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2019年07月24日 06:36:28
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Books and Arts; Comfort, joy and disagreement文艺;抚慰,欢乐与不合;Religion for Atheists: A Non-Believers Guide to the Uses of Religion. By Alain de Botton.给无神论者的宗教:无神论者使用宗教的指南。Alain de Botton著;The Face of God: The Gifford Lectures. By Roger Scruton. Continuum;上帝的面孔:在Gifford的讲座。Roger Scruton著,Continuum;Alain de BottonIt is difficult to imagine Alain de Botton and Roger Scruton becoming friends if they met at a party. All too soon the two philosophers would start talking about God. For Mr de Botton there is something slightly demented about religious belief, whereas for Mr Scruton there is something deeply tragic about atheism.很难想象Alain de Botton和Roger Scruton会在聚会上遇见后成为朋友。这两位哲学家在一起很快就会讨论起上帝。对于de Botton先生来说,宗教信仰总有那么一点神神叨叨,而对于Scruton先生,无神论却带有深深的悲剧色。Mr de Botton has published bestselling books on a wide range of subjects. He is an aggregator of ideas rather than an original thinker, but his skill is to write simply about complex ideas and he gives his fans the sensation of ing something profound with little effort. The premise of his new book, “Religion for Atheists”, which seeks to steer a course between religious fundamentalists and atheist fundamentalists, is that there is too much of value in religion to leave it to the religious alone. It must be possible to balance “a rejection of religious faith with a selective reverence for religious rituals,” he says. In practice, this means emptying out such rituals of their meaning and using them for secular ends, a kind of spiritual pick ‘n mix.de Botton先生出版过关于各类话题的畅销书。与其说他是一位原创的思考者,不如把他称为是一个思想的融合者。他擅长把复杂的想法转变为简单的文字,这给了他的读者们一种轻松读懂深奥事物的感觉。他的新书《给无神论者的宗教》,希望在宗教和无神论各自的死忠追随者之间找到一条道路。引起写作的是这样一个想法:让宗教信仰者们独享宗教所包含的巨大价值实在是太可惜了。他说,“肯定有可能在‘拒绝宗教信仰和‘有选择的尊重某些宗教仪式之间取得一个平衡。”实际操作中,这意味着把这些仪式的内涵都统统抛弃,然后再把它们用作世俗的目的,类似于精神层面上的“混合糖果”。Although Mr de Botton is a clever man, he often stretches a good idea beyond its elastic limit. Religions are “the most successful educational and intellectual movements the planet has ever witnessed,” he states, because they tell people what to think and hammer it home. University lecturers anxious to persuade should copy the didactic tricks of a Pentecostal preacher. “Do you hear me?” he hollers. “I say do you hear me?” An analysis of religious imagery leads him to recommend advertising “forgiveness” on billboards. Daily bouts of meditation on the immensity of the galaxies, he argues, will offer “solutions to our megalomania, self-pity and anxiety”.虽然de Botton先生是一个聪明人,但是他时常把一个好的想法延伸出适当的范围之外。宗教是“这个星球历史上最成功的教育和智识运动”,他说,因为它告诉人们该去想什么,而且还确保大家都真的理解了。大学里的那些急于说学生的讲师们真应该效仿圣灵降临教传教士的那一套说教技巧。“你听见我说的了吗?”他大叫,“我说,你听见我说的了吗?”在对宗教形象进行了分析后,他推荐在公告板上宣传“宽恕”。他主张说,每天数次对无边的进行沉思可以提供“对抗狂妄自大,自暴自弃和焦虑的方法”。Had it been written as a direct response, Mr Scrutons book, “The Face of God” could hardly be a stronger refutation of Mr de Bottons project. A philosophy professor, novelist and composer, Mr Scruton is a controversial figure, lampooned for his love of foxhunting and tweeds and uncompromisingly elitist in his opinions about classical architecture, music and aesthetics. The essays in this work of natural theology were first delivered as lectures at St Andrews University, and they have a whiff of the sermon about them. Atheists do not understand sacraments and acts of worship, he says. The sacred and the transcendental are “real presences” which bind communities together.如果Scruton先生的书《上帝的面孔》是写来直接回应de Botton先生的命题的,那将是最有力的回击了。作为一个哲学教授,小说家和作曲家,Scruton先生是一个充满争议的人物,他对于猎狐运动和斜纹软呢衣的喜爱,以及他在古典建筑,音乐和美学方面所持的顽固的精英主义态度都被人讽刺过。这本关于自然神学的书里的短文先是用在了他在St Andrews大学的讲座中,它们都颇有一丝布道的味道。无神论者们无法理解圣礼和拜神行为,他说,其实那些神圣的和超越感官的东西是“真实存在”的,它们使不同的群体团结了起来。The underlying problem is that scientists have cheapened meaning, he claims. Our deepest emotions are not mere “adaptations”, “hard wired” in the human cortex; if you reduce people to balls of cells, you wipe away intention, responsibility, freedom and emotion. Instead, the real meaning of existence is located in peoples relationships with each other, the earth and God. The face is his paradigm of meaning, relationship and identity. It is through contemplating the face, the outward form and image of what is inside, that humans see each other as subjects, rather than objects, he says.根本的问题是科学家们贬低了意义,他宣称,我们最深刻的感情不仅仅是“(人类对环境所做出的)适应”,然后“先天决定于”人类的基因中。如果你把人简单地归结为一大团细胞,你就一同抹掉了意愿,责任,自由和感情。与此相反,存在的真正意义在于一个人与其他人,地球还有上帝的关系中。他认为面孔是意义,关系和认同等概念的范例。他说,面孔是每一个人的外在形式和内在内容的形象,人类通过注视面孔把对方看成是一个意志的主体而不是一个物件。That Mr Scruton simply asserts the existence of God may be regarded as a fault here, and his prose is dense and often hard going. But he is at least serious and thoughtful. By contrast, Mr de Botton seems to get dafter with each turn of the page. Arguing that religion can bind people together to help guard against loneliness, he concludes that the Mass should be used as a model for his pastiche “Agape Restaurant”, with its own liturgy and an annual orgy (there is even a soft-porn picture to show ers what this would be like). Mr Scruton, who frets that people have become indifferent to beauty and smut, argues that it is because they confuse agape and eros (the ancient Greek words for deep affection and erotic attraction) that they objectify each other and devalue love in a cycle of “ever-expanding heartlessness”.诚然,Scruton先生在书中轻易地断言上帝的存在是有问题的,而且他的文字厚重而时常难于阅读。但是它至少是严肃且深思熟虑的。相比之下,de Botton先生则看起来每翻一页都变愚钝了一点。他认为宗教可以把人联结起来以抵御寂寞和孤独,然后总结道,弥撒(这个仪式)应该用来作为他的混合版本的“友爱餐厅”的范例,在这样的弥撒中,不仅有其自身的礼仪,还包括一年一度的纵欲狂欢(书里面甚至还有一幅软色情图片来向读者说明它将会是怎样)。Scruton先生一直担心人们对美和淫秽之间的区别漠不关心,他认为,就是因为人们弄混了agape和eros(古希腊表示深沉之爱和欲望之爱的两个词)才导致他们互相疏离物化,然后在无休止地变得无情无义中贬低着爱情。Of the two, Mr de Botton will probably sell more books. But it is Mr Scruton who gives ers much more to think about.两者之中,de Botton先生应该会卖出更多的书。但Scruton先生将会带给读者更多的思考。 /201302/225889哈尔滨市第一医院专家预约Fetus Learning胎教是真的吗?Did you know that infants prefer their mothers voices to that of other females? And that they will change their behavior in order to solicit her voice?你知道吗?比起其他女性的声音,胎儿更喜欢自己妈妈的声音。他们还会为了听到妈妈的声音而改变自己的行为。Sounds reasonable to me.听起来很有道理。Ok, but did you know that a fetus can distinguish its mothers voice from that of other females before it is even born.那你知道吗?婴儿在娘胎里,就能分辨自己妈妈和其他女性的声音了。Im not sure. How could anyone possible detect that?这个我不确定,但是,这怎么可能?By listening to the heart, fetuses at term were played recordings of their mothers ing a poem, as well as recordings of a female stranger ing the same poem. The fetuses hearts accelerated when they heard their own mothers voices, but actually decelerated when they heard the voice of the female stranger. The recordings lasted two minutes, but the effects on the fetuses hearts went on for several minutes beyond the recordings.用心听。给足月胎儿放自己妈妈读诗的录音和陌生阿姨读同首诗的录音。当听到自己妈妈录音时,胎儿的心跳加速;而事实上,当听到陌生阿姨的录音时,胎儿心跳减速。此外,录音时间只有两分钟,但是胎儿心跳对此的反应却远不止两分钟。Thats pretty interesting! But so what?很有趣!但是那又怎样?What is the experience in the womb seems to affect newborn preferences and behavior. Not only that, but fetuses recognition of their mothers voices proves that fetuses are capable of learning. This all leads scientists to believe that the process of learning language may begin before birth. Perhaps that infants are so quick to pick up on language shouldnt be surprising. Theyve had some experience with language before they were born. In fact, their speedy grasping of language may not be due to some innate ability hardwired into the brain. And may be due to information the fetus began accumulating in-utero.这说明,胎儿在母体中的生活会影响婴儿的选择和行为。另外,胎儿对妈妈声音的识别还明胎儿有学习的能力。这说明科学家有理由相信胎教对语言的学习有帮助。这也难怪婴儿学习语言那么快了,因为在娘胎里已经有语言基础了。事实上,婴儿超强的学习语言的能力并非归因于大脑天赋;而正是在母亲子宫中累积的信息。 /201301/222105哈尔滨省妇女儿童医院评价黑龙江省妇女儿童医院妇科

黑龙江哈医大二院专家预约黑龙江省第四人民医院不孕医生Overfishing Whales and the Environment过度捕鲸与环境Until recently, when scientists studied changes in open-ocean ecosystems, they looked at changes in the bottom of the food chain that gradually make their way to the top, like food shortages and shifts in the ocean environment. A recent study, however, suggests that more attention needs to be given to top-down influences as well.直到最近,当科学家们在研究远洋地区生态系统的变化时,他们观察了处于食物链最底层并且在慢慢上升的(生物)变化,比如说食物短缺、海洋环境的变化。然而,最近的一项调查显示,人们还应该更多的注意(食物链)自上而下的影响。For example, over the past few decades, theres been a major collapse of the populations of harbor seals, fur seals, sea lions, and sea otters living on the coasts of western Alaska. Now a new study suggests that all this destruction can be traced back to humans overfishing sperm and baleen whales between 1946 and 1979.比方说,在过去的几十年里,生活在阿拉斯加西海岸的斑海豹、海、海狮和海獭数量极具下降。现在,一项新的调查显示,所有的这些毁坏都可以归咎于人类在1946年到1979年期间过度捕捞抹香鲸和须鲸。Killer whales, who live at the top of the ocean food chain, used to prey on sperm and baleen whales. When these were no longer available, the killer whales were forced to fish farther down the food chain. First they fed on seals, which were the easiest to catch and the most nutritionally valuable.虎鲸是在海洋食物链的最高层,它习惯于捕食抹香鲸和须鲸。当虎鲸不能再捕食它们的时候,它就被迫捕食处于更下一层的食物链(的生物)。她们先捕食的是最容易捕捉且最有营养价值的海豹。Then, when seals became rare, the killer whales turned to sea lions. When the sea lion population crashed, they started fishing sea otters. The domino effect reaches even farther. Without sea otters keeping sea urchins in check, their population has exploded. And theyve destroyed the kelp forests, and with it, the kelp forest ecosystem in southwestern Alaska.接着,当海豹变得稀少后,虎鲸便转向了海狮。而又当海狮的数量变少后,虎鲸又开始猎杀海獭了。多米诺效应又继续延伸。没了海獭约束海胆,海胆的数量变得庞大起来。并且破坏阿拉斯加啊西南部的海藻林生态系统。Animals switching food sources can have a very serious effect on the environment. And that we humans, as the ultimate predators, need to give a lot of thought to the choices we make. They may affect the food web in unintended ways.动物间交换食物来源对环境有着很严重的影响。而作为终极捕食者,人类需要好好思考一下他们所做的选择。(因为)这些选择可能会以人们所不知道的方式来影响食物网。 /201211/207493哈尔滨市九州医院是私立的吗?Science and Technology Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Breaking down the barrier科技 克雅氏病 攻破屏障A glimmer of hope for a drug that treats disease caused by prions药物治疗朊病毒感染疾病的一线希望THE epidemic of mad-cow disease in people that some forecast in the 1990s has not, fortunately, come to pass.时至今日,疯牛病没有像上世纪90年代的某些预言说的那样在人群中流行,真是幸运。But Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), to give its proper name, is still a nasty illness that humanity would be better off without.这种严重损害人类性情的疾病的准确名称叫克雅氏病(CJD),治疗起来仍然棘手。It is also a strange illness.克雅氏病是一种奇怪的疾病。CJD and a handful of similar neurological conditions are caused by the misfolding of a particular protein that is found in the membranes of certain nerve cells.该病以及类似的一些神经症状是由于某种神经细胞的细胞膜上的一个特殊蛋白发生错误折叠所致。The strangeness is that the misfolded protein, known as a prion, somehow catalyses other molecules of the protein to misfold in the same way. The result is a chain reaction in which more and more protein ends up as prions.这种错误折叠的蛋白称为朊病毒,令人奇怪的是它可以催化其他蛋白分子发生相同的错误折叠,这个链式反应使越来越多的蛋白质变成朊病毒。Nerve cells containing the prions stop working. The sufferer endures memory loss, personality changes and spontaneous, jerky bodily movements.含有朊病毒的神经细胞失去正常功能,罹患者出现记忆减退、人格改变和自发的躯体急速抽动等症状,最后患者死亡。Eventually, the disease kills him.所以,能够治疗CJD的药物将大受青睐。A drug to treat CJD would therefore be welcome. And chemicals that seem either to prevent the misfolding, or to help the body clear away misfolded molecules, do, indeed, exist. The problem is turning at least one of those chemicals into an effective medicine.能阻止分子错误折叠或帮助机体清除错误折叠分子的化学药品似乎确实存在,困难在于如何用至少一种这样的化学药品进行有效治疗。Adam Renslo of the University of California, San Francisco, and his colleagues (who include Stanley Prusiner, the Nobel laureate who discovered prions) have been trying to do so.旧金山加利福尼亚大学的Adam Renslo与其同事(包括因发现朊病毒获得诺贝尔奖的Stanley Prusiner)一直在进行将化学药品用于治疗CJD的尝试,The chemicals they have lighted on are called aminothiazoles. These are quite effective in reducing the prion levels of cultured nerve cells.他们感兴趣的化学药品叫做氨噻唑,它能有效降低体外培养的神经细胞内的朊病毒水平。Testing aminothiazoles in Petri dishes is, however, rather different from testing them on living animals.但是,检验发现氨噻唑在活动物体内的作用与在体外培养细胞中的作用大不相同。A natural barrier exists between the bloodstream and the brain, to protect it from harmful chemicals. This barrier interprets many putative drugs, including aminothiazoles, as harmful, and thus keeps them out.生理状态下,血流与脑之间存在着一个屏障,使脑避免接触有害物质,可能有效的许多药物包括氨噻唑也被这个屏障当作有害物质阻挡在脑外。And if a molecule cannot cross the barrier, it will not make an effective neurological treatment.不能通过屏障进入脑的分子当然就无法完成有效的神经治疗。Dr Renslo and his colleagues have therefore been analysing and modifying the chemical structure of aminothiazoles to see if this can enable them to cross the blood-brain barrier.为此,Renslo士与其同事已经在分析并尝试修饰氨噻唑的分子结构,以使之能通过血脑屏障。As they report in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, they think they have now pulled off the trick.根据他们在药物化学杂志的报道,他们已经找到了突破口。They did it by removing groups of atoms called hydrogen-bond donors from the original molecules and adding a ring of carbon and hydrogen atoms.他们移除氨噻唑分子上一组提供氢键的原子,并加上一个碳氢环。That made the aminothiazoles look more like cholesterol—which despite its malign everyday reputation is an important component of brains and routinely crosses the blood-brain barrier.修饰后的氨噻唑分子看起来更像胆固醇分子。尽管胆固醇整天被认为是个对人体有害的物质,但它却是脑的重要成分,是通过血脑屏障的常客。It worked. When Dr Renslo fed mice a diet containing the improved aminothiazoles, he found that the most promising of them accumulated in the brain in concentrations nearly 25 times higher than those required to clear prions from cultured cells.成功了!Renslo士给小鼠喂食含有改进后的氨噻唑的饮食后,发现这些最有希望的分子在小鼠的脑内聚集,其浓度达到清除体外培养细胞内朊病毒所需浓度的25倍。The molecular changes did not, though, seem to change the aminothiazoles prion-killing attributes.氨噻唑分子的改变似乎并没有改变其杀灭朊病毒的特性。When tested in Petri dishes, the new molecules were as good as their precursors.在培养皿实验中,修饰后的分子与其前体一样有效。More importantly, preliminary results suggest they are effective at extending the lives of prion-infected mice. Such mice lived for 100 days longer when treated with the new molecules than they did when untreated.更重要的是,初步的实验结果提示这些分子能有效延长朊病毒感染小鼠的寿命,用这些新分子治疗的小鼠比不治疗的小鼠多存活100天。That is a significant fraction of the two to three years a healthy laboratory mouse might be expected to survive if it is not experimented on.考虑到实验室中未受试的健康小鼠的预期寿命是2到3年,染毒小鼠获得延长的这部分存活期显得很显著了。Trials in mice are, of course, just the beginning.当然,用小鼠进行的试验只是个开始。But breaching the blood-brain barrier in this way is a crucial step, and one that might be generalised to potential treatments for other brain diseases—Alzheimers, for example.但药物以这种方式突破血脑屏障确实是个关键步骤,在此基础上,人们还可能找到治疗阿尔茨海默尔病这样的其他脑部疾病的良方。If that came to pass, this small step on the journey of drug discovery might come to be seen, in retrospect, as a giant leap.在达到那些目标之后,回过头来看,实现药物通过屏障的这一小步将被视为一个巨大的跨步 /201301/218113黑龙江第五人民医院电话号码

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