旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻


来源:城市分享    发布时间:2019年09月18日 11:37:08    编辑:admin         

With airfare rising more than 10% in the past five years and hotel rooms going for exorbitant prices, conventional tourism has become more challenging to do affordably.过去5年里,飞机票涨价超过10%,酒店客房价格也贵得离谱,传统的旅行想要经济实惠也变得愈来愈难。But what if you could travel and not spend a dime? What if you could even get paid?但如果旅行可以一分钱不用花呢?甚至可以挣钱呢? Many would jump at the opportunity to experience new cultures, traverse through beautiful landscapes, and satisfy their insatiable wanderlust.大家都会乐于接受这个机会去领略新的文化、跨越美丽的土地、满足自己永无止境的旅游欲。We’ve compiled 12 ways for just about anyone to get their golden ticket to spending weeks, or years, in exotic lands while earning some cash.下面我们为大家提供了12种方法,让任何人都可以享有在异国体验数周甚至数年的机会,同时还可以挣钱。 /201407/313168。

Most desirable postcodes in the UK revealed在英国,发现最理想的邮编坐标The study, commissioned by Royal Mail, analysed factors such as jobs, health, education and crime.英国皇家邮政在工作、健康、教育和犯罪率等方面对英国各地进行了分析。The UK#39;s most desirable postcodes, based on criteria including crime, jobs and health, have been revealed by Royal Mail.参照犯罪率、就业和健康等方面的标准,英国皇家邮政评出了英国最理想的邮政编码。Out of around 1.8 million postcodes in the UK today, the SP9 postcode of Tidworth in Wiltshire scored top marks in England, while South Glasgow (G44) came first in Scotland and Brynteg on Anglesey (LL78) was said to have the most desirable postcode in Wales.目前英国大约有180万个邮政编码,其中位于威尔特郡,邮编为SP9的蒂德沃思名列首位,南格拉斯哥(邮编G44)为苏格兰第一,而安格尔西岛(邮编LL78)则是威尔士最理想的邮编坐标。The study, by the Centre for Economic and Business Research, was commissioned to mark the 40th anniversary of the allocation of postcodes to every address in Britain, which the Royal Mail said “revolutionised” the way post was sorted and delivered.研究由英国经济与商业研究中心开展,以纪念英国向国内各地分配邮编40周年。皇家邮政表示,此举“彻底改变了”邮件分类和寄送的方式。Each area was assessed on a range of factors including employment opportunities, health, education, crime rates and housing affordability.每个地区会根据一系列因素参与评选,包括就业机会、健康、教育、犯罪率以及购房承受力。Completing the top three postcodes in England were the Hampshire village of Yateley (GU46) and the seaside resort of St Bees in Cumbria (CA27). In Scotland Erskine (PA8) and Largs (KA30) were in second and third place, while in Wales it was Llantwit Major (CF61) and Llanidloes (SY18).参与角逐英格兰地区头三名的是位于汉普郡的亚特里(邮编GU46)和位于坎布里亚郡的海滨胜地圣比斯岛(邮编CA27)。在苏格兰地区,厄斯金(邮编PA8)和拉格斯镇(邮编KA30)分列二、三名,威尔士地区则是兰特威特马哲(邮编CF61)和拉尼德洛伊斯镇(邮编SY18)。England#39;s most desirable postcodes - 1SP9, Tidworth, Wiltshire英格兰 最理想邮编坐标 - 1邮编SP9 蒂德沃思,位于威尔特郡Steve Rooney, head of Royal Mail#39;s address management unit, said: “The invention of the postcode revolutionised the way post is sorted and delivered. As it has evolved, the postcodes have also revolutionised the way companies do business.史蒂夫·鲁尼是英国皇家邮政的地址管理部负责人,他说道:“邮政编码的发明彻底改变了邮件分类和寄送的方式。随着这一变革,邮编同时也改变了企业经营的方式。”;The postcode is now used by businesses and individuals in their everyday activities, whether that is verifying a person#39;s address when making a transaction or planning a route on a sat-nav system.;“现在,企业和个人在日常生活中都要用到邮编,不管是用于验地址,进行交易,还是计划出游时查询卫星导航系统都需要它。”Overall, there are 48 million postcodes available under Royal Mail#39;s alpha-numeric system. The combination of letters and numbers was chosen because people can remember a mixture of numbers and letters more easily than a list of numbers and it gives more code combinations.皇家邮政的字母-数字编码系统如今共分配了4千8百万有效邮编。之所以选择字母加数字的邮编形式,是因为相比纯数字,人们更容易记住这种组合形式,而且这种方式能提供更多组合。 /201409/329663。

When it came to pharmacological solutions to life#39;s despairs, Aldous Huxley was ahead of the curve. In Huxley#39;s 1932 novel about a dystopian future, the Alphas, Betas and others populating his ;Brave New World; have at their disposal a drug called soma. A little bit of it chases the blues away: ;A gramme; — Huxley was English, remember, spelling included — ;is better than a damn.; With a swallow, negative feelings are dispelled.说到以药物手段来医治生活中的绝望,奥尔德斯·赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley)可谓走在了时代的前面。在赫胥黎1932年的小说《美丽新世界》(Brave New World)中,生活在那个反乌托邦未来世界中的阿尔法、贝塔和其他种姓的人类手头常备一种名叫“苏麻”的万能灵药,只要一点点就可以驱散生活中的阴霾。“药胜过受煎熬。”只要吞下药丸,负面情绪也随之烟消云散。Prozac, the subject of this week#39;s documentary from Retro Report, is hardly soma. But its guiding spirit is not dissimilar: A few milligrams of this drug are preferable to the many damns that lie at the core of some people#39;s lives. Looking back at Prozac#39;s introduction by Eli Lilly and Company in 1988, and hopscotching to today, the documentary explores the enormous influence, both chemical and cultural, that Prozac and its brethren have had in treating depression, a concern that gained new resonance with the recent suicide of the comedian Robin Williams.本周(指9月22日那周)的;Retro Report;(以重新审视历史上的重大事件为主题的系列纪录片)的主题百忧解(Prozac)和“苏麻”当然不是一码事,但其宗旨却并无不同:对某些人而言,用几毫克这种药物总比应付生活中的大堆烦恼合算多了。继回顾了1988年美国礼来制药(Eli Lilly and Company)推出百忧解的经过之后,这部纪录片又将视角转回当下,从化学和文化的双重角度探讨了百忧解及其同类产品在抑郁症的治疗领域造成的巨大影响。由于喜剧演员罗宾·威廉姆斯(Robin Williams)不久前自杀,抑郁症又成为当今人们关注的热点。In the late 1980s and the 90s, Prozac was widely viewed as a miracle pill, a life preserver thrown to those who felt themselves drowning in the high waters of mental anguish. It was the star in a class of new pharmaceuticals known as S.S.R.I.s — selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Underlying their use is a belief that depression is caused by a shortage of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Pump up the levels of this brain chemical and, voilà, the mood lifts. Indeed, millions have embraced Prozac, and swear by it. Depression left them emotionally paralyzed, they say. Now, for the first time in years, they think clearly and can embrace life.在20世纪80年代末和90年代,人们普遍将百忧解看作是一种“神奇药丸”,是那些觉得自己快要没顶于精神痛苦中的人们眼里的救生圈。百忧解是一类名为选择性血清素再摄取抑制剂(SSRI)的新型药物中的明星产品。其作用基于的观念为,抑郁症是由一种名叫血清素的神经递质不足引起的。只要能提高这种脑化学物质的浓度,好啦,精神一下子就振奋起来了。事实上,已经有成百上千万人接受了百忧解,并对它的作用深信不疑。抑郁症导致他们情感麻痹,他们说。而今,他们终于可以清楚地思考并热情地拥抱生活了——多年来,这样的感觉还是第一次。Pharmacological merits aside, the green-and-cream pill was also a marvel of commercial branding, down to its market-tested name. Its chemical name is fluoxetine hydrochloride, not the most felicitous of terms. A company called Interbrand went to work for Eli Lilly and came up with Prozac. ;Pro; sounds positive. Professional, too. ;Ac;? That could signify action. As for the Z, it suggests a certain strength, perhaps with a faint high-techy quality.除去其药理学价值,这种半截绿色半截奶油色的胶囊丸也堪称商业品牌推广中的奇迹,而这尤其要感谢它经过市场考验的商品名。它的化学名称为盐酸氟西汀,这显然不够朗朗上口。一家名为Interbrand的公司为礼来出谋划策,想出了Prozac这个名字。;Pro;听起来就给人胸有成竹、十分专业(professional)的感觉。;Ac;呢,可以认为它表示“行动”(action)。至于Z,这个字母代表了某种力量,可能还有一点点高科技的感觉。(X is a pharmacological cousin to Z. Both letters are somewhat unusual, worth many points in Scrabble. It is surely not a coincidence that a striking number of modern medications contain either Z or X, or both, in their names, like Luvox, Paxil, Celexa, Effexor, Zantac, Xanax, Zoloft, Lexapro and Zocor, to name but a few. Not surprisingly, confusion can set in. Zantac or Xanax — remind me which one is for heartburn and which for panic disorder?)(在制药领域,X与Z的地位近似。这两个字母在取名这种拼字游戏中享有异乎寻常的地位和价值。绝大多数现代药物的商品名都包含Z或X,或两者兼而有之。随便举几个例子,Luvox[兰释,亦称无郁宁]、Paxil[百可舒]、Celexa[喜普妙]、Effexor[郁复伸]、Zantac[善胃得]、Xanax[赞安诺]、Zoloft[左洛复]、Lexapro[来士普]和Zocor[舒降之]等等。这肯定不是用巧合可以解释的。由此产生困扰也就不足为奇了。Zantac和Xanax,哪个能治胃灼热,哪个又是用以治疗惊恐障碍的?看名字可真分不清。)Pendulums, by definition, swing, and the one on which Prozac rides is no exception. After the early talk about it as a wonder pill — a rather chic one at that — a backlash developed, perhaps unsurprisingly. Grave questions arose among some psychiatrists about whether the S.S.R.I.s increased chances that some people, notably teenagers, would commit suicide or at least contemplate it. No definite link was confirmed, but that did not end the concern of some prominent skeptics, like a British psychiatrist, Dr. David Healy. He has dismissed the notion of S.S.R.I.s as saviors as ;bio-babble.;但凡事都是三十年河东三十年河西,百忧解也不例外。起初它被尊为灵丹妙药,还是种十分时髦的灵丹妙药,后来人们却又开始强烈地抵制它(或许这种反应不足为奇)。关于SSRI是否会增加某些人,特别是青少年的自杀事件或自杀倾向,精神科医生提出了严厉的质问。目前尚无研究实两者之间存在必然的关联,但是这并没有打消某些著名的怀疑论者的疑虑,英国的精神病学家戴维·希利士(David Healy)正是其中之一。他将那些把SSRI类药物当成救世主的说法贬斥为“生物噪音”。If some users deem Prozac lifesaving, others consider it sensory-depriving. A loss of libido is a common side effect. Some writers and artists, while often relieved to be liberated from depression#39;s tightest grip, also say that Prozac leaves them mentally hazy. In his 2012 book, ;Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder,; Nassim Nicholas Taleb offered this: ;Had Prozac been available last century, Baudelaire#39;s ‘spleen,#39; Edgar Allan Poe#39;s moods, the poetry of Sylvia Plath, the lamentations of so many other poets, everything with a soul would have been silenced.;有人觉得百忧解可以救命,其他使用者则认为它剥夺了人正常的生理感觉。百忧解的一个常见的副作用是丧失性欲。还有一些作家和艺术家声称,虽然百忧解将他们从抑郁症的魔爪之下解脱了出来,却也让他们精神恍惚。纳齐姆·尼古拉斯·塔利布(Nassim Nicholas Taleb)在他2012年的著作《反脆弱:从无序中受益》(;Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder;)中提出:“如果百忧解早在上个世纪就问世的话,那么波德莱尔(Baudelaire)的“忧郁”、埃德加·爱伦·坡(Edgar Allan Poe)的浪漫主义情怀、西尔维亚·普拉斯(Sylvia Plath)的诗歌、以及那么多其他诗人的哀叹,所有那些有灵魂的作品都将遭到扼杀。”Then, too, S.S.R.I. critics express doubts that these drugs have proved themselves significantly more effective than placebos. Some among them question the very concept that serotonin levels, on their own, cause depression or prevent it. One psychotherapist in that camp is Gary Greenberg, an author of several books on mood disorders. Writing in The New Yorker last year, Dr. Greenberg said that scientists had ;concluded that serotonin was only a finger pointing at one#39;s mood — that the causes of depression and the effects of the drugs were far more complex than the chemical-imbalance theory implied.;此外,SSRI的批判者们还怀疑这些药物的效果是否显著优于安慰剂。其中一些人质疑单凭血清素水平是否就足以导致或防止抑郁症。心理治疗师加里·格林伯格(Gary Greenberg)就属于这一阵营,他撰写过若干本关于情绪障碍的著作。在去年的《纽约客》(The New Yorker)上,格林伯格士写道:科学家们认为,“血清素只是影响个人情绪的一个因素,抑郁症的成因以及药物的效应远比化学失衡理论所描述的更加复杂。”;The ensuing research,; he continued, ;has mostly yielded more evidence that the brain, which has more neurons than the Milky Way has stars and is perhaps one of the most complex objects in the universe, is an elusive target for drugs.;“人的大脑中包含的神经元数量比系中的恒星还要多,”他继续写道,“而后续的研究得到的据大多表明,大脑是药物很难作用到的靶标。”More broadly, this retrospective on Prozac introduces a discussion of whether the medical establishment, and perhaps society in general, has gone too far in turning normal conditions, like sadness, into pathologies. And have we paved a path — shades of soma — toward wanton reliance on drugs to enhance life, not to conquer true illness?广而言之,这个关于百忧解的回顾性纪录片提出了这样一个论题:医疗机构,或者更宽泛一点来说,整个社会是否走得太过,以至于将普通的情感,如悲伤,也纳入了病态的范畴。我们是否正一步步地放任自己依赖药物,以增添生活乐趣——就像小说中的人们依赖“苏麻”一样——而放弃了征真正的疾病?This is what a prominent psychiatrist, Dr. Peter Kramer, has called ;cosmetic psychopharmacology,; a Botox approach, if you will, to matters of the mind: Why not take Prozac and its S.S.R.I. mates even if you are not clinically depressed but believe that they can boost your confidence, or maybe help you make a stronger pitch at the sales meeting?著名精神病学家彼得·克雷默(Peter Kramer)士将这种现象称为“美容式精神药理学”,就像是自愿给情绪问题打上一肉毒杆菌毒素一样:即使你并非临床抑郁症患者,只要你相信用百忧解及其SSRI同类可以提升你的自信心,或者能帮助你在推销会上语惊四座,那又何乐而不为呢?A response from others in Dr. Kramer#39;s field is that we are taking traits that are normal parts of human nature and casting them as diseases simply because remedies now exist. For instance, shyness is now regarded by some as a condition in need of treatment. In its more severe form, it is placed under the heading of social anxiety disorder. Then there are those much-heralded life enhancers, Viagra and its erection-aiding cousins. They are marketed not only to men with sexual dysfunction but also to those whose aging bodies are enduring normal wear and tear.克莱默士的同行中有人回应道,我们之所以将人性的正常组成部分当成疾病来对待,就是因为现在有了药。举例来说,今天有些人甚至将羞怯也归入了需要治疗的疾病,将其较为严重的形式纳入了社交焦虑症的范畴。此外,伟哥等促勃起药物也被当作能提升生活品质的东西而得到大肆炒作。在市场营销中,它们不仅被推销给需要治疗性功能障碍的男性,还被推荐给身体只是出现了正常衰老的普通人。One area of shyness that the S.S.R.I. class has helped overcome is discussion of depression. Decades ago, Hollywood stars and other celebrities dared not touch the subject. Now they routinely go public with their anguish. Robin Williams was an example.如果说SSRI类药物确实帮助人们克了某些问题,那么,使人们不再羞于讨论抑郁便是其中之一。几十年前,好莱坞明星和其他名人都对这个话题讳莫如深。现在,他们已经可以很习惯地公开谈论自己的苦恼了。罗宾·威廉姆斯就是一个例子。Of course, there are those in other realms of society for whom the topic remains taboo. Take one man who confesses to his wife that he is on Prozac but cautions her to tell no one. ;I#39;m serious,; he says. ;The wrong person finds out about this and I get a steel-jacketed antidepressant right in the back of the head.; This is Tony Soprano talking to his wife, Carmela. An extreme example from a work of fiction? Sure. But in all likelihood many Americans have similar fears about what others might think, and keep depression to themselves.当然,在其他社会领域中,有些人仍然十分忌讳这个话题。例如,有一个人在向自己的妻子承认他在用百忧解时,警告她不要告诉任何人。“我是说真的,”他说。“要是给不该知道的人听到点风声,我就得脑袋后面吃颗钢制的抗抑郁药。”这是《黑道家族》中的托尼·索普拉诺(Tony Soprano)对他的妻子卡尔梅拉(Carmela)说的话。这自然只是虚构作品中的一个极端的例子。但是,在美国人里,恐怕很多都会对别人的看法抱有类似的担忧,所以他们宁愿对自己的抑郁问题守口如瓶。 /201410/336081。

Say the words #39;therapy session#39; and many people will picture an hour spent on a couch dredging up unhappy childhood memories. A different approach suggests that redirecting the focus onto the present and future can make people happier, healthier and lead to better relationships.说起“心理治疗”这个词,很多人的脑海中会浮现出倚在长沙发上,花一小时来挖掘童年悲惨记忆的画面。而一种与之不同的治疗方法暗示,如果将关注的焦点转向现在和将来,会让人更快乐,更健康,建立更好的人际关系。The method, called Time Perspective Therapy, involves figuring out which of six different outlooks a person has: past-positive (you love the past); past-negative (you have regrets and bad things happened in your past -- or things that you now exaggerate as bad); present hedonism (you enjoy the present and like to reward yourself); present fatalism (you feel that events are beyond your control, so why bother?); goal-oriented future (you plan ahead and weigh the costs and benefits of any decision); transcendental future (you live a good life because you believe the reward is a heaven after death).这种方法被称为“时间观疗法”(Time Perspective Therapy),其中一项内容是判断一个人拥有以下六种不同观念中的哪一些,这六种观念分别是:过去积极时间观(你喜爱自己的过去);过去消极时间观 (你有遗憾或过去发生过不幸的事──或者你有现在被你夸大为不幸的事情);现在享受时间观(你享受当下,喜欢犒赏自己);现在宿命时间观(你感觉命运不受自己控制,那何必费心去控制呢?);目标导向未来时间观(你会事先计划,做任何决定都会权衡利弊);超验未来时间观(你过得很好,因为你相信奖赏是死后进天堂)。The best profile to have, says Philip Zimbardo, psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford University, is a blend of a high level of past-positive, a moderately high level of future orientation and a moderate level of selected present hedonism. In other words, you like your past, work for the future -- but not so hard that you become a workaholic -- and choose when to seek pleasure in the present. Dr. Zimbardo, an influential thinker in this field who lectures widely, administers a 56-item questionnaire to determine a patient#39;s profile.斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的心理学家、名誉教授菲利普·津巴多(Philip Zimbardo)称,最好的状态是拥有高度“过去积极观”、较高“未来导向观”以及中度选择性“现在享受观”的混合。换句话说就是,你喜欢你的过去,为将来而努力(但也不是过分努力,变成了工作狂),并适时寻求当下的享受。作为该领域颇具影响的思想家,津巴多在许多地方做讲座,他通过一份由56个题项组成的问卷来确定一个人的时间观。The worst time-perspective profile to have is a high level of past-negative coupled with a high level of present fatalism. #39;These people are living in a negative past and think nothing they do can change it, #39; says Dr. Zimbardo, co-author of the book #39;The Time Cure.#39; They also score low on present hedonism and have a low future orientation. People who are clinically depressed or have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder typically have this profile.最糟糕的时间观状态是高度“过去消极观”与高度“现在宿命观”并存。《时间疗法》(The Time Cure)一书的作者之一津巴多称:“这些人活在消极的过去,认为无论做什么都无济于事。”他们在现在享受及未来导向这两项中的得分也较低。在临床上被诊断为抑郁症以及患有创伤后压力心理障碍症(Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)的人一般是这种情况。Our individual time perspective is influenced by many things, including family and friends, culture, religion, education and life events. As very young children, we were all pretty much purely hedonistic -- focused on getting what we wanted when we wanted it. Some, but not all, of us become more future-oriented as we get older.个体的时间观受许多因素影响,包括家庭、朋友、文化、宗教、教育和生活事件。在幼儿时期,我们基本上都是纯粹的现在享受型,关注的是满足此时此刻的欲望。一些人(但不是所有人)会随着年龄的增长变得更加着眼于未来。In a famous study in the 1960s, psychologist Walter Mischel, now a professor at Columbia University, tested the ability of young children to resist temptation for a future goal. He placed one marshmallow in front of each child and explained that they could eat it right away if they wanted, but if they waited about 10 to 15 minutes, they could have a second one to eat. About half the children gobbled up the treat right away; the other half managed to hold out for a second marshmallow.现为哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)教授的心理学家瓦尔特·米舍尔(Walter Mischel)在20世纪60年代一项著名的研究中测试了幼童为实现未来目标而抗拒诱惑的能力。他在每个孩子面前放了一块棉花糖,对他们解释说,如果想吃,可以马上就吃,但如果能等待10到15分钟左右,就可以吃到另外一块。约半数的孩子立马就狼吞虎咽地吃掉了棉花糖;另有半数的孩子成功地坚持等来了另一块棉花糖。The time perspective that the children had when they were young had a large impact on the way they behaved later in life. Dr. Mischel followed up with the children when they were teens, and then in middle age. The individuals who resisted the marshmallow at roughly ages 4 and 5 performed better in school, scored an average of about 250 points higher on their SATs and had happier family lives. Those who ate the marshmallow immediately had more emotional problems throughout their lives.孩子幼年的时间观对他们长大后的行为方式有很大影响。米舍尔对这些孩子青少年及中年时的状况进行了追踪研究。四五岁时拒绝棉花糖诱惑的孩子在学校里表现更优秀,在SAT考试中的平均分数高出250点左右,家庭生活也更幸福。而立即就把棉花糖吃掉的孩子一生中会面临更多的情绪问题。The good news, says Dr. Zimbardo: People can change their time perspective. Between 2004 and 2012, Time Perspective Therapy was administered by Dr. Zimbardo#39;s co-authors Rick and Rosemary Sword, therapists in Maui, to 32 veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, all of whom had been through other therapies without positive results. All 32 saw a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms.津巴多称,好消息是人们可以改变自己的时间观。在2004至2012年期间,与津巴多共同撰写《时间疗法》一书的里克·索德(Rick Sword)和罗斯玛丽·索德(Rosemary Sword)(夏威夷毛伊(Maui)的心理咨询师)对32名患有创伤后压力心理障碍症的退伍老兵施行了时间观疗法,这些老兵都曾接受过其他治疗,但未能取得积极疗效。经过治疗,这32名老兵的焦虑、抑郁和创伤后压力心理障碍症的症状均显著减轻。A person can raise a past-positive score, Dr. Zimbardo says, by focusing on the good in your past: create photo albums, write letters of gratitude to people who inspired you, start an oral history of your family.津巴多称,人们可以通过关注过去的美好事物来提高过去积极项目得分:创建相册,给激励过你的人写感谢信,或开始一部家庭口述史。Your future orientation can get a boost by organizing your calendar or planning a family vacation, actions that get you to envision and plan for a positive future. And volunteering or becoming a mentor can help you see that your actions can have a positive impact.你的未来导向得分可以通过建立日程表或者规划家庭度假来提高,这些活动都能让你展望并规划积极的未来。此外,从事志愿活动或者成为指导者可以让你看到自己的行动能产生积极影响。And you can increase your present hedonism -- selectively! -- by doing something to balance your mood, such as exercise or a nature walk. Also, reward your hard work with an activity you enjoy: dinner with a friend, a massage, an afternoon playing your favorite sport.你还可以通过一些有助于平衡情绪的活动(比如锻炼或在大自然中散步)来增加现在享受(有选择性的!)。另外,用你喜欢的活动来犒赏自己的辛勤努力:和朋友一起吃饭,,用一下午时间做你最喜欢的体育运动。To lower your past-negative scores you can work to silence your pessimistic inner critic by meditating or to keeping an ongoing list of all the good things in your life right now. #39;It#39;s thinking about what#39;s good in your life now, rather than what was bad in your life then, #39; says Dr. Zimbardo.要降低过去消极得分,你可以进行冥想或者不断记录当前生活中的所有美好事物,让你内心中那个悲观的批评家静音。津巴多称:“要想想你现在生活中的美好事物,而不是过去生活中悲惨的东西。”And you can reduce your future fatalistic perspective by learning a new skill or hobby that allows you to see your change, and doing it with a partner -- it#39;s less isolating and the other person can give you positive feedback.另外,要降低未来宿命时间观得分,可以学习能让你看到自己变化的新技能或者爱好,可以和伴侣共同来做──这样就不会那么孤独,对方也能给你积极的反馈。Dominic Monahan not surprisingly had a negative perspective after he was laid off from his job as a project manager at a printing press manufacturer in 2009, and moved into his mother#39;s suburban Chicago basement. He sent out hundreds of resumes -- and landed no interviews. #39;I had no hope and was living in the past, #39; says the 42-year-old. #39;I was y to give up.#39;多米尼克·莫纳汉(Dominic Monahan)曾在一家印刷机生产商担任项目经理,2009年他遭遇了裁员,搬进他母亲位于芝加哥市郊居所的地下室,受这些变故打击,他带有一种消极观念也不足为奇。莫纳汉投了数百份简历──但一次面试机会也没有。42岁的莫纳汉说:“我完全丧失了希望,我生活在过去,我准备放弃了。”Mr. Monahan admits he was always pretty focused on present gratification. He preferred to ride his mountain bike, run, hunt, #39;or do anything#39; instead of studying. He dropped out of college, joined the Navy and held a series of technician jobs after he got out. He says he tried college several more times without graduating.莫纳汉承认,他一直都是相当重视眼前的满足。与学习相比,他更喜欢骑山地车、跑步、打猎,或者“做任何事情”。他大学时中途辍学,加入海军,退役后从事过一系列技术员工作。他说,后来他又试着上过几次大学,但都没有毕业。He tried psychotherapy after he lost his job, but quit because he felt it was just paying someone to listen to him complain. While he didn#39;t try Time Perspective Therapy specifically, his experience shows how the method can help a person recover from a downward spiral.失业后他曾尝试过心理治疗,但后来放弃了治疗,因为他觉得自己只是在付钱给别人听他发牢骚。尽管他没有专门尝试过时间观疗法,但他的经历却显示出这种方法是如何让人摆脱恶性循环的。He eventually gained 60 pounds (eating peanut butter by the spoonful) and began sleeping 18 hours a day. When he outgrew his sweatpants, he says, he decided to turn his life around. He signed up for an online finance degree, and the condensed classes helped him to feel he was making progress. He recently graduated. He also got a temporary consulting job at a company that uses new technology to purify wastewater.莫纳汉最终重了60磅(他一勺一勺地吃花生酱),他开始一天睡18个小时。他说,当他的运动裤穿不下时,他决定彻底改变一下自己的生活。他报名参加一个网上金融学位培训,密集型课程让他感觉到自己在取得进步。最近他毕业了。他还在一家运用新技术 化污水的公司找到了一份临时性顾问工作。He started to exercise and took up the martial art Tae Kwan Do. His instructor, who is also a psychologist, taught him to talk back to his negative inner voice. Now, when he starts ruminating on mistakes he#39;s made in the past, or tells himself there is no hope, he says out loud: #39;Stop . . . This behavior is not going to move us in a positive direction or make us happy.#39;他开始锻炼身体,还开始练跆拳道。他的教练(也是一位心理学家)教他反驳内心的消极声音。现在,当他开始琢磨过去犯下的错误,或者告诉自己没有希望时,他都会大声说:“停……这种行为不会让我们迈向积极的方向,也不会让我们快乐。”Mr. Monahan still lives with his mom. He has lost 35 pounds and says his hunt for a financial analyst position and his goal of achieving more Tae Kwan Do belts keep him focused on the future.莫纳汉仍然和他母亲住在一起。他已经减轻了35磅,他说,他在寻找金融分析师职位,还计划获得更高的跆拳道级别,这些目标使他将注意力集中于未来。The small steps he took all added up and #39;helped me get out of the negative past, be in the present and plan for the future, #39; he says. #39;Over time they started to change my subconscious into believing there is hope.#39;他说,他迈出的每一小步都累积起来,“帮助我摆脱了消极的过去,让我能够活在当下,筹划将来。它们渐渐开始改变我的潜意识,让我相信希望。”A Path to Happiness通往快乐之路To determine what steps people should take to boost their happiness, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory questionnaire asks people to rate 56 statements, including the seven below, as very true, true, neutral, false or very false. For the full quiz, visit www.thetimeparadox.com为确定人们应该采取何种措施来获得更多快乐,津巴多时间观问卷让人们用“极为符合”、“符合”、“中间状态”、“不符合”和“极不符合”来评定对56项陈述(其中包括以下七项陈述)的同意程度。访问网站www.thetimeparadox.com可看到整个问卷。 /201310/262485。

Women have made much progress in gaining equality in work and life over the past half century. In many developed countries such as the US and the UK, women now earn more college and graduate degrees than men do. Women make up half the workforce and are closing the gap in middle management.过去的半个世纪里,女性工作和生活上的地位变得更加平等。在英美等发达国家,上大学并且拿到学位的女性甚至比男性还要多。公司里,一半的员工都是女性,而中等管理层中男女比例的差距也日益减小。But however hard women work, it is the men around them who continue to get promoted faster and be paid more. In both the corporate and the political worlds, women are nearly absent from the top positions.然而,不论女性如何努力工作,她们身边的男性总能更快晋升,获得更多薪酬。不论在商界还是在政界,女性几乎一直被排除在最高领导层之外。It has been argued that women’s maternal instinct makes it harder for them to find a balance between their home and work lives. Other commentators say cultural and institutional barriers hinder female success. But according to a latest best-seller, all these arguments miss something more basic: women’s lack of confidence.有人认为,女性的母性本能让她们很难平衡家庭与工作。而另一些者则表示,文化和社会习俗的壁垒才是女性事业成功的拦路虎。但是,在最近的一部畅销书中,作者却认为所有这些观点都忽略了一个最基本的原因:女性本身缺乏自信。The book, tilted The Confidence Code: The Science and Art of Self-Assurance, is co-authored by distinguished women journalists Katty Kay and Claire Shipman. Success depends as much on confidence as competence, according to Kay and Shipman, and there is “a vast confidence gap that separates the sexes”.在这本名为《信心代码:女性应该掌握的自信科学与艺术》中,两位作者——同时也是出类拔萃的女性记者——凯蒂#8226;肯和克莱尔#8226;希普曼认为,自信和竞争力一样对成功都至关重要,而男女性别之间却存在“巨大的信心差异”。In two decades of covering American politics as journalists, Kay and Shipman have interviewed some of the most influential women in the country. In their jobs and lives, they walk among women anyone would assume to be brimming with confidence. And yet their experience suggests many of these women are full of self-doubt.在二十年的美国政治记者生涯中,肯与希普曼曾经采访过美国一些最具影响力的女性。她俩曾接触到了很多人们眼中信心满满的女性,但多年的经验让肯与希普曼发现,即使在这些女性中,也有很多人对自己充满怀疑。High expectations期待过高Even Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg told the writers: “There are still days I wake up feeling like a fraud, not sure I should be where I am.”就连Facebook的首席运营官雪莉#8226;桑德伯格都曾在书中对作者坦言,“即使现在,我有时还是会一觉醒来觉得上天在耍我,并且怀疑自己应不应该待在现在的位置。”In a feature story in The Atlantic, Kay and Shipman say that conversations like this inspired them to write the book. After expansive research, they found that, compared with men, women don’t consider themselves as y for a promotion until they meet 100 percent of the requirements; and they generally underestimate not only their abilities but also their performance.在《大西洋月刊》的一篇专题报道中,肯与希普曼说,正是上面这样的对话让她们萌生了写作本书的想法。在经过大量调查研究之后,她们发现:与男性不同,女性觉得自己只有达到了所有要求才算为升职做好了准备;而女性不仅普遍低估了自己的能力,而且对自己的表现也缺乏信心。According to The New York Times, in one recent British study, a business school professor asked students how much they would deserve to earn five years after graduation. The women’s estimates were 20 percent lower than the men’s.而在《纽约时报》最近披露的一项英国研究中,某商学院的教授问他的学生,觉得自己毕业五年后应该挣多少钱?结果,女生给出的要比男生低20%。The writers point out that a lack of confidence is behind a number of familiar female habits. For example, many women have the tendency to take the blame when things go wrong, while crediting circumstance — or other people — for their successes.作者指出,导致女性缺乏信心的原因在于她们一些常见的工作习惯。比如,许多女性在出问题时,总喜欢责怪自己,而将自己的成功归功于环境或他人。Perfectionism is another confidence killer, the writers point out. Women don’t answer questions until they are totally sure of the answer. They don’t submit a report until they’ve edited it a thousand times.作者还认为,完美主义是另一个“信心杀手”。如果没有百分之百的把握,女性一般不会回答问题;不经过一遍遍修改,她们也不会递交报告。In short, because women think they’re less competent than they really are, they’re also less self-confident than they should be. It’s a vicious circle.简而言之,正是因为女性低估了自己的竞争力,导致她们缺乏信心,从而形成恶性循环。 /201408/321144。