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Bello贝洛The gods that failed失败的上帝A writers recantation highlights the intellectual failures of the Latin American left作家的改口显示拉美左派的理论失败。LEAVE aside Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and no writer has done more to shape the mental image that both locals and outsiders have of Latin America than Eduardo Galeano. In 1971 the then journalist published “Open Veins of Latin America”, a scorching tirade against foreign exploitation. Now in its 84th impression in Spanish, it remains a fixture on the exiguous shelves devoted to Latin America in bookshops in Europe and the ed States. In all, it has sold over a million copies. Hugo Chavez gave it to Barack Obama when they met in .除了马尔克斯,没人能在塑造拉美精神意象上做得比爱德华多·加莱亚诺更多。1971年,当时的记者出版了《拉丁美洲被切开的血管》一书,在书中作者用长篇大论激烈地反对了外国的剥削。到现在它已再版了84次,但仍是美国和欧洲书店中关于拉美的畅销书籍,其销量已逾百万册。年,查韦斯与奥巴马会面时曾将此书赠与后者。“Open Veins” is written in powerful prose, with intoxicating passion. But it is also a work of crude propaganda, a mix of selective truths, exaggeration and falsehood, caricature and conspiracy theory. It is the bible of “dependency theory”, the notion dear to the left that “underdevelopment in Latin America is a consequence of development elsewhere, that we Latin Americans are poor because the ground we t is rich in resources.”该书以散文写就,饱含令人沉醉的力量。但它是天然的宣传,是选择性真理的集合,是夸张是虚假也是讽刺画和阴谋论。它是“依赖理论”的圣经,有着“拉美的欠发达是因为其他地方的发达,拉美的贫穷是源于我们土地的富有。(引自原文)”的珍贵见解。The message is one of anti-capitalism as well as anti-imperialism. Mr Galeano brackets as “mechanisms of plunder” both “the caravelled conquistadors and the jet-propelled technocrats; Hernan Cortés and the [US] Marines; the agents of the Spanish Crown and the International Monetary Fund missions; the dividends from the slave trade and the profits from General Motors.” He dismisses all possibility of reform; Cuban communism offers the only route to salvation.该书反对资本主义也反对帝国主义。加莱亚诺用“掠夺机制”和“卡拉维尔征者、喷气推进式科技主义者;荷南·科尔蒂斯、美国海军;西班牙王室和货币基金组织的代理人;奴隶贸易的分红和通用汽车的利润”加以注解。他将所有改革的可能从考虑中剔除,古巴的共产主义是唯一的拯救途径So when Mr Galeano let slip, in remarks at a recent book fair in Brasilia, that today he would find “Open Veins” unable, it was almost as if Jesuss disciples had admitted that the New Testament was a big misunderstanding. He added that when he wrote the book he lacked “sufficient knowledge of economics and politics” and that it belongs to “a past era”.所以当加莱亚诺在最近巴西利亚的书展上无意中表示《切开的血管》已不具备可读性时,就像耶稣的门徒承认新约是一个巨大的误读一样。他补充道他在写作本书时缺乏必要的经济政治知识,而该书属于过去。Indeed so. Asias economic development and Latin Americas commodity-fuelled economic boom of this century expose dependency theory as simplistic nonsense (although it still has adherents in Latin American Studies departments). Social democracy, as practised in Brazil, Chile and Mr Galeanos own Uruguay, has offered more to the Latin American masses than the Castros bankrupt police state.确实如此。本世纪亚洲经济增长和拉美商品经济繁荣显示出依赖理论纯粹是胡说八道。(虽然在拉美的研究机构该理论仍不乏追随者。)巴西、智利和加莱亚诺的乌拉圭仍在摸索着社会民主,而这给拉美带来的麻烦远远多于卡斯特罗破产的集权国家。But the contention of “Open Veins” that Latin Americans are poor because someone—multinationals, local capitalists or the ed States—is stealing their wealth retains a profound resonance in the region. It lives on in the rhetoric and actions of governments in Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina. The political recipe has modulated, however. In place of Cubas armed revolution, the formula now is one of “radical democracy”—or “populism”, as its detractors often call it.《切开的血管》中提到拉美的贫穷是因为一些跨国公司、当地资本家或美国正在窃取他们的财富,而这引起了广泛的共鸣。这样的论断是基于委内瑞拉、玻利维亚。厄瓜多尔和阿根廷政府的说辞和行为。那些政治做法已被调整,但是取代古巴武装革命的方式却是“激进民主”或者说是批判者口中的“平民主义”。This has involved charismatic leaders winning power through elections by claiming to champion “the people” against their oppressors. They then hold on to power by ruthlessly seizing control of all state institutions in the name of the majority and by rewarding their followers with jobs and benefits via an expanded public sector.这涉及到那些魅力非凡的领导人通过声称冠军属于人民来打压对手从而赢得选举获得权力。之后他们借着“多数人”的名义无情地控制所有国家机构并且通过扩展公共部门给其追随者安排工作和其他利益,从而牢牢掌控权力。The theoretical champion of radical populism, its mobilisation of plebeian masses and its confrontation with the established order was Ernesto Laclau, an Argentine political philosopher who lived in Cricklewood, a placid north London suburb. He argued that populism was an antidote to the capitalist domination of liberal democracy and to the hegemony of technocratic “administration” over the realm of “the political”. Laclau died, aged 78, in April. He remains influential. Ricardo Forster, a friend and sympathiser, was this month named by Argentinas president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, to the new and Orwellian post of “strategic co-ordinator for national thought”.激进平民主义的理论胜利动员了广大民众并且与拉克劳提出的规律相悖。(拉克劳住在平静的伦敦北郊是一位阿根廷政治哲学家)他认为平民主义是针对自由民主的资本主义统治和政治领域中技术统治霸权的矫正措施。4月,拉克劳逝世,享年78,但其理论仍有一定的影响力。本月阿根廷总统费尔南德斯任命其好友也是持者的福斯特为新一任的“民族思想战略协调人”。Yet Laclaus radical populism contains the seeds of its own downfall, both because it relies on individual leaders (Chavezs successor, Nicolas Maduro, lacks his mentors charisma) and, above all, because it offers no economic answers. Chavista Venezuela, sitting on vast oil reserves, has proved incapable of organising a reliable supply of toilet paper, a product that even theoreticians need. Having run short of hard-currency reserves, Ms Fernandezs Argentina has begun to cut subsidies and make its peace with its foreign creditors, prompting Mr Forster and his friends to warn against a “conservative restoration”.然而拉克劳的激进平民主义从一开始就埋下了失败的种子。不仅是因为该主义的成功依靠领导人的个人因素(查韦斯的继承者尼古拉斯·马杜罗缺乏其前任的魅力)也是因为这一主义难以交出满意的经济答卷。查韦斯手中的委内瑞拉拥有大量的石油储备但却难以稳定地组织供应那些连老学究都需要的厕纸。由于缺乏硬通货储备,费尔南德斯执掌的阿根廷开始削减补贴并与外国债权人和平相处,而这促使福斯特和他的朋友们开始提防“保守恢复”Mr Galeanos recantation and the mounting difficulties of radical populism are reminders that capitalism is the only route to development in Latin America. The task for its proponents is to show that it can be a tool not just to create wealth but also to overcome extreme inequality.加莱亚诺的改口,激进平民主义困难的增加暗示着资本主义是拉美发展的唯一途径。其持者的任务就是展示资本主义不仅是创造财富的工具也能解决极端不平等的现状。译者:严晓晴 译文属译生译世 /201601/420797

Sarah H ask, ;Besides president election,Whats something else that only happens every four years.萨拉问 ;除了总统选举 ;还有什么是每四年一次;A Barbra Streisand farewell concert tour.Helen S asked, ;I know picture is the same as thousand words,芭芭拉·史翠珊的巡回告别演唱会 海伦问 ;我知道图画里包含了千言万语What else is as thousand words.;A Matthew Mcconaughey voice mail message.还有什么包含千言万语 马修·麦康纳的语音信息I can just go solve all of these.But I mean look at how many there are.我可以解决全部问题 但是这里太多了I mean this is all questions. For just.But I cant. I dont have time.这里是全部的问题 但是不能全部回答 因为时间有限Um...Well be back.Owl, an owl.Would you like getting scared? - I dont like scary movies.稍后回来 猫头鹰 猫头鹰 你喜欢受到惊吓吗 -我不喜欢恐怖电影But would you like getting scared?But I like being...Okay, you all know my app ;heads up;. Right?但是你喜欢受到惊吓吗 但是我喜欢 你们都知道我的应用;你划我猜; 是吗Everybody knows ;heads up;.Well, I play it with a lot of my guests.每个人都知道;你划我猜; 我跟好多嘉宾都玩过But I realize Ive never played with my audience.但是我发现我没有跟观众玩过So Im gonna do something that Has never attempted in the history of television.所以我要跟观众玩 这是这档节目有史以来的第一次Im gonna play with all of you.Its me and all of you.At the same time.我要跟你们所有人一起玩 我和你们 同时一起玩 /201511/411879

Nuts, botanically speaking, are made up of both the seed itself and a hard outer layer that is the fruit, which does not split open when ripe.从植物学角度上讲,坚果是由坚硬果皮和内含种子组成的果实。成熟时外壳也不会开裂。Some examples of true nuts are acorns, hazelnuts and chestnuts.比如橡果,榛子和栗子等就是这样的坚果。Walnuts, pecans and almonds, in contrast, are edible seeds from a bigger fruit.相比之下,核桃、胡桃和杏仁则是种子可以食用更大一点的水果。Most of the inedible fruit is removed at harvest so when you buy walnuts and almonds in the shell, youre buying the seeds enclosed in woody endocarp, which is the remaining layer of the fruit wall.大多数不宜食用的水果会在收获时被剔除,因此当你购买到带壳的核桃和杏仁,你实际上买的是仍然在果皮层,封装在木质、坚硬内果皮里面的种子。Brazil nuts are also seeds.同样巴西坚果也是种子。They come from a capsule like fruit, in which several of the triangular seeds grow inside, arranged like the segments of an orange.巴西坚果有类似水果的荚,内部是三角形形状的种子,就像橙子瓣一样排列。Peanuts are the seeds of a legume, or member of the bean family.花生是豆类的种子,或者豆家族的成员。Pistachios, cashews, macadamias and pine nuts are all seeds rather than nuts.开心果、腰果、夏威夷果、松子都是种子,而非坚果。 201411/343414


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