2019年08月19日 20:39:42|来源:国际在线|编辑:QQ媒体
IT IS a time parents relish: their child's afternoon nap. But it seems that napping may not be such a good idea after all. Preliminary studies suggest that daytime napping in young children may be linked to poorer sleep and mental functioning than in their peers who only sleep at night. The big question is whether napping is the cause of the problem, or the result.John Harsh at the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg and his colleagues asked the parents of 738 children aged between 2 and 12 about their children's sleeping habits. Children who took long daytime naps fell asleep at night an average of 39 minutes later and slept later at the weekend than those who did not nap. The effect was more pronounced in older children (over a quarter of 10 to 12-year-olds still took afternoon naps).The problem came during the following week, when children had to wake up at set times to get to school or to meet the demands of their parents' work schedules. The napping children continued to stay up later, meaning they spent less time in bed at night than their counterparts. "Napping children not only had a difficult time getting to bed, they had a harder time falling asleep, and they had a harder time getting up in the morning," says study author Alyssa Cairns, who presented the work at the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies in Minneapolis earlier this month.The findings are backed by a study by Kazuhiko Fukuda of Fukushima University in Japan. He compared children who attended all-day pre-schools in Japan, where 90-minute naps are compulsory, with children of the same age who napped only when they needed to. As well as going to bed an average of 30 minutes later, the children who took obligatory naps were more likely to be moody in the morning and resist going to school, according to their parents. These behaviours lasted even after the children moved on to elementary school and stopped napping, perhaps because of the lasting influence of napping on their sleep and wake cycles, Fukuda suggests (Sleep and Biological Rhythms, vol 2, p 129).Napping may also affect mental performance, according to Joe McNamara and his colleagues at the University of Florida in Gainesville, who also presented their results in Minneapolis. McNamara measured how well 27 kindergarteners could solve puzzles that measure planning and organisational skills. Children who took longer naps completed fewer puzzles successfully, and the later they went to bed, the less well they performed.These findings pose a chicken and egg problem, says Harsh. "It could be that children are getting less sleep at night because they're napping, or they could be napping because they're getting less sleep at night," he says. Nevertheless, though napping and non-napping children in McNamara and Harsh's studies slept for the same amount of time in total "napping is not a substitute for night-time sleep", McNamara says. 父母们往往喜欢让孩子们午睡,可现在看来,午睡恐怕并不像他们以为的那么有益。以往的研究发现,白天打盹的儿童比起没这习惯的孩子,往往睡得更差,大脑机能也更弱。问题是,在这种关联中,午休习惯究竟是因,还是果。 南密西西比大学John Harsh士和他的同事们询问了738名2至12岁儿童的父母,了解他们孩子的睡眠习惯。有长时间午睡习惯的小孩比不午睡的孩子晚上入睡平均晚39分钟,周末则睡得更迟。这在较大的孩子中体现得更明显(有四分之一10至12岁儿童仍然午睡)。当周末过去,因为自己上学和父母工作,孩子们没有懒觉可睡,这时问题就出现了:有午睡习惯的孩子晚上依然睡得更迟,结果他们的睡眠时间也就更短。“午睡的孩子不仅很难哄上床,入睡和起床也都更不容易。”Alyssa Cairns说。Alyssa Cairns本月早些时候在明尼阿波利斯的专业睡眠协会年会上发表过研究成果。 日本福岛大学福田一彦士的一项研究持了这些发现。他比较了在日本有90分钟午休要求的全日制幼儿园的儿童和其他只在需要时打盹的同龄儿童。根据父母们的反馈,每天午睡的儿童晚上同样平均晚睡30分钟,早上起床上学时也更容易闹脾气,表现得很抗拒。甚至当这些孩子升入小学,不再每天午睡,仍然如此。福田认为,这也许是午睡习惯对他们生物钟的持续影响使然。 午睡还可能影响智力表现。同样在明尼阿波利斯发表过成果,来自福罗里达大学的Joe McNamara及其同事对此有所研究。McNamara为27名学龄前儿童安排了针对计划与组织能力的难题,评价他们的表现。结果午睡时间较长的孩子普遍解出较少,而且晚上睡觉越晚的孩子往往表现得越差。 Harsh说,这些发现提出的还是一个先有鸡还是先有蛋的问题。他说:“可以说孩子们晚上睡得少是因为白天打过盹,也可以说他们之所以白天打盹是因为晚上没睡够。”McNamara和Harsh统计过的孩子,不论有无午睡习惯,一天的睡眠时间还是大致相当的,按McNamara的话说,“在白天打个盹是不能替代夜间的睡眠的”。 /200809/48444Love is being stupid together.爱,就是两个人傻傻相守。 /201111/159795It's my please to write this column about international students at an American business school, from the perspective of an American. Though Yale, and all other top schools, focus on granting a 'global' MBA experience, the style of instruction, the classroom environment, and the nuances of school culture are very much American. In speaking to my classmates who come from other countries, particularly China, it seems that three key pillars of the U.S. education experience actually come as a major culture shock: loud and often boisterous in-class discussion; the reliance on teamwork to complete tasks; and the unofficial importance of socializing to build a network within the class. For someone who has grown up in the American school system, conforming to these three attributes happens almost subconsciously, and thinking that others may find them surprising or difficult to tackle reveals the unintended limits of my own world view. Let's take each one in turn.我很荣幸能有机会从一个美国人的角度来谈谈我们身边的国际同学。与其他众多顶级商学院一样,耶鲁管院一直强调打造“全球化”MBA项目,但是我不得不承认,其教学风格、课堂氛围到校园文化的诸多细节却非常“美国化”。在平日里与国际学生尤其是中国同学的交流中,我发现他们面临的文化冲击主要来自三个方面:“过分热闹”的课堂教学风格、团队合作的学习方式以及极为重要又略显微妙的同学间社交关系网络。对于我们这些在美国土生土长的学生,校园文化一脉相承,商学院无非是强度略有加大而已,所以这种过渡在不经意间就自然完成了。坦白地说,我从不曾想到这些在我们看来再平常不过的事情,对远道而来的国际同学会是此等挑战。下面我们就来一一讨论。 /201005/103978

Classical: Upper class, personable, intellectual, unattractive and boring古典乐:上层阶级、和蔼、智慧、缺乏吸引力、乏味Jazz: Friendly, emotionally stable, with a limited sense of responsibility爵士乐: 友好、情绪稳定、缺乏足够的责任感Rap: Lower class, athletic, energetic, hostile说唱乐:低层阶级、活跃、爱运动、有敌意Rock: Rebellious, artistic, emotionally unstable摇滚乐: 反叛、有艺术气质、情绪不稳定Musical tastes and personality type are closely related, according to a study of more than 36,000 people from around the world.一项针对全世界三万六千多人的调查显示,人的音乐品味与个性紧密相联。Researchers at Cambridge University say people use music to define their identity.剑桥大学研究人员表示,人们可以通过音乐来判断对方大概是怎样的一个人。People often view rock fans as artistic or rebellious, classical buffs as intellectual and rap followers as athletic or hostile.摇滚乐迷通常比较有艺术气质或者反叛、古典乐爱好者则较有文化修养,而说唱乐迷则比较有运动天赋,但容易产生对立情绪。The university's Dr Jason Rentfrow said: "Even though our assumptions may not be accurate, we get a very strong impression about someone when we ask them what music they like."剑桥大学的杰森·伦特弗洛士说:“尽管我们的假设不完全准确,但我们往往通过询问对方喜爱怎样的音乐来形成对对方的看法。”During the study, sample groups of subjects regularly made the same assumptions about people's personalities, values, social class and ethnicity, based on their music taste. The profiles of fans of each of the genres was sharply distinct.调查发现,很多人都根据别人的音乐品位来判断对方的性格、价值观、社会地位和种族等,不同音乐类别爱好者的个性有着鲜明的差异。Dr Rentfrow believes his paper, entitled You Are What You Listen To, demonstrates how music can reinforce stereotypes and social prejudices.伦特弗洛在这篇题为《You Are What You Listen To》的报告中说,音乐确实能强化人们的传统观念和社会偏见,但这往往有偏差。However, he said: "Heavy metal or punk fans ended up being much more friendly than the stereotype would have us believe; agreeable, warm.他说:“与传统观念相反,重金属或朋克音乐乐迷有时更友善、热情和平易近人。”"The basic message is that we can learn an awful lot about someone if we know what kind of music they like bit it doesn't tell us the whole story."“如果我们知道某人喜好什么音乐,就可以对他的性格有许多了解,但是尽管如此,我们也不以自以为是的断定这是他的全部性格。” /200909/83459

即使是一个英语初学者,大概也不会不知道单词sweet的最基本意思是酸甜苦辣中的“甜”,但在新西兰人的日常口语中,sweet常常用来替代口语中的OK、nice、good和better。举几个简单例子: You really are a sweet man! 你真是一个好人!He said the second method was sweet. 他说第二种方法更好些。Boss: Hi, Mark, can you work overtime today?Mark: No problem!Boss: Sweet!老板:喂,马克,你今天能加班吗?马克:没问题!老板:非常好!类似的单词和短语还有很多,在这里只选择了一些新西兰当地人日常口语中频繁使用的词汇和短语,介绍给即将来新西兰的读者朋友。掌握这些口头禅不仅有助于让你正确理解当地人的口语,并且如果自己能够在日常会话时加以适当运用,会让人觉得你的口语更加地道。 /200908/79998

Once upon a time, there lived a rich man, but he didn't know any words. One day, one of his friends wanted to borrow an ox from him, so he wrote a note and asked his servant to take it to this rich man.   After the servant gave the note to the rich man, he pretended to be ing it and after a while, he said, "OK, I know. Go and tell your master, I'll go myself shortly.   从前,有个人很富有,但他不识字。 一天,他的一位朋友想向他借一头公牛,便写了个条,让仆人送到富人那里。   仆人把条子给了富人。富人便假装看了一会儿,然后说道:“好啦,我知道了。回去告诉你的主人,我马上自己过去。”

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