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成都如何治疗龟头炎Youve just opened a bottle of wine for dinner. On the label, you see these words: Contains Sulfites. What are sulfites? And what are they doing in your wine?设想一下,你在晚餐时刚刚打开了一瓶酒,你会在酒瓶的标签上看到:含亚硝酸盐。亚硝酸盐是什么?这些成分在你的酒中发挥什么样的作用呢?Sulfites are chemical compounds found naturally in grapes, garlic and other plants. Thousands of years ago, people realized something nifty about sulfites: they kill or slow the growth of bacteria and most yeasts. This comes in handy for winemakers, who add specific yeasts to ferment wine, and dont want wild yeasts or bacteria to spoil it. Sulfites prevent spoilage in wine, acting as a preservative.亚硝酸盐是在葡萄,大蒜和其他植物中常见的一种化合物。几千年前,人们就发现了亚硝酸盐的一些妙用:它们能杀死细菌,或者降低细菌滋生和发酵的速度。这个发现对于酿酒师来说是非常重要的,他们通常会在酒中加一些特定的酵母使酒发酵,但是同时,他们又不想野生酵母和细菌破坏了这个过程。而亚硝酸盐就能阻止酒的腐坏,在其中发挥了防腐剂的作用。The amount of sulfites naturally in grapes is very small, and theres a bit more produced during fermentation. But to take full advantage of sulfites preservative abilities, winemakers add a little more to the process. The Egyptians sterilized wine containers with sulfites, and sulfites have been added to wine for hundreds of years.葡萄中含有亚硝酸盐的量非常少,在发酵过程中数量会有稍许的增加。但是,为了有效利用亚硝酸盐的防腐作用,酿酒师们通常会在酿酒过程中多添加一点点亚硝酸盐。埃及人也曾使用亚硝酸盐对酒类容器进行杀菌,而且,亚硝酸盐被添加进入酒类也已经有了几百年历史了。So the relationship between wine and sulfites goes way back. But in 1985, the Food and Drug Administration required wine with added sulfites to say so on the label. Why?因此,酒和亚硝酸盐的关系其实可以回溯到很久很久以前。但在1985年,食品与药品要求,若酒类有添加亚硝酸盐,需要在标签上注明,为什么?Researchers had recently discovered that less than one percent of the population is sensitive to sulfites. Most have mild reactions, like an itchy rash. But some folks have life-threatening reactions, including difficulty breathing and low blood pressure.因为有研究人员之前发现,有不到1%的人会对亚硝酸盐产生过敏反应,虽然多数人的反应比较轻微,比如说会起很痒的皮疹,但有部分人的过敏反应会威胁到生命安全,这些反应包括呼吸困难或低血压等。These rare but serious reactions are most often seen in asthmatics. Not all asthmatics are sensitive to sulfites, but the labels there for those who need to steer clear. As the old saying goes, in wine–and now on the label–there is truth!我们经常会在哮喘症患者身上看到这些少有但严重的反应。其实,也并不是所有的哮喘症患者都会对亚硝酸盐过敏,标签上的说明只是为了警示需要注意的人避开这些成分。就像老话常说的那样,酒后,现在是标注在标签上-吐真言! /201305/242155四川省第三人民医院引产需要多少钱 Business this week一周商业要闻Sep 7th 2013 |From the print editionIt was a big week for the mobile-phone industry, with the announcement of two long-mooted deals. In the first, and after years of talks, Verizon agreed to buy the 45% stake held by Vodafone in Verizon Wireless, the pair’s joint venture in America, for 0 billion. It is the third-biggest business transaction yet seen (behind Vodafone’s own purchase of Mannesmann and the merger of AOL and Time Warner) and will reap billion for the American taxman. Vodafone’s investors will also benefit, from an billion payout in cash and shares.对移动电话行业来说这周很重要,这周公布了两个酝酿已久的交易。第一起交易,经过多年的谈判,Verizon公司同意收购沃达丰在美国的合资公司Verizon无线45%的股份,价值130亿美元。这是迄今为止的第三大交易(仅次于沃达丰自己对曼内斯曼的收购以及AOL和时代华纳的并购),美国会从中收取50亿美元的交易税。沃达丰的投资者也会从840亿美元出的现金和股份中受益。Nokia surges, Microsoft drops诺基亚有所起色,微软继续下跌In the second big deal of the week Microsoft beefed up its business in mobile devices and services by agreeing to pay euro 3.8 billion ( billion) for Nokia’s handset division, which makes smartphones based on Windows. Nokia had tried various turnaround plans to tackle its shrivelling market share. It will still exist, focusing on networks and mapping, but 32,000 of its staff now work for Microsoft, including Stephen Elop, who was its chief executive. He is now a candidate to replace Steve Ballmer when he steps down as Microsoft’s boss.本周第二起交易是微软加强了其移动设备和务业务,同意付38亿欧元(约合50亿美元)购买诺基亚生产基于Windows系统智能手机的手机部门。诺基亚尝试了各种周转计划解决其日益萎缩的市场份额。诺基亚仍然还会存在,专注于网络和地图,但是包括其首席执行官史蒂芬埃洛普在内的32000名员工现在为微软工作。埃洛普现在是鲍尔默下台后接替其职务的候选人之一。Samsung unveiled its first smartwatch, the Galaxy Gear, beating Apple in bringing the first significant wearable device to market. The watch will cost 0 and can only link to Galaxy phones and tablets; other new smartwatches will work with lots of Android products. It is still unclear how much demand there is from consumers for the gadgets.三星发布了其第一款智能手表the Galaxy Gear,击败苹果上市了第一款重要的可穿戴设备。这款手表售价300美元,只能连接Galaxy手机和平板,其他的新智能手表将会持大量安卓产品。目前还不清楚消费者对这款设备的需求程度。LinkedIn said it would issue new stock in a secondary offering, through which it should raise billion. The social network for professionals has seen its share price rise by 200% since its IPO in 2011.LinkedIn表示,将进行第二次公开募股发行新股票,预计能筹集10亿美元。自2011年上市以来,这家专业人士社交网站的股价已经上涨了200%。Who owns the programmes?节目的所有权归谁?Time Warner Cable ended its blackout of CBS channels in several American cities, including New York, after the two sides resolved a dispute over rights. Like other broadcast networks CBS is keen to retain the ability to develop business in the future with blossoming internet-streaming services, such as Netflix, over the heads of the longer-established cable providers.时代华纳有线在包括纽约在内的多个美国城市结束了其对CBS频道的封杀,此前,双方在版权上存在争端。CBS与其他广播电视网,比如Netflix一样热衷于绕过建立已久的有线供应商,保留未来发展繁荣的互联网流媒体务业务的能力。The European Commission turned its sights on money-market funds, with proposals that would require funds guaranteeing a stable share-price to build up capital buffers. American regulators are also eyeing similar restrictions.欧盟委员会将目光投向货币市场基金,出台了提议要求各基金保稳定的股票价格,从而建立资本缓冲。美国监管机构也盯上了类似的限制。Standard amp; Poor’s upped the ante in its legal fight with the American government when it asserted that it is being sued in “retaliation” for exercising its right to “free speech” in downgrading America’s AAA credit rating. Samp;P made the claim in court papers it filed defending itself against the lawsuit, which alleges that Samp;P gave sound ratings to bad mortgage products to keep its clients in the banking industry happy.标准普尔增强了其与美国政府的法律斗争。标普坚持认为在行使其将美国的AAA评级下调的言论自由权后得到了美国政府的报复性起诉。标普在自我辩护的法庭文件中提出这一观点,美国政府起诉其给予不良抵押贷款良好的评级,以此取悦其业的客户。Bank of America decided to sell its remaining 1% stake in China Construction Bank, which should fetch around .5 billion. Many big American banks bought stakes in Chinese state banks several years ago, and have been cashing in their lucrative holdings. BofA paid billion for an initial 10% stake in CCB.美国决定出售其在中国建设拥有的1%的股份,市值约为15亿美元。许多美国大几年前从中国国有购买了股份,并从中赚取了现金。美国花费30亿美元购买了中国建设10%的初始股份。The OECD revised its growth forecasts to reflect a moderately better outlook in rich countries and the “widesp loss of momentum” in emerging markets. It now expects output in America, Japan and Germany to expand by 2.5% at an annualised rate in the third and fourth quarters. Britain’s GDP is projected to grow by 1.5% this year, 0.7 percentage points higher than the OECD’s previous estimate.经济合作与发展组织修订了其增长预测,以反映富裕国家更好的前景和新兴市场广泛的动力不足。现在该组织预测美国,日本和德国三四季度的GDP按年利率计算会增长2.5%。英国的GDP今年预计将增长1.5%,比该组织的预测高0.7%。The latest raft of purchasing-manager surveys suggested that manufacturing in America and the euro zone is growing at the fastest pace in over two years. Britain’s services industry, meanwhile, grew at the quickest rate in six years.最新的大量采购经理调查表明美国和欧元区的制造业现在以两年多来最快的速度增长。同时,英国的务业迎来了六年来最快的增速。Ryanair’s share price fell sharply after it issued a surprise profit warning amid a price-cutting war among Europe’s budget airlines. The carrier said sales were weak during the summer and bookings are down for this autumn.Ryanair在欧洲廉价航空公司价格战后发布了一个令人惊讶的利润警告,使得其股价大幅下跌。该航空公司表示夏季的销售疲软,今秋的预定额也下降了。The sweet smell of success成功的美好滋味Yankee Candle, which is based in Massachusetts, was bought by Jarden, a consumer-products company that owns a wide range of brands in a .8 billion deal. The firm started in 1969 when its teenage founder made a Christmas gift for his mother. According to its “Learning Scentre”, it now produces 200m aromatic candles a year and is expanding in Europe.总部设在美国马萨诸塞州的扬基蜡烛被贾登收购。贾登是一家拥有交易额达18亿美元的广泛品牌的消费产品公司。扬基蜡烛成立于1969年,十几岁的创始人做了一个圣诞礼物送给她的母亲。根据其说法,现在每年生产200米的芳香蜡烛,在欧洲呈扩张趋势。The annual Global Competitiveness index placed Switzerland in the top spot for the fifth consecutive year, followed by Singapore, Finland and Germany. America reversed a four-year decline to climb to fifth place and Britain fell to tenth. Among the BRICs, China came in at 29th, Brazil at 56th, India at 60th and Russia 64th. Greece was 91st, behind Iran and Moldova, but ahead of Serbia and Libya.瑞士连续五年荣登全球竞争力指数榜首宝座,紧随其后的是新加坡,芬兰和德国。美国扭转了连续四年的下跌攀升至第五位,英国下降至第十名。金砖四国中,中国位列29名,巴西位列56名,印度位列60名,俄罗斯位列64名。希腊在伊朗和尔多瓦之后,位列第91名,但是领先于塞维利亚和利比亚。201309/256880四川成都市第九医院门诊大众点评

成华区中医院怎么样好吗Science and technology科学技术Climate change气候变化Good news at last?终于来了好消息?The climate may not be as sensitive to carbon dioxide as previously believed气候对二氧化碳的敏感性可能低于先前的预期CLIMATE science is famously complicated,气候科学的复杂程度众所周知,but one useful number to keep in mind is climate sensitivity.但把一个指标记在脑中非常好用,那就是气候敏感性。This measures the amount of warming that can eventually be expected to follow a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.该指标表示预计大气中二氧化碳浓度翻倍所能引致的升温量。The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its most recent summary of the science behind its predictions, published in 2007, estimated that,政府间气候变化专门委员会在其最近一次关于其预测背后的科学性的概要中估计,in present conditions, a doubling of CO2 would cause warming of about 3C, with uncertainty of about a degree and a half in either direction.在如今的情况下,二氧化碳浓度翻倍将造成3C左右的升温,上下误差在1.5度左右。But it also says there is a small probability that the true number is much higher. Some recent studies have suggested that it could be as high as 10C.但该概要也声称,真实数据有少许可能还要高得多。一些近期的研究也猜测气温上升可能达到10C之高。If that were true, disaster beckons.如果这种猜测属实,灾难说来就来了。But a paper published in this weeks Science, by Andreas Schmittner of Oregon State University, suggests it is not.但美国俄勒冈州立大学的安德烈亚斯-施密特纳在本周《科学》杂志上刊登的一篇报告认为,情况并非如此。In Dr Schmittners analysis, the climate is less sensitive to carbon dioxide than was feared.在施密特纳士的分析中,气候并不像先前人们所担忧的那样对二氧化碳那么敏感。Existing studies of climate sensitivity mostly rely on data gathered from weather stations, which go back to roughly 1850.现有的关于气候敏感性的研究主要基于气象站收集的数据,可以追溯到公元1850年左右。Dr Schmittner takes a different approach. His data come from the peak of the most recent ice age, between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago.施密特纳士采用了另外一种方法。他的数据来源于最近一次冰河时期的顶峰。His group is not the first to use such data to probe the climates sensitivity to carbon dioxide. But their paper is the most thorough.他的团队不是第一个使用这些数据来探测气候对二氧化碳的敏感性的团队。但他们的报告是最全面彻底的。Previous attempts had considered only small regions of the globe.过去的研究只考虑了全球的小部分地区。He has compiled enough information to make a credible stab at recreating the climate of the entire planet.而他汇编了足够的信息,可以确凿地尝试一下重建整个地球的气候模型。The result offers that rarest of things in climate science—a bit of good news.研究的结果给出了气候科学中最为罕见之物—一丁点好消息。The groups most likely figure for climate sensitivity is 2.3C, which is more than half a degree lower than the consensus figure,该研究组给出最有可能的气候敏感性数字是2.3C,比公认的数据低了半度多,with a 66% probability that it lies between 1.7 and 2.6C.并且该数字有66%的几率位于1.7C到2.6C之间。More importantly, these results suggest an upper limit for climate sensitivity of around 3.2C.更重要的是,研究结果指出,气候敏感性的上限在3.2C左右。Before you take the SUV out for a celebratory spin, though, it is worth bearing in mind that this is only one study,但是在你把SUV开出去兜风以作庆祝之前,要记住这只是一项研究而已,and, like all such, it has its flaws.并且—就如同所有这类研究一样—研究自身也有缺陷。The computer model used is of only middling sophistication, Dr Schmittner admits.施密特纳士承认,该研究采用的电脑模型的复杂程度一般。That may be one reason for the narrow range of his teams results.这可能也是他的团队实验结果范围较窄的一个原因。And although the studys geographical coverage is the most comprehensive so far for work of this type, there are still blank areas,而且,尽管这项研究的地理覆盖范围是迄今为止同类中最大的,它仍有空白区域notably in Australia, Central Asia, South America and the northern Pacific Ocean.尤其指澳洲,中亚,南美和北太平洋地区。Moreover, some sceptics complain about the way ancient data of this type were used to construct a different but related piece of climate science:此外,一些怀疑论者对这些远古数据被用来构建一个不同的但是相关的气候学分:the so-called hockey-stick model, which suggests that temperatures have risen suddenly since the beginning of the industrial revolution.所谓的曲棍球棒模型认为气温自从工业革命以后就突然上升满腹牢骚。It will be interesting to see if such sceptics are willing to be equally sceptical about ancient data when they support their point of view.看看当远古数据持这些怀疑论者的观点时,这些人是否还愿意以同等的怀疑态度对待,这一定会非常有趣。 /201308/250601 Business商业报道American telecoms美国电信A breath of fresh airwavesyou want呼吸新鲜的电波The scramble for spectrum could reshape Americas telecoms industry频谱争夺战可能打开美国电信新局面JULIUS GENACHOWSKI, the head of Americas Federal Communications Commission, has called wireless spectrum the oxygen that sustains our mobile devices.美联邦通讯委员会主席JULIUS GENACHOWSKI,将无线通讯频段称为维持移动通讯设备工作的氧气,Yet unlike oxygen, the airwaves over which telecoms companies transmit their wireless signals are in ever shorter supply.同的是,如今电信公司用来传输无线讯号的波段比以往更加短缺。According to the FCCs calculations,但与氧气不据委员会估计,America needs to make 300 megahertz of additional spectrum available by 2014 to avoid a crunch that drives up consumers mobile-phone bills and holds back innovation.为免移动电话用户账单攀升,创新停滞不前,引发频谱危机,到2014年美国需要新增300兆赫兹频段投入使用。Some critics reckon the regulators projections are too pessimistic.有的家认为委员会的预测太过悲观,But telecoms firms say an explosion of wireless data triggered by smartphones and tablet computers is indeed soaking up capacity fast.但电信公司指出,由智能机和平板电脑所引发的无线通讯数据的激增,Hence the scramble for more airwaves.实际上正快速占据频带容量,面向更多频段的争夺进而产生。On December 2nd Verizon Wireless, the countrys largest mobile operator, announced a .6 billion deal to buy spectrum from several cable-television companies.12月2日,美国最大的移动通讯运营商威瑞森无线通讯公司宣布斥资36亿美金从几家有线电视公司手中收购波段。ATamp;T, another telecoms behemoth, has been telling anyone who will listen that its billion bid for T-Mobile USA, a smaller rival, should be approved in part because it would ease a capacity headache:另一家电信巨头ATamp;T也正试图让每一个关心的人相信,它对T-Mobile USA这个小公司的价值390亿的收购企划应得以通过,部分原因是如此可缓和波段紧缺的困难:ATamp;T has plenty of capital but needs more spectrum, while T-Mobile has the airwaves but lacks the capital to exploit them fully.ATamp;T有足够的资金但需要更大的带宽,然而T-Mobile 有带宽却缺少充分开发利用的资金。The snag is that allowing ATamp;T and T-Mobile to merge would stifle competition in the wireless market—which is why both the Department of Justice and the FCC oppose it.问题在于,若允许ATamp;T 和T-Mobile合并,就会破坏无线市场的竞争公平—这就是为什么司法部和联邦通讯委员会都反对它们合并。ATamp;T and Deutsche Telekom, T-Mobiles German parent, have pledged to fight on, but the mergers chances are slim. Verizons deal,ATamp;T 和 T-Mobile 的母公司德国电信已承诺会继续争取,但合并的希望渺茫。by contrast, will probably be cleared by the FCC, which must approve transfers of licensed spectrum.相反,委员会却极有可能会同意Verizon的交易,因为它没有权力阻止已得到使用许可的波段的易主。Could more wireless capacity be liberated from other businesses that do not need it?可以从其他行业释放出更多的无线通讯空间吗?The FCC thinks so.它们并不需要那么多。It has come up with a proposal to persuade TV companies to part with some of their airwaves.联邦通讯委员会觉得可行,它已起草一项提案建议说电视公司出让它们的部分波段。It would solicit spectrum from broadcasters and then repackage it into larger lots to be sold in an auction.委员会将设法从电视台买来波段,然后将之重新包装合并,进行拍卖,The revenue raised would be shared between the government and the broadcasters.筹集的收入由政府和电视台分成。The FCC thinks this could release up to 120MHz of TV broadcast spectrum.委员会认为如此可释放多达120MHz的电视广播频段。TV companies could instead sell their holdings to telecoms companies directly.实际上,电视台也可以直接向电信公司出售频段,But this would probably mean lots of tiny, fragmented packets of airwaves changing hands.但转手的很可能是许多短小细碎的波段。Wireless operators will pay more for large, contiguous parcels of spectrum, which is why the FCC wants to orchestrate the process.为购买大容量连续带宽无线运营公司将需要付出更多金钱,这也正是联邦通讯委员会想要精心策划这项进程的原因。Legislation to give it permission to do so is making its way through Congress.为使委员会具有操作权限,相关法规正在议会进行审核。It may be passed by the end of the year.这项法规大概会在年底之前可以通过。But some broadcasters have given warning that the plan could hurt some stations.但是一些广播公司提出警告,这项计划可能会伤害某些电视台的利益。Were concerned this will have unintended consequences, says Alan Frank, the chief executive of Post-Newsweek Stations, which has operations in Detroit, San Antonio and other cities.Alan Frank是Post-Newsweek 电视台的首席执行官,该台在底特律,圣安东尼奥及其他城市均设有业务,他说:我们担心这项举措会产生意想不到的后果。TV folk fret that the FCC wants to be able to force stations to swap channels if necessary, even if they do not take part in the auction, so that it can create attractive parcels.电视工作者担心委员会拟定法案是想在必要的时候迫使他们转换频道,以便构成更可观的波段组合,即使这些频道并没有参与拍卖。This will raise their costs and could lead to the disappearance of some stations in cities near the Mexican and Canadian borders, where TV spectrum is aly limited.这种做法会提高电视台的运营成本,同时可能导致临近墨西哥、加拿大的边境城市里的部分电视台消失,因为在那里频带资源本就很有限。Such concerns can be dealt with.这样的担忧是可以解决的。Legislators are likely to create a fund to compensate broadcasters who have to move channels.立法者也许会设立一项基金用以补偿那些不得不转换频道的电视广播公司,And they will probably require the FCC to try hard to preserve existing TV coverage when it repackages airwaves.并且他们很有可能要求联邦通讯委员会在重组波段的时候,尽力保全现存的电视频道覆盖范围。Congresss enthusiasm to get something done is understandable.国会热衷于达成一些成就的心理是可以理解的。For one thing, an auction will raise billions of dollars for the public purse.一方面,一场拍卖会能为国库筹集到数十亿美元的资金;For another, it will create jobs by encouraging firms to invest in their networks.另一方面,通过鼓励公司投资网路可以创造就业机会。Failure to act would send the wrong signal to one of Americas fastest-growing industries.而若举措不当则将会向这一全美都发展迅猛的产业发送错误的讯息。 /201305/238039都江堰市无痛人流多少钱眉山市人民医院妇科检查怎么样



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