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公主岭市妇幼保健院医生在线咨询医护生活

2019年12月14日 22:11:40 | 作者:大河养生 | 来源:新华社
Fossilized bones are essentially solid lumps of rock, which means that mounting them into a skeleton is an enormous challenge.骨化石基本上都是坚硬的岩石块,这意味着把它们组装成一具完整的骨架是巨大的挑战。Most of the bones are real, which makes them extremely heavy. Were estimating at the total weight of the bones. Its a little over a ton. The femurs probably good 200, 250 pounds a piece. And we have to set those in place with special rigging devices helping forbid one of them falls, because it would take quite a bit of time to get those back together.大多数骨骼很实在,所以它们极其沉重。我们正在测量骨骼的总重量。它大概有一吨多一点。一块股骨大概有200至250磅。我们还得用一种特殊的索具将它们固定,以免其中一根股骨滑落,因为再把它们固定在一起需要很长时间。The entire skeleton will be held together using a custom-made steel frame, which needs to be strong enough to support the enormous weight of the fossils.整个骨架将会用定制的钢框架固定在一起,这个钢结构需要足够强硬才能撑化石的重压。This will fit in. This will get attached to this other section over here. And Ill take one of these ribs here. Im not sure exactly which one goes where at this point. This is no.5. So it would lay down right in there, that loch you get screwed in at the bottom and just settle itself right in here.这将很契合。这将和那边其余的部分连接起来。我会拿走其中一根肋骨。我不确定到底哪块骨骼可以放在这里。这块是5号骨骼化石。那么应该把它平放在这里。那根狭长的骨骼放在底层会毁掉的,放在这边就很合适。Like many T Rexes, this one has been given a nickname, Thomas. Hes one of the best T Rex specimens ever discovered, but its still only 70% complete. The missing bones will be made by Pauls team based on over 30 partial tyrannosaurs Rexes that have been found so far.就像许多霸王龙一样,这个恐龙也有绰号,托马斯。它是所发现的几种霸王龙里最完整的一只。但也只有70%是完整的。保罗的团队会根据目前所发现的30多块骨化石来制造丢失的部分骨骼。On this particular rib, you could see where the real rib goes together with the artificial rib. And this is a section that we had modeled and you could see how it blends in with the real rib, how its glued. And its also pinned on the inside, so it doesnt break. And these ribs will break like icicles. If you pick them up the wrong way, they will just crack, break right apart.在这块特殊的肋骨上你可以看见真正的骨骼与人造骨骼是如何连接的。我们需要做这部分的模型,你可以看见它是怎么融入到真正的肋骨里,如何粘在一起。并且它被固定在里面,不会破裂。这些肋骨就像冰锥一样易碎。如果你以错误的方式抬起它们的话,它们会破裂,散落一地。原文译文属!201209/200749But even working out exactly what an adult Trex would have looked like only gives you a snapshot of a moment in time.但是即使我们弄清了成年龙到底长什么样,也只是那个时刻的快照。To really understand this animal, we need to know how it changed over the course of its entire life.要想真正了解恐龙,我们需要知道它一生是如何变化的。And thats why Luiss team are attempting the first ever reconstruction of a baby Trex.这也是路易斯团队想要开创先例,重建宝贝龙的完整骨骼的原因。There are some small, very tiny segments of the baby. But some of them are so small that we cant match anything up.这些都是宝贝龙骨骼中一些小的,非常微小的部分。有些地方太细小以致于我们不知道怎么组合起来。Nothing like this has ever been found before.这些都是过去未曾见过的骨块。Its much harder to recreate a baby than an adult. Only a few tiny fragments of a skeleton have ever been found.重建宝贝龙比重建成年龙更难。只有少数的骨架碎片是出现过的。Pauls colleague Tommy is trying to piece together the remains from a little more than dinosaur dust.保罗的同事汤米试图拼凑剩下的几乎已是尘埃的细小碎片。Theres not a lot of pieces and its only for the skull.剩下的头骨的部分,没有多少碎片。See, I mean Ive got several little pieces put together. Its bones had similar colour.看,我的意思是有若干个极小骨骼组合到一起。Their texture on the surface was pretty close. And a lot of times I would look at the edge of the bone.那里的骨骼有相同的颜色,表面的纹理也接近。很多时候我都会观察骨骼的边缘。You see, this one has a little white and a little black. A lot of times I was just trying to piece to see if theyd fit.你看,这块上有点白色和黑色的部分。很多时候我试着把它们拼到一起看是否匹配。A lot of people find it boring. But I dont know. It calms me.多数人会认为这样的工作很无趣。但是我不这么认为,工作时我会很平静。Although useful for scientists, these fossil remains are far too limited to bring a baby Trex to life for an audience.尽管对科学家有用,这些化石还是难以让观众明白宝贝龙的构造。And thats why the entire baby skeleton will be a model, its bones made not from fossils, but from foam and resin.这就是为什么整个宝贝龙的骨骼是一个模型,它的骨骼不是来自骨骼,而是来自泡沫和树脂。This is where the artists come in. They will produce creatures from their imaginations but they have to be guided by the science which provides them with a range of possibilities.这些是艺术家加进去的。他们会通过想象创造生物,但是必须遵循为他们提供多种可能性的科学。Ultimately the animal that they draw or sculpt will be a blend of science and art.最终他们描绘或者雕刻的恐龙是科学和艺术的结合品。The baby Trex will be sculpted by Doil, one of Louiss artists.宝贝龙是由路易斯团队的艺术家,多尔创作出来的。When youre doing something thats brand new that there is no precedent for, it can be a little nerveracking and it can be a lot fun.当你正在做的事情是全新的,没有先例的,那么它可能会有点伤脑筋,但是会有很多乐趣。For my baby Trex, there is no reference for that. So theres a lot of interpretation there.对于我的宝贝龙,因为没有参考,所以作品里很多解释。201301/219901

The Freedom of Information movement began in earnest in the 1950s. After WWII, the extent of government secrecy was questioned by the American Society of Newspaper Editors.真正意义上的信息自由运动始于20世纪50年代。二战后,政府保密的程度受到了美国报纸编辑协会的质疑。At about the same time, a young Congressman from California, John Moss, was coming to the same conclusion — discovering that a lot of government records were being held back from the public almost by default, without a thoughtful or systematic process.大约在同一年,约翰·莫斯,一位年轻的来自加利福利亚的国会议员,对此也深有同感。他发现政府几乎是约定俗成、不经考虑地把大量的文件档案与公众隔绝开来,更别提系统的程序约束了。John Moss worked on this issue for 12 of his 26 years in Congress. He eventually authored the Freedom of Information Act. It offered a compromise between those who argue for secrecy as it relates to national security, and those who argue for a citizens right to know, on a case–by–case basis. Based on the belief that individuals should know what their government is up to, The Freedom of Information Act was signed into law on July 4, 1966 — and expanded in 1974 after the Watergate scandal.在约翰·莫斯26年的国会生涯中,有12年时间致力于这个问题。最后他成为信息自由法令的作者。有些人认为,文件关系到国家安全所以应该保密,而另一些人则认为信息自由是公民的权利,这项法案让双方都做出妥协。每个公民都应该知道政府的决策,基于这样一个信念,《信息自由法案》在1966年7月4日签署成为法律,并在水门事件之后扩大了影响力。The Act allows any person the right to access information from a federal agency through a written request. Government agencies are required to disclose the documents, unless they can be lawfully withheld under the specific exemptions written into the Act. Because of his push to release government information, the FBI kept an extensive file on Congressman Moss, which was recently released ... through the Freedom of Information Act.该法案规定任何人都有权利通过书面请求的方式从联邦政府获得信息,并要求政府机构公开文件。根据写进法案的具体豁免权,有些文件可能会被依法扣留,因此不在公开范围内。由于约翰·莫斯推动了政府信息的公开,美国联邦调查局保存了大量关于斯议员的资料,这些资料最近才公开。原文译文属!201210/206093

Amazingly less than 100 meters away, there are more clues to the past. Luis colleague has found the remains of a sauropod.令人惊讶的是,挖掘不到100米就发现了更多的指向过去的线索。刘易斯的同事发现了蜥脚类动物的遗体。Theres a piece of rib here thats going into the ground about this angle. And then theres a piece of the pubis, the hip bone right here. And its almost complete, save for just the very back end which has aly started to weather off.这儿有一块肋骨,它以这个角度埋在地下。那里还有一根趾骨,髋骨在这边。除了最末端早已开始风化的部位,这块化石几乎是完整的。Luis has to decide what to do with these finds. Starting a new dig is huge undertaking requiring time and money, and he has limited resources.刘易斯必须决定如何处理这些发现。再重新挖掘又是一项巨大的工程,需要花费人力物力,而且资源也有限。We aly have 2 very good sites with long-neck dinosaurs. And were a little reluctant to, you know, open another excavation.我们已经找到了两处长颈恐龙的化石遗址。我们都不太情愿再去挖掘另一处遗址。Just half a mile away is one of their sites. Luis team began working it a year ago. Most of the bones are still embedded in the rock, and must be painstakingly excavated. Luis knows from the layer of rock theyre digging that these dinosaurs died 150 million years ago. But he doesnt know what species it is, and its potentially a dinosaur which has just never been seen before.其中一处遗址就在半英里以外。刘易斯的团队一年前就开始展开研究了。大多数骨头仍嵌入在岩石里,把它们挖出来真是煞费苦心。刘易斯知道从这些岩石层挖掘出来的恐龙早于一亿五千万年前就死了。但他们不知道那是什么物种,有潜在的可能是之前从未见过的物种。A fossil dig is like a murder scene—every piece of evidence about what happened 150 million years ago has to be salvaged. The layout of the entire site will be mapped and the precise location of every bone fragment recorded to help piece together the remains. The more complete the skeleton, the easier it will be to identify, and the greater the likelihood that this dinosaur will be turned into an exhibit.挖掘化石就像犯罪现场一样——必须补救一亿五千年前留下的每一处据。整个遗址的布局被绘制成地图,每一个骨头碎片的精确位置被记录下来,这样有助于拼凑遗体。骨骼化石越完整,就越容易辨别物种,因此这只恐龙将更有可能展示给众人。We have hind limbs, we have forelimbs, we have a lot of the tail, we have ribs, we have many parts of the skeleton and now were starting to uncover the neck. I would anticipate that were gonna have to keep opening the quarry to uncover many other neck vertebrae and hopefully the skull.我们已经找到了前后肢,许多尾巴,肋骨,也找到了大部分骨架,现在我们正开始寻找颈部化石。我估计还得继续开挖遗址,以找出其他颈椎骨,还有希望找到头盖骨。原文译文属!201209/198181

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