago, give her the clarity of an outsiders view about what is wrong with the EU.这位女士曾出任法国财长,她在华盛顿任职期间也曾参与应对欧元危机,此外,她还是芝加哥一个大型律所的老板,这些都使她能从一个旁观者的角度看待欧盟现在面临的问题。A liberal, she would be keen to complete the single market, promote free trade and cut the burden of regulation.作为一个自由主义者,她或许会热衷于建成单一市场,促进自由贸易,减少管制负担。She is also a persuasive saleswoman in both French and English, a bonus given her own countrys sour view of the EU and Britains possible referendum on whether to leave.此外,鉴于法国目前对欧盟酸话颇多,而英国或许也会发起全民公投脱离欧盟,此刻的她也不失为一位法语英语皆能的推销员。One supposed mark against Ms Lagarde is that, unlike the present commission president, Jose Manuel Barroso, and his two predecessors, she has never been elected.对拉加德来说,她的不足之处也许在于,与现任主席巴罗佐和在他之前的两任欧盟委员会主席不同,拉加德还未参加过任何选举。But the most effective recent commission president was not a former prime minister, but Jacques Delors, another French former finance minister, who—although for a while a member of the European Parliament—was also a technocrat.但近年来欧盟委员会最出色的主席并不是某国的前总统,而是德洛尔,他也曾是法国财长,担任过一阵子欧洲专员,此外还是一个专家政治论者。And the job now needs the skills of a technocrat as much as of a politician.而如今,欧洲委员会主席一职正需要一个同样是专家政治论者的政客来担任。The bigger obstacle to Ms Lagarde becoming commission president lies in the Lisbon treaty.而拉加德竞选道路上最大的阻碍则来自里斯本条约。This says that the European Council, mindful of European elections, must nominate a candidate whom the European Parliament then “elects” as president.条约规定,负责欧盟选举的欧洲理事会,必须提名欧洲议会会“选举”为主席的人为候选人。Political groups in the parliament are exploiting this to put forward their preferred choices now—Mr Schulz for the centre-left Socialists, Mr Verhofstadt for the centrist Liberals and, next month, a front-runner for the centre-right European Peoples Party who seems likely to be Mr Juncker.现在,欧洲议会中各政治团体正利用这一规定来兜售他们中意的候选人—中间偏左的社会党人推选舒尔茨,而中间派自由主义者倾向于付思达,下个月,中间偏右的欧洲人民党也将推出自己的实力选手,极有可能就是让-克洛德·容克。The claim is that this process will seem more democratic to ordinary Europeans.对于此次的竞选,目前的说法是对于普通欧洲人来说将会更加民主。Dream on.但这都是政客们的白日梦。Most European voters neither know nor care who any of these people are or what they stand for.大多数欧洲选民既不关心这些人是谁,也不关心他们都代表着谁的利益。The suggestion that EU leaders should accept the candidate of whichever political group gets most seats in May is a recipe not just for ending up with the wrong person, but also for making the commission even more beholden to the parliament.有人建议欧盟领导人,无论五月那个党派在欧洲议会获得多数席位,选择该政党的候选人总不会错。这样做不仅能选对人,还能密切欧盟委员会和议会的关系。Dont let the parliament decide千万别让议会做主There is a way through this muddle.走出泥塘的路只有一条。As it happens, Ms Lagarde comes from the centre-right EPP, which is likely to remain the biggest group in the parliament.拉加德所代表的中间偏右的欧洲人民党很可能保持其议会第一大党的地位,The open support of Europes three main leaders would probably get her the job.而欧洲三位主要国家领导人的公开持很可能使她得到这个职位。Frances president, Franois Hollande, is a Socialist, but he would surely welcome a French president.法国总统奥朗德虽是社会党人,但他肯定乐于见到一位来自法国的欧洲委员会主席。David Cameron knows he is far more likely to win a referendum with a reformer like Ms Lagarde as the face of Europe.卡梅隆也应该晓得,有这样一位改革派领导人在,他将更可能赢得公投。Angela Merkel also wants a more open Europe, and her policy of appointing dull unknowns to EU posts has hardly been a resounding success.默克尔也希望欧洲更加开放,而她将沉闷的无名小卒送往欧盟的政策也少有成功。The argument for Ms Lagarde is similar to that two years ago for making Mario Draghi president of the European Central Bank: he brought outside experience, market knowledge and good ideas.目前,拉加德出任欧盟委员会主席的优势与两年前德拉吉出任欧洲央行总裁的优势十分相似:他带来了国外经验、市场知识和先进想法。To many then he seemed tainted by his link to an American investment bank, Goldman Sachs, but he is now the most respected Eurocrat of all.当时许多人认为他在美国高盛工作的经历会是他竞选路上的减分项,但如今他却是欧盟中最受尊敬的官员。So ignore the parliament, Mrs Merkel, and pick the best woman for the job.默克尔女士,别管什么议会,为这一职务选择正确的人选吧。 /201402/275665



  Science and technology科学技术Quieter traffic更安静的交通When the rubber hits the road当橡胶遇上公路Turning old tyres into new roads can help cut noise pollution把旧轮胎建成新式道路可以减少噪音污染AROUND one heart attack in 50 in rich European countries is caused by chronic exposure to loud traffic, according to the World Health Organisation.据世界卫生组织报道,在欧洲发达国家中,平均每50个人就会有一个由于持续暴露在交通噪音中而患上心脏病。The ill-effects of noise pollution in such countries are second only to those from dirty air, says the WHO. Long-term exposure can cause hormonal imbalances as well as mental-health problems.WHO还说,在这些国家,噪音污染产生的不良反应仅次于空气污染,长期暴露不仅会造成激素失调,还会引发精神问题。Roadside barriers can help dampen the racket, but they are expensive—up to 0,000 per kilometre—and they often serve as magnets for graffiti.路边声屏障可以减少喧嚣,但它们太贵了——每公里高达60万美元,而且很容易变成乱涂乱画的场所,Besides, they work less well on windy days and are impractical along city streets. Happily, there is another option.此外,它们在多风的时候效果并不好,更何况在城市街道边安装也不大现实。幸运的是,我们还有其他选择。By adding rubber “crumbs”, reclaimed from shredded tyres, to the bitumen and crushed stone used to make asphalt, engineers are designing quieter streets.在沥青和碎石里添加从轮胎碎片中回收的废胶末,再铺成柏油路,这样工程师可以设计出更加安静的街道。First used experimentally in the 1960s, this rubberised, softer asphalt cuts traffic noise by around 25%.第一条试验性道路出现在20世纪60年代,这种加入橡胶而变得更柔软的柏油路可以减少约25%的噪音,Even better, it also lasts longer than the normal sort.更棒的是它的寿命比普通路面更加持久。Not surprisingly, rubberised asphalt is catching on.参入橡胶的柏油路渐渐变得流行起来,Enough tyres are recycled in America each year to produce 20,000 lane-miles of the stuff, enough to re-pave about 0.5% of Americas roads, according to Liberty Tyre Recycling, a Pittsburgh firm that handles around a third of Americas recycled tyres.这并不奇怪,根据自由轮胎回收公司的说法,美国每年回收的轮胎足够修建2万英里的橡胶柏油路,足够重新铺设美国0.5%的公路。Rubber roads are also popular in China, Brazil, Spain and Germany.在中国、巴西、西班牙和德国,这种橡胶路同样非常流行,Their popularity could sp further, since it is now possible to make rubberised asphalt less expensively than the traditional sort.由于现在可以把橡胶柏油路的成本控制得比传统路面还低,所以这种趋势会越来越流行。That is because rubber can partially replace bitumen, the binding agent used to hold the crushed stones together in ordinary asphalt.由于橡胶会部分替代沥青,在传统柏油里面,沥青这种粘合剂的作用是把碎石裹在一起,Bitumen is derived from oil, which means its price has risen over the past decade alongside that of crude oil.而沥青源于石油,这意味着过去十年其价格随着原油价格的上涨而增加,Discarded tyres, by contrast, are cheap and are likely to get cheaper.相比之下,那些废弃的轮胎不仅便宜,In rich countries, around one tyre is thrown away per person per year.而且会变得越来越便宜。在发达国家,平均每人每年都要扔掉一个轮胎,They are piling up especially quickly in Europe, where dumping them into landfills was banned in 2006.轮胎的累积在欧洲特别迅速,因为2006年欧洲禁止把它们倒入垃圾堆。Rubberised asphalt keeps the noise down in a couple of ways.橡胶柏油能减小噪音的两个原因如下:Pores between the stones in standard asphalt must be small, because if the gaps are too big the bitumen binding cannot do its job properly.在标准柏油里,碎石之间的气孔必须很小,如果缝隙太大,沥青就不能正常约束碎石,Adding rubber thickens the bitumen.橡胶的加入可以使沥青变厚,That allows bigger pores, which help to trap and disperse sound waves.允许更大的气孔存在,这样就有助于捕获和分散声波;The rubberised bitumen itself is flexible and slightly springy, which enables it to absorb more unwanted sonic energy.而参入了橡胶的沥青本身也具有柔韧性和轻微的弹性,这可以使它吸收更多讨厌的音波能量。Shredded tyres are not the last word in exotic road toppings.轮胎碎片并不是最新式的道路添加物,A substance called PERS, or poro-elastic road surfacing, is being developed with a mix of private and public money in the European Union.欧盟依靠公共资金和私人资金开发了一种叫PERS东西,It is made from a blend of crushed rock, rubber and polyurethane, a synthetic plastic that replaces bitumen as the binding agent and allows even bigger pores in the road surface.它由碎石、橡胶和聚氨酯制成,人造塑胶聚氨酯可以代替沥青,因为这种粘合剂可以允许更大的气孔存在于路面。PERS is not cheap, costing around five times as much as rubberised asphalt.PERS并不便宜,其成本几乎是橡胶柏油的5倍,But you get what you pay for:但这完全物有所值,tests suggest it can cut road noise in half.据Luc Goubert测算,在一些特别吵闹的地方可以减少一半的噪音。In some particularly noisy areas, reckons Luc Goubert, who is co-ordinating the PERS project at the Belgian Road Research Centre in Brussels, the resulting boost to property values—and, therefore, land taxes—could help cover the cost.这个结果也推动了周边的房产价格—所以地税或许可以帮助抵消掉成本。 /201307/249188


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